Kodi kuthana ndi matenda a nkhaka

Mlimi aliyense wamaluwa ankakumana ndi matenda ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda. Ndi chinthu chimodzi pamene chimachitika chifukwa cha kusamalidwa bwino, komanso nthawi ina pamene chomeracho chikudwala popanda chifukwa chomveka. Nkhaniyi ikufotokoza momwe mungapulumutsire nkhaka ku matenda ndi tizirombo.

Kawirikawiri, matenda a nkhaka amayambitsidwa ndi chisamaliro chosayenera. Nthawi zina kachilombo ka HIV kamapatsirana ndi zipangizo kapena pansi.

Grey kuvunda

Matenda a fungalomu omwe amakhudza thupi lonse la mbeu (masamba, tsinde, maluwa ndi zipatso). Katemera akhoza kulembedwa pamodzi ndi nthaka, zotsalira za zomera. Komanso, imafalitsidwa kudzera mumlengalenga, choncho imakhala yofalitsidwa kwambiri.

Mukudziwa? Imodzi mwa zovuta za bowa, zomwe zimayambitsa imvi, zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga mpweya kuti zipangidwe zopangira ndi shuga wambiri.

Kuthamanga pa nkhaka nthawi zambiri kumachitika chifukwa cha kutentha kwapamwamba ndi kutentha kwakukulu. Panthawi imeneyi, zomerazo zimafooka, ndipo matenda angapo amatha kulimbana nawo.

Zizindikiro za nkhungu yakuda:

  • maonekedwe a imvi pa tsinde, masamba ndi zipatso;
  • Mawanga a chipatso pamtunda (pambuyo pake, nkhaka zimayamba kuvunda ndi zouma);
  • Kuwombera kwakukulu kwa masamba a zomera zonse;
  • mphukira zowola.
Nthendayi ndi yoopsa chifukwa kuti kugonjetsedwa kwakukulu sikudzawononge kokha chitsamba, komanso zikhalidwe zonse zomwe zimabzalidwa pafupi. Pa nthawi yomweyi, chaka chotsatira, zowolazo zingabwerere ku mbewu za masamba kapena zipatso, chifukwa zidzakhalabe pansi.

Bowawu nthawi zambiri limakhudza mbali za zomera zomwe zimagwirizana ndi nthaka. Ngati mwabzala strawberries pa dacha, mukhoza kuona momwe zipatsozo zimakhudzidwira ndi imvi, kenako zivunda. Chinthu chomwecho chimachitika ndi nkhaka, choncho muyenera kumwa mankhwala nthawi kuti mupulumutse mbewu.

Matendawa amatha kuchiritsidwa mothandizidwa ndi fungicides (Fitosporin-M). Musanagwiritse ntchito mankhwalawa muyenera kudula masamba onse odwala ndi mphukira. Kuyeneranso kuyesayesa njira: 300 g nkhuni phulusa, choko ndi 1 tsp. mkuwa sulfate pa 10 malita a madzi. Ndalamayi ndi yokwanira ma tchire awiri.

Zatsimikiziridwa ndi zamoyo zamagetsi, zomwe zikuphatikizapo mankhwala a Trichodermin. Mankhwalawa ndi bowa omwe amawononga imvi, osakhala ndi chiopsezo kwa mbewu ndi munthu.

Ndikofunikira! Zomera zonse zomwe zimakhudzidwa ndi masamba zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pamtanda kuti zisawononge kachilombo ka HIV.

Njira Zowononga Makuda:

  • kusintha kwa mbewu;
  • kusankha mitundu yosagwirizana ndi matenda;
  • kuchotsedwa kwa zotsalira za zomera kuchokera m'munda;
  • Kuvala mbewu.

Vuto loyera

White zowola pa nkhaka imawoneka kawirikawiri, chifukwa imakhala m'nthaka ndipo imatha kunyamulidwa kutali ndi mphepo. Wothandizira mankhwalawa ndi bowa zazikulu zomwe zimapangitsa kuti mbewuyo iwonongeke panthawi yovuta.

