Mzu wothandiza ndi wodzichepetsa - Yerusalemu atitchoku. Kukula ndi kubzala malamulo, komanso malangizo oyang'anira

Yerusalemu atitchoku (dziko lapansi peyala) ndi chomera chothandiza, chokwanira, chodzichepetsa, chimene chimagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati chakudya, ndi mtundu wobiriwira wa chakudya cha pet.

Kuti mutenge bwino zamasamba a Yerusalemu, muyenera kukumbukira kuti chomerachi chingakulire pamalo amodzi kwa zaka zambiri, zomwe sizingakhudze zokolola ndi nthaka, koma malowa ayenera kutayidwa bwino ndi kutalika kwa zomera zina, monga chimphonachi chikhoza kuthamangitsa ena chikhalidwe; Ali ndi chipsinjo chotentha cha chisanu, sichikukhudzidwa ndi nthaka (nthaka iliyonse ndi yabwino, kupatulapo nthaka yowonongeka), imalekerera chilala bwino, koma imakhala ndi chinyezi kwambiri.

Momwe mungamere peyala yadothi kuchokera ku tubers ndi mbewu ndi kumene mungapeze, komanso zomwe zikufunika kuti zikule kunyumba ndi momwe mungamere bwino mbewu pamunda kuti mupeze zokolola zabwino. Izi ndi zina zambiri zidzafotokozedwa m'nkhani yathu.

Kodi mungasankhe bwanji sukulu yoyenera?

Kuti musankhe mitundu yambiri ya Artichoke ya Yerusalemu, muyenera kuona cholinga chokula chomera ichi:

  • monga mankhwala;
  • kubereka monga chinthu chokhazikitsidwa;
  • pogwiritsa ntchito anthu mu chakudya kapena chakudya cha ziweto.

Pafupifupi mitundu yonse ya Yerusalemu ya attichoku yoswana masiku ano ndi cholinga chopeza mbali zambiri za zomera, ndi chiwerengero chochulukirapo cha chitsamba. Mitundu ya zakudya yakhala ikupangidwa, zomwe zimadziwika ndizo zimapangitsa kuti tuberization iwonjezereke komanso tinthu tating'onoting'ono tating'ono.

Zosiyanasiyana ntchito mankhwala ndi ziweto chakudya amadziwika ndi lalikulu buku la wobiriwira misa ndi otsika zokolola za tubers.

Zina zosiyanasiyana zimakhala ndi zizindikiro zake, zomwe zimapezeka mu tebulo.

Maina a mayinaZokolola za tubers pa mita imodziMtundu wobiriwira umatulutsa kuchokera ku chitsamba chimodziNthawi yokula, nyengo yokula
Chidwi (yoyenera kukonza makina)2.6-3.8 makilogalamu4.3-5.6 makilogalamuKutseka kochedwa, alibe nthawi yokhwima mu Middle Band
Omsk woyera4.3 makilogalamu3 - 3.5 makilogalamuPakatikatikati (nyengo 130)
Pasko3 makilogalamu3, 4 makilogalamuKumapeto (masiku 178-190)
Kumayambiriro (yoyenera kukonza makina)2.5 - 3 makilogalamu3-3.5 makilogalamuKumayambiriro (masiku 120), oyenera kulima pakatikati
Kutentha4 makilogalamu3.1 makilogalamuPakati pa nyengo (masiku 152-172)
Volzhsky 2 (yoyenera kukonza makina)1, 5 makilogalamu2 kgOyambirira (masiku 100)
Vylgothic1-1.7 makilogalamu3, 4-4,1 makilogalamuKumayambiriro (masiku 125)
Leningrad4.5 -4.9 makilogalamu4-4.2 makilogalamuKutseka kwa pakati (masiku 140)

Kuyerekeza kuyerekezera kwa mitundu kunasonyeza kuti pakalipano Omsk woyera ndi Leningradsky ali pakati pa mitundu yabwino kwambiri, chifukwa ndi yoyenera kulima kulima ndikupereka zokolola zambiri za tubers ndi zobiriwira.

