Zothandiza zothandiza kukula kwa basamu wamkati

Imodzi mwa zomera zomwe zimakonda kwambiri m'nyumba, zomwe zakhazikitsidwa kale pakhomo ndi nyumba zathu, ndi basamu (pakali pano, malo osiyana). Kusamalira maluwawa sikovuta, komabe mukufunikira kudziwa momwe mungayankhire, kufalitsa, madzi ndi mchere wa basamu kunyumba.

Mitundu yowonjezera ya ma balms

M'nthawi yathu ino, pali mitundu yoposa 400 ya zomera, zomwe m'mayiko ena zatchedwa "kuwala" (zoyenera maluwa okongola kwambiri). Basamu akhoza kukhala ngati chomera chaka ndi chaka, ndipo osatha, koma mabelamu a Waller kapena Waller (odziwika bwino), mabalsamals, ndi balsam atsopano a New Guinean, omwe amadziwika kuti nyamayi ya gulu la New Guinea, amapezeka m'nyumba mwathu.

Ndibwino kuti azitha pachimake chaka chonse, akukondweretsani ndi pinki yofiira kapena maluwa ofiira. Komabe, pali mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya maluwa a chikasu, alanje, oyera ndi a lilac, koma zomera ziwiri zokhala ndi malo osiyana ("diso") ndizoyambirira. Mafuta a basamu amakhalanso ndi mithunzi yosiyanasiyana, kuyambira kubiriwira mpaka wofiira kapena wofiirira.

Mulimonsemo, njira iliyonse yomwe mungasankhe, kubzala balsamu ku mbewu kunyumba idzakhala njira yosangalatsa komanso yosangalatsa kwa inu.

Mukudziwa?Anthu a basamu amatchedwa "touchy." Chowonadi ndi chakuti pambuyo poyambitsa maluwa, mabokosi omwe ali ndi mbewu amapangidwa, omwe, atangogwira pang'ono, amayamba mwamsanga. Dzina lachiwiri, losavomerezeka kwambiri la "dzina" lake ndi "Kutentha Kwambiri."

Malamulo akuluakulu oyendetsera basamu

Ngati mwasankha kupeza balsamu kunyumba, koma simudziwa bwino kulima chomera ichi, ndiye chinthu choyamba kuchita ndi kugula mbewu zabwino. Powasankha, nkofunika kumvetsera masamulo, zosiyana, mtundu (pachaka kapena osatha) ndi kudalirika kwa wopanga. Ngati mukufuna kulandira mwayi ndikuyesera, mukhoza kukonzekera mbeu (chifukwa cha izi, muyenera kusonkhanitsa kuchokera ku zomera zomwe zilipo kale kumunda).

Musanayambe kufesa mbewu miphika, ikani mchere wochepa wa potaziyamu permanganate kwa mphindi khumi ndiyeno zilowerere tsiku lina m'madzi ofunda.

Gawo lotsatira ndi kukonzekera bwino kwa nthaka. Popeza kuti mbewu za mmera zimakhala zovuta kwambiri ku mtundu wake ndi momwe zimakhalira, dothi la balsamu liyenera kukhala losavuta komanso losasunthika. Ndibwino kugwiritsa ntchito chisakanizo cha peat ndi tsamba lapansi, vermiculite ndi mchenga wa mchenga (mofanana). Koma ngati simukufuna kupatula nthawi, mukhoza kugula malo okonzeratu mbeu, ndikuwonjezerapo gawo limodzi mwachisanu mwa vermiculite kapena mchenga, zomwe zimapangitsa dothi kutayirira ndi kupuma.

Ndikofunikira! Alimi ambiri amakhulupirira kuti ubwino wa basamu ndi nthaka yochepa yomwe imakhala ndi magawo ofanana a sod, perlite, humus ndi kompositi.
Kutalika kwa mphamvu ya mbande ayenera kukhala masentimita 7 (kapena pang'ono kwambiri). Pazinthu izi, mungagwiritse ntchito chidebe cha pulasitiki, mphika kapena mbale yayikulu. Pansi pa chidebe chosankhidwa, muyenera kupanga mabowo ambiri ndikugwiritsa ntchito dothi ladothi lokhala ndi masentimita 2 (2 cm). Izi sizilola madzi kuti agone m'nthaka ndikuletsa mizu kuti ikhale yovunda.