Ngati masamba amathira kuvunda koyera, ndiye kukula kwa mphutsi kumawonekera. Kuchokera ku matendawa kumayamba kuvunda pamwamba pa tsinde, masamba akutha, kutembenuka woyera ndi kukhala opusa.

Zimayambitsa matenda kuwonjezeka kwa chinyezi ndi kusintha kwadzidzidzi kutentha (malo abwino kwambiri kwa bowa - ubweya, chifukwa cha kuchepa kwakukulu mu kutentha).

Matendawa amaletsa kukula kwa nkhaka, komanso amachititsa kuthetsa mphamvu zake zonse polimbana ndi tiziromboti. Sipadzakhala zokolola: zipatso zidzayamba kuuma, kenako zidzavunda.

Kuti musalole bowa ku nkhaka zanu, muyenera chitani chitetezozomwe ziri motere:

  • kuyeretsa nthaka kuchokera ku zomera zowola;
  • kudya zakudya zovuta (zinc sulphate, urea, vitriol buluu);
  • kuchepetsedwa mu chinyezi cha mlengalenga (ngati atayikidwa mu wowonjezera kutentha).
Ngati zovunda zoyera zafika kale ku nkhaka za nkhaka, zikhoza kuchotsedwa zonse ndi njira zamakono komanso kukonzekera.

Kumayambiriro koyamba, mphukira za matenda zimadulidwa, ndipo malo odulidwawo amakhetsedwa ndi mpweya wokhazikika. Komanso, magawo akhoza kusakanizidwa ndi osakaniza awa: nthaka choko ndi potassium permanganate (ndi madzi pang'ono).

Njira zoterezi zingagwiritsidwe ntchito panthawi yoyamba, kapena tchire 2-3 zitakhudzidwa. Ngati tchire zambiri zikudwala, ndibwino kugwiritsa ntchito fungicides. Zotchuka kwambiri komanso zotsika mtengo ndi Oxyhom, Topaz, Rovral SP kapena mankhwala a mchere sulphate.

Ndikofunikira! Ngati fungicides inalephera, chomeracho chichotsedweratu ndi kutenthedwa.

Pofuna kuteteza mbewu zina zomwe munabzala chaka chatha, muyenera kudyetsa nthaka ndi mankhwala ophera tizilombo kapena fungicide.

Mizu yovunda

Zovunda zosiyana, zomwe zimakhudza gawo la pansi pa mbeu. Matendawa ndi ofala kwambiri moti sagonjetsedwa ndi wamaluwa okha, komanso amaluwa ambiri. Zowola mizu (kapena mwendo wakuda) Amayambitsa bowa omwe amakhala m'nthaka.

Mizu yomwe imakhudzidwa imatembenuka wakuda, rots ndikufa. Mosiyana ndi mphukira za matenda, zimakhala zovuta kuwona mizu ya matenda, motsogoleredwa ndi zizindikiro zakunja za matenda:

  • chomera ndiulesi ngakhale atamwetsa;
  • masamba ayamba kuuma, ndi zovuta zimawoneka pa iwo;
  • maluwa amagwa pamaso pa mazira oonekera;
  • gawo la tsinde la tsinde ndikutembenukira chikasu;
  • masamba amasintha mtundu ndipo amadzazidwa ndi mawanga;
  • kukula kwa chitsamba kumachepa.
Kukula kwa mizu yoyera zowola Osangowonjezera kwambiri nthaka ndi chisamaliro chosayenera, komanso zinthu zotsatirazi:
  • kusowa kwa sevosmena;
  • madzi okwanira madzi;
  • mbewu yobzala mozama kwambiri;
  • zothandizira.
Nthaŵi zambiri, malo abwino a bowa ndi nthaka yonyowa kwambiri. Ngakhale mutatsatira malamulo a kuthirira, dothi lolemera lingawononge matenda. Yesetsani kutsatira nthaka, khalidwe lake ndi ngalande.