Chithunzi

Chithunzichi chimasonyeza zomwe artichoke ya Yerusalemu ikuwoneka.




Kodi ndikuti ndigule mbewu zingati?

M'dera lililonse muli makampani, amalonda apamtima, okondedwa apamwamba kwambiri omwe akugwira ntchito yobzala mbewu ndi kupereka zokolola zogulitsa. Malonda ogulitsidwa mosavuta kupeza pa intaneti.

Mwachitsanzo, kampani "Malo a Ryazan" ochokera mumzinda wa Sapozhok m'chigawo cha Ryazan akugulitsa Yerusalemu atitikiti mu phukusi la makilogalamu 30, mtengo wake uli pakati pa 5 ndi 15 ruble pa kilogalamu. Ku Moscow, kubzala artichoke ku Yerusalemu kumagulidwa pamtengo wolemera makilogalamu 27 mpaka 35 pa kilogalamu (Gorobets AV, IP, Starominskaya. Wokondwa Kryska, IP, Moscow). Ku St. Petersburg - mtengo wa peyala wokwana makilogalamu 25 mpaka 150 pa kilogalamu (dongosololi latengedwa kuchokera pa makilogalamu 10), chomeracho chigulitsidwa ndi kampani ya Nation's Health.

Kukula pamalo otseguka pa tsamba

Kufika kwa Yerusalemu atitchoku ingatheke kutseguka pansi ndi panyumba muli. Ambiri, chomeracho chimabzalidwa pamtunda chifukwa cha chitsamba champhamvu. Kodi mungachuluke bwanji? Peyala yapadziko lapansi ikhoza kufalikira m'njira ziwiri.:

  1. vegetative (tubers, mbali zake kapena maso);
  2. zopatsa (mbewu, ulendo wautali, zovuta, zofuna kudziwa zapadera).
Chomera chikhoza kubzalidwa mu kugwa (bwino kumadera akum'mwera kwa dziko) masiku khumi ndi asanu ndi limodzi (10-15) kusanayambike chisanu ndi masika, nthaka ikawomba madigiri 16-18.

Tubers

Kodi mungatani kuti muzitha kumanga thomba la peyala kumunda?

  1. Sankhani malo otetezeka, owuma kuti tipewe tubers kuvunda.
  2. Konzani bedi la munda mwa kukumba pa bayonet ndi kuwonjezera manyowa kapena manyowa ovunda.
  3. Musanadzalemo phosphorus-potaziyamu feteleza.
  4. Sankhani lalikulu, wathanzi tubers (6-8 masentimita), popanda zowola ndi kuwonongeka, ndi masamba angapo.
  5. Zomera zokololazo ndi njira iliyonse yomwe imatetezera matenda komanso imachepetsa kukula.
  6. Pangani mizere pamtunda ndi kudzala tubers pamtunda wa masentimita 40 kuchokera pakati pa wina ndi mzake, ndikuziponya m'nthaka ndi masentimita 7-15, malingana ndi kukula kwa tuber. Zambiri zokhala ndi mzere - 60-70 masentimita
  7. Pambuyo maluwawo akuwonekera, udzule pabedi ndi kumasula bwino. Chitani izi katatu ndi nthawi ya masabata awiri.
  8. Mitengoyi ikafika kutalika masentimita 10: Mtunda wochepa pakati pa zomera ndi 45 cm, pakati pa mizere - 30 cm.
  9. Spud amawombera pamene amafika 20 cm mu msinkhu, ndipo amadyetsa urea. (Pakati pa chilimwe mungathe kubwereranso ndi kudumpha ndi manyowa kapena manyowa a chaka chatha).
  10. Mangani zomera zimene zafika pamtunda wa mamita kuti zikhale zothandizira.
  11. Poonjezera zokolola, dulani maluwa kapena kudula mitengo mpaka mamita 1.5 mu msinkhu.