Zisanayambe kufesa mbewu, m'pofunikira kudzaza mphika ndi nthaka ndikutsitsa njira ya Fitosporin mmenemo, zomwe zingakuthandizeni kusintha nthaka ya microflora ndikuiteteza ku tizirombo zambiri.

Nthawi yabwino yofesa mbewu ndipakatikati mwa March. Pachifukwa ichi, n'zotheka kuyamikira maluwa oyamba a balsamu mu June.

Mfundo yofunika pofesa - malo odzaza mbeu mu mphika, pamtunda wofanana kuchokera kwa wina ndi mnzake. Ayenera kufesedwa mopanda phokoso, ndikukakamiza pang'onopang'ono chitsime chowongolera pamtunda, koma osabatizidwa mmenemo.

Ndikofunikira! Kutentha kwakukulu kwa kumera kwa mbewu ya basamu ndi 22-25 ° C.
Zonsezi zikadzakwaniritsidwa, mbeuzo zidzalowetsa mumphika, zomwe zatsala ndizozitsata mbewu ndi madzi ndikuyika chidebecho mu thumba la pulasitiki, mutadzazadza ndi mpweya.

Malangizo othandizira kusamalidwa m'nyumba

Tsopano tiyeni tione momwe tingasamalire bwino balsamic. Ndi zochepa zofunikira zomwe ziyenera kuwerengedwa: kutsata ulamuliro wa kutentha, kukonza mlingo woyenera wa chinyezi, kudziwa zomwe zimakhala kuthirira, kudyetsa zomera, komanso kukanikiza ndi kudulira.

Kusankhidwa ndi kuunikira

Mafuta a basamu amakonda kuwala, koma kukhudzana ndi chomera chowoneka bwino kumakhala ndi zotsatira zovuta kwambiri pa maluwa. Choncho, kukula chomera kunyumba, ndikofunika kumthunzi pazenera.

Pa nthawi yomweyo, m'nyengo yozizira, bhalaamu imayenera kuunika kokwanira, yomwe imathandizanso kuti maluwa ake azikhala chaka chonse (m'nyengo yozizira dzuwa silikuwala).

Kuti korona ya chitsamba ikhale yokongola mofanana, ngakhale mphika ndi chomeracho chiyenera kusinthidwa nthawi ndi nthawi, kusinthanitsa mbali zonse za dzuwa. Kulephera kwa kuwala kumabweretsa mfundo yakuti chomera chimasiya kupanga masamba ndipo chimataya chidwi chake.

Mukudziwa? Malo a basamu ndi abwino kwambiri kwa anthu omwe anabadwa pansi pa chizindikiro cha Leo.

Kutentha ndi chinyezi

Kugwirizana ndi kutentha kwabwino ndi chinyezi choyenera mu chipinda ndi ntchito ina yofunikira yomwe imakumana ndi maluwa pamene akukula balsamu. M'chaka ndi chilimwe, maluwawo amalekerera kutentha kwa + 25 ° C ndipamwamba, koma amakhala ndi mwayi wopezeka mpweya wabwino ndi chinyezi cha gawo lapansi. M'nyengo yozizira, kutentha sikuyenera kugwera pansi + 10-15 ° C.

Mafuta a basamu amafunikanso kutentha kwa mpweya. Zoona, ngakhale kuti sakonda kutenthedwa, koma nthawi zina chinyezi sikofunikira nthawi zonse.

Mwachitsanzo, ngati kutentha kwa mpweya mu chipinda sikudutsa phindu la 20-22 ° C, kudzakhala kokwanira kuti nthaka ikhale youma.