Ndikofunikira! Zowola zamasamba zimakhala pansi ngakhale atachotsa chomera. Choncho, nthaka iyenera kukhazikika, ndipo imangotsala chaka chimodzi pansi pa nthunzi.

Amaluwa ambiri amasangalala ndi momwe angagwiritsire ntchito nkhaka kuti athetse mizu yovunda. Pofuna kuthana ndi zowola, muyenera kugwiritsa ntchito fungicides.

Poyambirira, mungayese njira zosiyana siyana: kuwonjezera 1 tsp kuti 0,5 l madzi. uchi, pang'ono nkhuni phulusa ndi 3 tbsp. l wosweka choko. Ndi phokosoli, onetsani malo okhudzidwa pa zomera.

Monga momwe mukugwiritsira ntchito njira zowerengeka, ndi fungicides, muyenera kuchotsa dziko lapansi kuchokera kumadera okhudzidwa a mizu (pokhapokha ngati izi sizili mbali yaikulu ya mizu).

Ndiyeneranso kukumbukira kuti mizu yovunda imayambitsa mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya bowa. Malinga ndi chofunikira ichi kuti mutenge fungicide. Pezani mtundu weniweni wa bowa ungakhale kokha mu labotale.

Ngati mwayesa njira zonse, ndipo nkhaka zikupota, ndiye zimangokhala kukumba chomeracho ndi kuichotsa pa tsamba.

Pofuna kuteteza kubwezeretsa muzu wa mbewu, pita njira zothandizira:

  • kuthira madzi chomeracho pansi pazu, osati kugwa pa masamba ndi tsinde;
  • kusiya kupalira mu kutentha kwakukulu;
  • madzi madzi ndi madzi ofunda;
  • sankhani otsogolera zoyenera (nyemba, mbatata, anyezi kapena tomato).

Mame a Mealy

Mame a Mealy - Ndi matenda a fungal omwe nkhungu zazikuluzikulu za ectoparasitic zimayambitsa. White mycelium imatha kuoneka ndi maso pa masamba a zomera: iwo amajambula mu mtundu woyera, ngati mvula yamoto.

Kuwonjezera pa masamba, bowa limapangitsa tsinde, mphukira zazing'ono ndi zipatso. Pamene mycelium ikukula, madontho ang'onoang'ono a madzi amapanga, ndipo chifukwa chake matendawa ali ndi dzina lake. Mbalame yoyera pa nthawi imakhala yolimba ndipo imayamba kudima.

Matendawa ndi owopsa osati chifukwa chakuti tchire "imakhala" imvi, imachepetsa kukula, imasokoneza njira zofunika mkati mwa mbewu. Masamba omwe amakhudzidwa amawombera ndi kufa pa nthawi.

Chinthu chomwecho chikuchitika ndi zipatso zomwe zimasiya kukula ndi kufota. Ngati powdery mildew inakhudza nkhaka pa nthawi ya maluwa, ndiye kuti mazirawo sungathe, ndipo mudzasiyidwa popanda mbewu. Powdery mildew pa nkhaka amatha kuwona chithunzichi chili pansipa.

Mofanana ndi matenda ena ambiri, powdery mildew amakonda kwambiri chinyezi ndi kusintha kwa kutentha. Kugonjetsedwa kwa matendawa kumayambiriro kwa chilimwe, pamene pali kusintha pakati pa kasupe ozizira ndi kutentha kwa chilimwe.

Komanso bowa amatha kupezeka chifukwa cha feteleza. Ngati nkhaka imakula mu wowonjezera kutentha, zifukwa zomwe zimayambitsa matendawa ndizolemba kapena zosavuta.

Ndikofunikira! The powdery mildew tizilombo toyambitsa matenda imatengedwa patali ndi mphepo kapena madontho ang'onoang'ono a chinyezi.