Kukula ngati bizinesi

Panopa, artichoke ya Yerusalemu imakhalabe mumthunzi wa mbewu zina, ngakhale kuti deta yake ya dokotala ndi zokolola zimakhala zazikulu kuposa zomwe zimakhalapo zomera. Phindu lokula mitengo ya peyala liposa 300% ndi ndalama zochepa. Mwachitsanzo, akatswiri azachuma apeza kuti kuti apange malo atsopano a topinambur okhala ndi mahekitala 50, mabomba 812 miliyoni adzafunikila. Ichi ndi mtengo woyenera wa kulima. Ndalamayi ikuphatikizapo ndalama zogulira malonda, kugula mbewu, organic ndi feteleza feteleza, mtengo wa mafuta ndi magetsi.

Zoonadi, ndalama zogulitsidwa ndi zobiriwira komanso zatsopano zamtundu wa artichoke tubers zimadalira zokolola komanso mtengo wogula. Koma ngakhale ndi zochepa zokolola zamtundu wobiriwira ndi tubers (pamtunda wa 20 t / ha) kubwezeretsedwa kwa ndalama zazikulu kudzabwera chaka choyamba cha kulima artichoke ya Yerusalemu. Chomera chimatha kupanga msipu wobiriwira mpaka 1000 makilogalamu / ha, tubers - 400 makilogalamu / ha!

Kulima ndi kubwezeretsanso kwa Yerusalemu artichoke pa mafakitale kumapindulitsa kwambiri. Agrotechnical kulima ndi ofanana ndi sayansi ya kukula mbatata:

  1. Kumayambiriro kwa autumn kulima pansi pa artichoke ya Yerusalemu kumafunika.
  2. M'pofunika kugwiritsa ntchito feteleza, zomwe zimabisidwa m'nthaka m'dzinja kapena masika, malinga ndi nthawi yobzala tubers.
  3. Zimalangizidwa kukweza peyala yadothi pamapiri kuti panthawi yovuta nyengo chisa cha tuberous sichimaundana ndipo sichisokoneza chitukuko cha mbewu.
  4. Kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa artichoke ku Yerusalemu mu kukula kwa mafakitale kumapangidwa ndi tubers. Mlingo wobzala pa hafu imodzi imadalira chitsanzo chodzala ndi kukula kwa tuber. Pafupifupi, matani 1-1.2 a tubers amabzalidwa pa hekitala. Ngati mukufuna kupeza zokolola zazikulu, ndiye kuti kubwera kwake sikuyenera kuchepa (90x25 masentimita), ngati mukusowa zobiriwira zambiri, pangani kukwera kwapakati pazitsulo ndikuchepetsera mzere wa mzere wa 70 kapena 60 cm.
  5. Pofuna kuteteza chitukuko cha namsongole, asanatulukire mphukira zimalimbikitsidwa kugwira ntchito imodzi kapena yovuta.
  6. Pambuyo pa kutuluka kwa mphukira, tikulimbikitsidwa kukhala pakati pa mizere ndi kuuma. Kusamaliranso kwa minda ya chaka choyamba cha kubzala kumapangitsa kumasula mpata ndikuwononga namsongole mumzere.

Kuti kulima mapeyala apadziko lapansi pa mafakitale akufunika thirakitalakulima munda, ndi wokolola wa mbatata kukolola. Chiwerengero cha ntchito chidzadalira chiwerengero cha mayunitsi a zipangizo, ndipo wogwira ntchito mmodzi akhoza kugwira nawo ntchito zingapo zomwe zikuchitika nthawi zosiyanasiyana za chitukuko cha zomera.

Ntchito yogwiritsira ntchito artichoke ya Yerusalemu imakhala pafupifupi zero, popeza, malinga ndi katswiri wodziwika bwino wa mbewu zapamadzi V.I. Kozlovsky, "ndilo chomera chokhacho chimene chimamera, chomwe sichimawombera, sichiopa mantha kapena chisanu, kapena chilala, kapena mvula, kapena nthaka yoipa, ndipo sichidzudzula chisamaliro cha ntchito ya chilimwe."