Kuwonjezeka kwa kutentha pamwamba pa mtengo umenewu kumabweretsa kutuluka kwachangu kwa chinyezi ndi kudula mitengo. Ngati mukuona kuti thermometer yafika pa 25 ° C, ndiye nthawi yoti mutenge mfuti, yomwe ingagwiritsidwe ntchito kutsanulira masamba kangapo patsiku.

Ndikofunikira! Pa kutentha kwakukulu, pali kuthekera kwa kugwa masamba chifukwa cha maonekedwe a "wowonjezera kutentha" (kutentha ndi chinyezi). Choncho, ndibwino kupeza malo ozizira ku chitsamba, koma chipinda chowala bwino.

Kuthirira ndi kudyetsa zomera

Balsamu imakonda madzi, ndi kuthirira ndi imodzi mwa zofunika kwambiri za agrotechnical zosamalira. M'nyengo ya chilimwe, pamene topsoil nthawi zambiri dries kunja, mbewu imafuna madzi okwanira. Komabe, poika madzi m'nthaka, m'pofunika kuonetsetsa kuti madziwo sagwera pamutu wa mbewu. Kuchita izi, kuthirira kumachitidwa pamphepete mwa mphika, ndipo mutatha kukonza, madzi owonjezera amachotsedwa poto.

Monga madzi okwanira ulimi wothirira, ndibwino kukonzekera madzi ofewa ndi olekanitsa, mwinamwake posachedwa mudzapeza chovala choyera pansi, chomwe chimasonyeza kuti ndipamwamba kwambiri. Pachifukwa ichi, alimi odziwa bwino amalangizidwa kuti atenge dothi la pamwamba.

Kuti apereke mizu ndi kupeza mpweya watsopano, nthaka mu mphika iyenera kumasulidwa nthawi zonse. Ndibwino kuti musagwiritse ntchito ndondomekoyi mozama kwambiri (osapitirira 1 masentimita), pokhapokha pali kuthekera kwa kuwononga mizu ya mbewu.

Kuti mukule bwino mafuta a basamu, amafunikanso feteleza. Kawirikawiri amalowa m'nthaka m'nyengo ya chilimwe, pamene chomera chimayamba kuphulika.

Masiku ano ndi zophweka kupeza momwe mungadyetse balsamu chifukwa cha maluwa, chifukwa mchere wambiri umayimilira pamsika wamakono. Komabe, pakati pa zosiyana zonsezi, ndi bwino kumvetsera feteleza ovuta kwa zomera zokongola (mu theka la mlingo kamodzi pa milungu iwiri iliyonse), ngakhale mlimi aliyense amasankha momwe angadyetse Vanka mvula mothandizidwa ndi momwe angakhalire.

Ndikofunikira! Pambuyo pophatikizidwa mafuta a basamu, feteleza sagwiritsidwa ntchito kale kuposa masabata atatu.

Kukanikiza ndi kudula

Pakukonza mafuta a basamu (kawirikawiri mumasika), korona wa chomera "imakonzedwa". Choncho, ngati m'nyengo yachisanu chitsamba chimakula kwambiri, ndiye kuti kudulira balsamu (chipinda) kumapangitsa kuchepetsa zimayambira ndi theka. Pa nthawi imodzimodziyo, pamene mphukira imafika kutalika, mapiko awo, zomwe zimalimbikitsa kutuluka ndi kukula kwa mphukira zatsopano ndi maluwa obiriwira.

Panikizani ndikuchotsani pamwamba pa mphukira, yomwe imapangidwa ndi lumo kapena mmanja mwanu. Chifukwa cha izi, mvula yambiri imadzutsa, koma ngati malo ena ali osayenera, ndiye pambuyo pa regrowth iwo amatha kusweka.

Kudulira kumathandizanso kukonzanso chomera, ndi kudula apical mphukira amagwiritsidwa ntchito potsatira kubereka. Pofuna kukonzanso zokongoletsera za basamu, nkofunikanso kuchotsa nthambi zowamba zakale, komanso masamba omwe akufa ndi maluwa.