Tsatikani nkhaka za powdery mildew Mungathe kugwiritsa ntchito njira zingapo:

  • fungicides;
  • njira zachikhalidwe;
  • biofungicides.
Njira zamagulu zingathandize pazochitika zilizonse, ndipo powdery mildew ndi chimodzimodzi. Tengani magalamu 4 a soda phulusa ndi 4 magalamu a sopo pa madzi okwanira 1 litre. Njira yothetsera vutoli iyenera kutsatiridwa pamwamba pa nthaka kamodzi pa sabata.

Njira ina ikuphatikizapo kugwiritsa ntchito mkaka wowawasa. Kusiyanitsa seramu ndi kusungunuka m'madzi 1 mpaka 10. Kutaya nkhaka zitsamba kuchokera ku mfuti.

Ngati njira zachikhalidwe siziri zoyenera, ndiye kuti mungathe kupita ku chemistry. Pa fungicides omwe amachita ntchito yabwino ndi powdery mildew, tikhoza kusiyanitsa Readzol, Topaz, Topsin ndi Bayleton.

Ndikofunikira! Mankhwala opweteka a powdery mildew ankawoneka, omwe amatsutsa mankhwala ena. Choncho, popanda kusintha kwabwino - yesani fungicide ina.

Palinso amzanga abwino, koma njira zochepetsera mame. Biofungicides - Kukonzekera komwe kuli tizilombo toyambitsa matenda omwe amadya wothandizira powdery mildew.

Biofungicides yotchuka kwambiri ndi Fitosporin-M ndi Planriz. Mankhwalawa ndi otsika kwambiri ku mphamvu za fungicides, koma samavulaza anthu ndi zomera. Ndikofunika kuzigwiritsa ntchito mobwerezabwereza.

Pofuna kupewa matenda, ayenera kuchita zotsatirazi:

  • Kuyeretsa zotsalira zonse zamasamba kuchokera ku munda wa masamba (ma bowa omwe amawombera);
  • Kuyamba kwa phosphate ndi fetashi feteleza;
  • kuthirira nkhaka mosamalitsa pansi pazu.

Mukudziwa? Dziko lakwawo la nkhaka ndi dera lotentha la India pafupi ndi mapiri a Himalaya. Chomeracho chagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi munthu kwa zaka zoposa 6,000.

Downy mildew

Downy mildew kapena perinospora, nkhaka amadwala nthawi zambiri. Ichi ndi matenda omwe amabwera ndi bowa zingapo.

Peronosporosis amadziwonekera mu chikasu cha masamba, mphukira, zipatso ndi zina zowola. Chomera chodwalitsa chimapukuta masamba, ndipo mawanga achikasu amawoneka pa iwo. Pakapita nthawi, mawangawo amakhala ofiira, ndipo masambawo amatha. Mbali za zomera zodwala zingathe kupha munthu wathanzi, popeza zili ndi spores za bowa.

Perinosporosis ndi owopsa chifukwa, monga powdery mildew, poyamba amachepetsanso kukula kwa chitsamba ndi zipatso, ndipo amachititsa kuti zomera zonse zivunduke. Choncho, kulimbana ndi matendawa a nkhaka ndilofunika, popeza pali chiopsezo chotenga kachilombo osati chilengedwe chonse, komanso minda yoyandikana nayo.

Ndikofunikira! Peronosporosis imakhudza magulu onse a zomera zomwe zimalima, kuphatikizapo zokongola zitsamba ngakhale maluwa. Choncho, ndi kofunika kwambiri kuchipatala panthawi yake.

Downy mildew imapezeka kawirikawiri kumapeto kwa kasupe, pamene nyengo imakhala yamvula ndipo nthawi zambiri imagwa mvula. Ndikuwonjezeka kwa chinyezi ndi kuchepetsa chitetezo cha mbeu chomwe chimayambitsa matenda ndi bowa.

Tizilombo toyambitsa matenda timapatsirana ndi tizirombo ta tizilombo toyambitsa matenda (aphid, whitefly ndi ena), choncho dera la matenda a downy mildew ndi lalikulu kwambiri. Komanso, matendawa pamalowa angathe kubweretsedwe pamodzi ndi kubzala. Mbeu zopanda udzu ndi chimodzi mwa magwero akuluakulu a matenda.