Kuti mulembetse bungwe lalamulo kuti mupange bizinesi yanu, muyenera:

  1. konzani dzina la kampani la kampaniyo, osati motsutsana ndi lamulo;
  2. pezani adilesi yalamulo;
  3. sankhani ma code okondeka;
  4. sankhani kuchuluka kwa gawo lalikulu;
  5. pangani chisankho cha woyambitsa kapena maminiti a msonkhano waukulu ndi mgwirizano pa kukhazikitsidwa kwa LLC;
  6. konzekera chikalata cha bungwe;
  7. lembani ntchito yolembetsera boma;
  8. kulipira malipiro a boma (ma ruble 4000);
  9. onetsetsani zikalata zonse kwa woyang'anira msonkho wanu.

Timapereka kuwonera kanema, kumene tisanayambe kukambirana za bizinesi pakulima aritikiti ya Yerusalemu:

Zolakwa ndi zothetsera

ZolakwikaNjira zothetsera zolakwitsa
Osavuta kubzala, zomwe zimabweretsa kuchepa mu zokolola za tubersKupukuta kofiira komwe kwafika pamtunda wa masentimita 10.
Kutsetsereka kothamanga kothamanga komwe kunapangidwa pa nthaka.Modzichepetsa mumamasulidwa mogwirizana ndi mapiri omwe akufika.
Kutuluka sikuthirira madziZitsamba za Topinambur zimafuna madzi okwanira osachepera 1 pa mwezi.
Chipinda sichidyetsaKudyetsa Topinambur kuyenera kuchitika 2-3 nthawi. Kumayambiriro kwa masika ndi theka lachiwiri la chilimwe:

  • mtengo;
  • urea;
  • fetereza fetashi;
  • zitowe za nkhuku;
  • fupa chakudya.
M'dzinja gawo la pamwambali la mbeu limadulidwa.M'dzinja, gawo la pamwambali silidulidwa mpaka kukolola, chifukwa limalimbikitsa zowonjezera mchere mu tubers, zomwe zatsala pansi pa chaka chotsatira.

Kukolola

Kukolola mapeyala apangidwa, malingana ndi zosiyanasiyana, kuyambira September mpaka November. Musanayeretsedwe, kudula nsonga pamtunda wa 15-17 cm. Pamene kukumba zipatso kumasankhidwa kwakukulu kwambiri tubers, amafunika kutsukidwa, zouma, zonyezimira, owazidwa ndi mchenga wouma kapena utuchi, ndipo amazisunga pansi, poyang'anira malo osungirako: 85-95% chinyezi ndi kutentha madigiri 4 °.

Tizilombo toyambitsa matenda a attikiti ya Yerusalemu sungasungidwe pa khonde lotentha, m'firiji, koma nthawi yosungirako ndi yaing'ono - masabata 2-3. Pafupifupi chaka chimodzi, zipatso zimatha kusungidwa mu mawonekedwe owuma.

Matenda ndi tizirombo

Chomerachi sichitha kutenga matenda komanso tizilombo toyambitsa matenda. Koma m'nyengo youma kapena yozizira komanso yamvula imatha kudwala:

  • zovunda zoyera (pa zimayambira zinamveka pachimake, kutembenukira ku kukula kwa mtundu wakuda);
  • Alternaria (masamba ali ndi mawanga obiriwira, ndiyeno chomera chimalira);
  • powdery mildew (masamba akuphimbidwa pang'onopang'ono ndi bulawuni yofiira yofiira yofiira).

Pali njira ziwiri zothetsera matendawa: kudula ndi kuyaka zomera kapena kamodzi kapena kawiri processing zomera ndi fungicides mu nyengo yofunda.

Peyala ya Eartha ingavulaze:

  • moles;
  • mbewa;
  • Zimbalangondo;
  • slugs;
  • zosokoneza;
  • Mulole nyamakazi ndi mphutsi zawo.

Pofuna kulimbana nawo, mungagwiritse ntchito sopo mosakaniza, kulowetsedwa kwa adyo. Slugs ayenera kusonkhanitsidwa ndi dzanja kapena kuikidwa pakati pa mizere ya msampha.

Chomera chodabwitsa cha Yerusalemu cha attichokiti pang'onopang'ono chimagonjetsa minda ya dziko lathu, ndipo kudzichepetsa kwake, kukana matenda ndi zokolola zambiri zidzakupatsani chomera posachedwapa chofunika kwambiri.