Momwe mungasinthire balsamu mkati

Pakati pa florists, munthu amatha kumva funso lotsatirali: momwe angapititsire bwino "Kutayira konyowa". Choyamba, muyenera kudziwa kuti bhalaamu imayikidwa mu kasupe, ndipo pokhapokha ngati pakufunika kuikanso m'chilimwe. Kuonjezera apo, zomera zonse zazing'ono zimafuna kusintha kwa chaka. Chomera chachikulu chimaikidwa, kapena pambuyo pa zaka 2-3 chimangobwezeretsedwanso ndi rooting top cuttings (ichi ndi chofunika kwambiri, chifukwa nthawi yaying'ono balsamu imakula ndikukhala yosakongola).

Nthawi yabwino kwambiri yopangira balsamu kumapeto kwa February kapena kumapeto kwa March, ndipo zotsatira zake ndizo:

  1. Tengani mphika wa kukula kwabwino (makamaka kwakukulu) ndi kudzaza ndi kukhetsa kotala;
  2. Thirani mu mphika nthaka okonzeka molingana ndi pamwamba Chinsinsi;
  3. Madzi nthaka ndi ofunda, kukhazikitsa madzi;
  4. Musanayambe kuziika, sungani nthaka mumphika, komwe mukupachika chomera, kuti dziko likhale losiyana ndi mizu;
  5. Chotsani chomeracho mofulumira kwambiri, mutachimba kumbali zonse (kotero zidzakhala zosavuta kuzichotsa pamodzi ndi clod);
  6. Fufuzani mosamala mizu ndikuchotsa zovulaza zonse, kuzidula minofu yathanzi.
Chotsani kwathunthu nthaka yakale sikoyenera, popeza pali pangozi yowononga duwa lokha. Mzere wa chidebe chatsopano uyenera kukhala wawukulu kuposa woyamba, koma masentimita 2-3 okha, mwinamwake chomeracho chiyenera kuyesetsa kulimbikitsa mizu, yomwe imayambitsa kufalikira.

Mukudziwa? Ku England, mafuta a basamu akutchedwa "Olimba Lisa".

Kufalitsa malo a basamu

Kufalitsa malo a basamu akhoza kupangidwa m'njira ziwiri: cuttings ndi kufesa mbewu.

Cuttings

Kudula ndi njira yotchuka kwambiri yolima chomera. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito mwakhama nthawi yamasika kapena chilimwe, kudula cuttings ku basamu baka. Kutalika kwa magawo odulidwa kumachokera ku masentimita asanu kufika asanu ndi awiri, ndipo aliyense ayenera kukhala ndi internodes awiri. Masamba ndi masamba omwe ali pansi ayenera kuchotsedwa.

Kodi mungathe bwanji kudula basamu? Ndipotu, njirayi si yovuta monga ikuwonekera poyamba. Madzi okonzeka akhoza kuikidwa mu chidebe ndi madzi musanakhazikitsidwe mizu, kapena nthawi yomweyo amatsika pansi. Monga nthaka yabwino, ndi bwino kugwiritsa ntchito peat, vermiculite ndi perlite, kuziphatikiza izo mofanana. Ndilo pansi pano kuti zidutswa zimayikidwa, kenako nthaka imakhala yozungulira pozungulira iwo. Kenaka nthaka mumphika imayambitsidwa, ndipo chidebecho chimayikidwa mu thumba la pulasitiki.

Ngati zidutswazo zimakula mu chipinda chofunda komanso chowala, zidzakula kwambiri mkati mwa masiku awiri, ndipo pambuyo pa miyezi itatu zimakupatsani maluwa okongola.