Mukangopeza ngakhale zizindikiro zochepa za downy mildew mumkotchi wanu, muyenera kufufuza nthawi zonse tchire, ndipo ngati matendawa atsimikiziridwa, atenge chithandizo. Mankhwala a anthu Fotokozani njira zambiri zothana ndi bowa:

  1. Sakanizani madontho 10 a ayodini 5%, mkaka umodzi wokha (kapena 1%) mkaka ndi 9 l madzi. Chotsatiracho chimayambitsa sprayed thupi la mbeu.
  2. Brew makapu awiri a phulusa ndi malita atatu a madzi otentha. Gwiritsani ntchito zingapo za gauze. The chifukwa kulowetsedwa kuwonjezera 10 malita a madzi. Pangani kukonzanso chitsamba chonse, poyesera kuchepetsa gawo lalikulu la nthaka.
  3. Mu malita 10 a madzi, sungani 1.5 g wa potaziyamu permanganate ndi kutsanulira nkhaka.
Kuwonjezera pa njira zowerengeka, zimagwiritsidwa ntchito. Ngati bowa lafalikira ku tchire lalikulu, Fitosporin-M ya fungicide idzakuthandizani. Komanso, masamba akhoza kupopedwa ndi 0,4% yothetsera mkuwa oxychloride kapena 1% Bordeaux madzi.

Pofuna kupewa matenda amtsogolo a ndiwo zamasamba ndi zipatso, muyenera kuchita ntchito zothandizira matenda.

  • Nkhaka 14 masiku mutabzala ayenera kuchiritsidwa ndi 1% yankho la Bordeaux osakaniza. Processing ikuchitika mosasamala zosiyanasiyana ndi njira yobzala.
  • Komanso, matendawa amalepheretsa kusakhala kwa zamoyo zam'deralo m'deralo, zakudya zamasamba komanso nthaka.
  • Ngati nkhaka zanu zikukula mu wowonjezera kutentha, pitirizani chinyezi pansi pa 80% ndipo kutentha sikukhala pansi pa 20 ° C kuti muteteze matenda ndi bowa. Musaiwale kuti nthawi zonse muzidyetsa nkhaka, chifukwa chakuti chitetezo chachikulu chimakhala chopinga chogonjetsa ndi downy powdery mildew.

Mukudziwa? Nkhaka zili ndi potaziyamu, zomwe zimapangitsa chiwindi ndi impso kugwira ntchito. Komanso, nkhaka ili ndi fiber. Zida zazing'ono sizingatengeke ndi thupi la munthu, koma zimayang'anira ntchito ya matumbo ndikuchotsa cholesterol choposa thupi.

Anthracnose

Anthracnose - matenda a fungal a nkhaka, omwe amayamba ndi deuteromycetes (bowa opanda ungwiro). Matendawa amayambitsa mbewu zambiri za masamba ndi zipatso.

Pa chomera, nthenda yotchedwa anthracnose imawonekera ngati mabala a bulauni ndi kuika mdima m'munsi mwa masamba. Patapita nthawi, mawangawo akuphatikizana, ndipo pepala imamwalira. Mawanga opsinjika maganizo amaoneka pa tsinde ndipo amawombera, akuchepetsetsa komanso amalepheretsa kuyenda kwa zakudya.

Kenaka, chitsamba chimayamba kuuma, kuswa. Choncho, ngati nthawi sichitenga chithandizo, ndiye kuti mutayika kutaya zomera zonse.

Matendawa akuwonekera kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa May, akukhudza malo otentha kwambiri a zomera - masamba apansi ndi tsinde la tsamba.

Ndikofunikira! Chipatso chokhudzidwa sayenera kudyedwa!
Zomwe zimayambitsa matenda a anthracnosis zimaphatikizapo:
  • mkulu chinyezi;
  • phosphorus ndi potaziyamu njala;
  • kuchuluka kwa acidity m'nthaka.

Matenda oletsa matenda amasonyeza mankhwala okhaokha.

  1. Samulani nkhaka zitsamba ndi 1% colloidal sulfure kuimitsidwa.
  2. Malinga ndi malangizo, spulani nkhakayi ndi 1% yothetsera Bordeaux osakaniza.
  3. Dzani malo okhudzidwa ndi 0,5% mkuwa wa sulfate yankho.
  4. Zinyama zina zomwe zimawononga bowa: Oxy, Acrobat MC, Sandofan M8.

Kuteteza matendawa.

Poyambira, kuyambitsa zakudya zovuta zowonjezera kuwonjezera chitetezo chake. Yesetsani kuchepetsa kuthirira ndi nthawi yakulimbana ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda omwe angatenge matenda.

Chitani mankhwala opatsirana pogwiritsa ntchito fungicides zofooka kuti muteteze chomeracho. Ngati mukuwopa kuti mankhwala amalowa mu chipatso, mukhoza kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo.

Bacteriosis

Dzina lachiwiri la matendawa ndilo wodwala tsamba malo. Matenda ambiri omwe adayambanso adayamba chifukwa cha bowa, koma matendawa amayamba chifukwa cha mabakiteriya (Erwinia), omwe amachititsa kuti nkhaka ziwonongeke.

Bacteriosis imapezeka nyengo yozizira kwambiri (kutentha + 25-27 ˚С ndi chinyezi 80-85%). Mabakiteriya akhoza kulowa pansi ndi mbewu, dothi, kapena kubzala zinyalala. Matenda a kutalika kwakukulu amanyamula mphepo ndi tizilombo.

Ndikofunikira! Matendawa amakhudza nkhaka onse kumunda ndi wowonjezera kutentha.

Matendawa ndi owopsa kwambiri chifukwa akhoza kugunda mbewu nthawi iliyonse: kubzala mbande nthawi yomwe chipatso chimabala.

Bacteriosis imakhudza masamba, mphukira, zipatso. Ngati chomeracho chitenga kachilombo nthawi ya maluwa, ndiye kuti ovary sangathe. Kuchuluka kwa zokolola kumataya ndi 30%. Ngati simugwiritsa ntchito matendawa, mukhoza kusiya popanda kukolola.

Mng'oma Yotchedwa Angular Leaf Spot akuwonetseredwa motere:

  • mawanga achikasu osati masamba a cotyledon;
  • mdima wakuda kunja kwa pepala;
  • mapangidwe a turbid madzi kumbuyo kwa pepala;
  • zilonda za madzi pa tsinde, amawombera, zipatso;
  • Kusintha kwa chipatso.

Perekani matenda a bakiteriya Mukhoza njira zingapo.

Agrotechnical njira:

  • chiwonongeko chomera chovunda chomera;
  • kulima ndi kutembenuka kwathunthu kwa nthaka yosanjikiza;
  • kusintha kwa mbewu;
  • kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osakanizidwa ndi matenda (Cascade, Graceful, Kustovoy ndi ena).
Musamachite popanda mankhwala kuti muzichiza nkhaka. Zowonjezeka kwambiri ndi Kuproksat, Abiga-Pik ndi Fitolavin-300. Ndiponso, zotsatira zabwino zimapereka chithandizo cha baka Bordeaux madzi kapena mkuwa oxychloride.

Kupewa Matenda pogwiritsira ntchito mbewu zabwino (zophimbidwa ndi njira ya 0.02% ya zulu sulphate) kapena nkhaka mbande.

Popeza nthawi zambiri kachilombo ka HIV kamapezeka pamayambiriro oyambirira, musaiwale kukonza chitetezo cha mbeu, kudyetsa ndi zovuta feteleza. Sungani chinyezi chamadzimadzi ndipo musapewe madzi ochulukirapo m'deralo.