Mbewu

Kuti muonjezere balsamu ndi mbewu, muyenera kukonzekera kusakaniza kwa perlite ndi peat (1: 2), ndipo mutabzala mbewu, sungani kutentha mkati mwa 20-25 ° C. Simukufunika kuika mbewu pansi, kuya kwa 0.7-1 masentimita kudzakwanira. Pambuyo pofesa, nthaka imakhetsedwa madzi ndikuyikidwa pansi pa galasi. Mbewu ziyenera kukwera mmasiku 8-10 mutabzala (mawu ofanana).

Palibe chifukwa choyenera kudula nthaka, chifukwa izi zingawononge mbande "mwendo wakuda". Pambuyo pa mbande ikukwera, zingatheke kuti mwapang'onopang'ono azidziwombera mpweya wabwino. Pamene mbande ifika 1.5-2 masentimita mu msinkhu, iwo amakola mbewu.

Ndikofunikira! Funso la momwe mungabzalitsire balsamu chipinda mu miphika yosiyana ayenera kubwera pokhapokha ngati mbeu iliyonse idzakhala ndi masamba enieni 1-2.

Matenda, matenda ndi tizirombo ta basamu, tithane nawo

Kubzala basamu mu miphika ndikupanga zinthu zabwino kwambiri kuti zikule ndi chitukuko, sangakhale otsimikiza kuti mbewuyo ndi inshuwalansi pa matenda osiyanasiyana. Mwachitsanzo, kutentha kwakukulu mu chipinda chokhala ndi mpweya wochepa mthupi sichimakhudza kwambiri mkhalidwe wa duwa: masamba amafota, ndipo maluwa amachepetsetsa kwambiri. Pofuna kubwezeretsa chomera ku dziko lakale, ndikofunikira kubwezeretsanso zofunikira kuti zikule. Komabe, sitiyenera kuiwala kuti madzi okwanira omwewo akhoza kuvulaza balsamine, chifukwa amathandiza kuti bowa liwoneke komanso kuti nkhungu zizikhala bwino.

Pooneka ngati zizindikiro zoyambirira za matenda a fungaleni, ziyenera kuchitidwa: maluwa amachotsedwa nthawi yomweyo mumtsuko, ndipo mosamala amachotsa mizu ya nthaka, amakaikidwa mu chidebe ndi nthaka yatsopano, yosasunthika komanso kayendedwe kabwino ka madzi.

Mukangomva zowola panthaka, pangani malo osanjikiza ndi nthaka yatsopano. Kuthamanga kwa matendawa, nthawi zina mumachepetsa mwayi wa mbewu kuti mupulumuke.

Pamene maluwa akugwa, nkofunika kubwezeretsa zikhalidwe za basamu. Makamaka, zomwe zimayambitsa "tsamba kugwa" nthawi zambiri zimakhala mpweya wouma, kuthirira madzi okwanira, kuchepa kwa chipinda, kutsegula bwino ndi kudyetsa.

Kuwala kosavuta m'chipinda komanso kusowa kwa dzuwa kungawononge mtundu wa masamba a mitundu yosiyanasiyana, yomwe, pamene pali kusowa kwa kuwala, imakhala yotumbululuka komanso yopanda phindu. Izi ndizo chifukwa cha kutambasula kwakukulu kwa mphukira, zomwe zimakhudza kwambiri zokongoletsera za basamu.

Mbewu yochepa ya zomera kapena kusowa kwathu konse kungakhale chifukwa cha kusowa kwa zakudya kapena zakudya zomwe zimayambitsa feteleza a nitrojeni zomwe zidzakulitsa kukula kwa masamba. Kawirikawiri, mphika wawukulu wosadziwika, wothiridwa ndi madzi okwanira, nthawi zambiri ukhoza kukhala maziko a mavuto oterowo.

Pakati pa mavitamini onse a basamu, sikutheka kuti tisiyane ndi kugonjetsedwa kwa kangaude, komwe kumathandizidwa ndi kutsika kwa chinyezi. Mukhoza kuchotsa maluwa mothandizidwa ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda.

Kuwonjezera pamenepo, pogwiritsa ntchito kukonzekera, mungathe kulimbana ndi nsabwe za m'masamba (kapena whitefly).