Rhizoctoniosis

Заболевание, вызванное несовершенным грибом Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. Zimakhudza osati nkhaka zokha, komanso mbatata, kaloti, kabichi.

Zomwe zimayambitsa bowa pa nkhaka - kutsetsereka kwa landings ndi madzi okwanira kwambiri. Pachifukwa ichi, tizilombo toyambitsa matenda timamva bwino pa chinyezi ndi kutentha kwa 3 mpaka 25˚С.

Ngati zimamera razoktoniozom odwala - mbeu zambiri zidzafa (zimachita ngati mizu zowola), zomwe zimangoswa pakati ndi kuuma.

Mu chomera chachikulu, mbali zonse za kuthengo zimakhudzidwa kupatula inflorescences. Masamba owuma, zipatso zimadzazidwa ndi "zilonda" osati kusungidwa. Zitsamba zazikulu sizidzafa ndi bowa ili, koma padzakhala zosalala zazikulu mu zokolola.

Kugonjetsedwa kwa rhizoctoniosis pa mbande zingadziwike pa khosi lachikasu chakumtunda ndi mawanga a lalanje pa masamba a cotyledon. Chomera chachikulu chimayankha matendawa mosiyana: masamba ali ndi mdima waukulu wa maonekedwe osasintha, mawanga ovutika ndi mazira ndi mdima wakuda amapangidwa pa zipatso, petioles ali ndi zilonda zam'mimba.

Tulutsani bowa ku nkhaka Zitha kukhala mankhwala kapena zamoyo. Ngati malo akuluakulu akukhudzidwa ndi matenda a fungus, ndiye kuti fungicides ayenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito, monga: Kvadris, Strobe, Metamil MC ndi Ridomil Gold MC. Izi ndizo fungicides zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi alimi ndi wamaluwa.

Chithandizo cha tizilombo pogwiritsa ntchito mabakiteriya ndi nkhupakupa zomwe zimadya causative agent of rhizoctoniosis: Trichodermin, Planriz ndi Baktofit. Pali mankhwala m'madera ang'onoang'ono, ndipo kuchipatala kumafunika pakapita kanthawi. Mankhwalawa samapweteka anthu kapena zomera, choncho ndi njira yabwino.

Kuti pewani maonekedwe matenda a fungal, muyenera kutsatira malamulo awa:

  • onetsetsani kayendedwe ka mbeu;
  • kuyang'anitsitsa chinyezi cha mlengalenga ndi nthaka (makamaka nyengo zotentha);
  • mulch ndi filimu kapena zipangizo zina;
  • kuwononga namsongole ndi kuyeretsa dera lanu kuchokera ku zitsalira zowola;
  • kumasula nthaka mnthawi yake.

Mosaic

Matendawa amayamba chifukwa cha kachilomboka. Pa chomera zithunzi zamagetsi zikuwonetseredwa monga masamba a makwinya, maonekedwe a mdima wandiweyani kapena mawanga oyera. Masamba amakhala amitundu yokongola, ndipo m'mphepete mwawo muli atakulungidwa. Kuwonjezera pa masamba, zipatso za nkhaka zimakhudzidwa (zophimbidwa ndi mawanga oyera) ndi tsinde (ming'alu ndi ming'alu).

Vutoli ndi loopsya mmenemo, mpaka likadziwika, malo akuluakulu a landings angakhudzidwe. Chomera chodwala chimataya kukula, ndipo zokolola zimakhala zochepa.

Vutoli limatengedwera limodzi ndi malo omwe ali ndi kachirombo ka HIV. Nkhuka zitha kugwa palimodzi panthawi yodzala, ndi mu kukula konse ndi zipatso za ovary.

Mpata wa matendawa umapangitsa chilonda ndi kuwonongeka kwa thupi la pamwamba la nkhaka. Ndikofunika kumvetsetsa kuti kachilombo kameneka kangalowe m'malo opangira zomera. Komanso, tizilombo toyambitsa matenda timatha kuwononga tchire lalikulu.

Ndikofunikira! Madzi, mizu, masamba, zipatso ndi mphukira za zomera zomwe zakhudzidwa ndi omwe amanyamula kachilombo ka HIV, choncho amatenthedwa kunja kwa malowa, ndipo zipangizo zonse zomwe zakhudzana ndi chikhalidwe cha matenda zimatetezedwa mosalekeza..

Mosaicita zimakhudza zomera mosasamala kanthuKomabe, kutentha kwakukulu ndi kutentha kwa mpweya kuchokera ku +25 ˚С ndipamwamba kumapanga zinthu zabwino kwambiri za HIV.

Mazira a Mose sachiritsidwaChoncho, zomera zomwe zakhudzidwa zimayenera kutayidwa mwamsanga. Mwamwayi, mitundu yambiri ya nkhaka yomwe imagonjetsedwa ndi matendawa (Zozulya, Lord, Arina, Verenta) yadwala.

Akuyenera kuchita chitetezo chotsutsana ndi mavairasi, ndi:

  • kuyeretsa namsongole kuchokera pa webusaiti;
  • kusokoneza zipangizo;
  • Mankhwala opangira mbeu ndi potaziyamu permanganate;
  • chiwonongeko cha anthu ogwira ntchito yotenga matendawa.
Podziwa kuti kachilombo ka HIV kamatha kukhala pansi, pansi pake pafupi ndi chitsamba chokhudzidwayo amakumbidwa ndi kutayidwa. Makina ophera tizilombo toyambitsa matenda a greenhouses ndi greenhouses.

Maolivi akuwoneka

Cladosporium cucumerinum Ellis Arthur amayambitsa nkhaka za azitona, choncho matendawa amatchulidwa kutipalm sporosis".

Matendawa pamtengowo amadziwonetsera ngati mawanga a maolivi. Nthaŵi zambiri mawanga amawoneka pa zipatso. Patapita nthawi, madontho amapanga mawanga, kenako mazira amdima amauma. Pambuyo pochiritsidwa, mawanga amakhala ndi filimu yoyera.

Matendawa ndi owopsa chifukwa amachepetsa kukula kwa mbeu yonse, amawononga zipatso ndipo amalepheretsa kukula. Zowonongeka kwathunthu, nkhaka za nkhaka zimawuma.

Nkhumba zimayambitsa nkhaka pamtambo wambiri komanso kutentha. Zinthu zoterezi zingapangidwe mu wowonjezera kutentha ndi kutentha kwakukulu.

Kutenga nkhaka kumachitika m'nthaka. Nthawi zambiri, bowa pamwambawinters pazovunda za zomera ndi namsongole. Tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda.

Chithandizo chochiza Njira ziwiri zowonjezereka komanso zowopsa. Njira zamakono zochiritsira zikuphatikizapo kupopera mbewu pa tchire ndi ayodini kloride yankho kapena seramu ndi madzi (1 mpaka 10).

Kulimbana ndi maolivi ndiwothandiza kwambiri mankhwala.

  1. Kupopera mankhwala 1% ya Bordeaux madzi.
  2. Kuthamanga ndi sulufule dioxide kwa masiku awiri. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito m'malo obiriwira.
Ndiponso matendawa amaletsedwa, ngati mupanga feteleza m'nthawi yake, yeretsani nthaka kuchokera ku zitsamba zowonongeka ndi kuthirapo greenhouses ndi greenhouses. Ndikofunika kuyang'ana kuzungulira mbeu ndikuyang'ana chinyezi cha mlengalenga.

Mukudziwa? Kuchokera kumbali ya botani, chipatso cha nkhaka ndi dzungu, ndiko kuti, ndi chipatso, koma kuchokera pakukaphika, nkhaka ndi masamba.
Tsopano mukhoza kuzindikira matendawa ndikuchiritsa. Podziwa njira zothetsera matenda a nkhaka, mutha kuletsa kugonjetsedwa kwa mbeu ndikukolola bwino.