Kodi mungatani kuti mukhale ndi ma cyclamen okongola pawindo lanu?

Chomera chosatha cha herbaceous chomwe maluwa ake amafanana ndi gulu la agulugufe owala kwambiri ndi kukongola kwa cyclamen. Dzina lina la cyclamen ndi lopanda violet. Amachokera ku Mediterranean, amakhalanso wofala kumpoto chakum'mawa kwa Africa, Spain.

Cyclamen ili ndi maluwa oyambirira ndi mtundu waukulu kwambiri. Pali mtundu wofiira, wofiirira, wofiira, wofiira ndi burgundy. Ndipo chomwe chiri chabwino kwambiri, maluwa imatha mpaka miyezi 3.5.

Mazira a Alpine amamasula kuchokera ku theka lachiwiri la October mpaka kumapeto kwa March. Cyclamen - chomera si chokongola kwambiri, koma ena ali ndi zosiyana. Ndipotu, ngati mutatsatira malingaliro ena, mavuto ndi duwa sadzawuka.

Momwe mungasankhire cyclamen yoyenera mu sitolo

Kuwona mdulidwe wa maluwa kubalalika kwa maluwa okongola okongola, n'zovuta kukana kugula. Malingana ndi malamulo, kusankha maluwa osadalira sikumangodalira kokha mtundu wa inflorescences, nkoyenera kulabadira mbali zina za mbeu. Ndondomekoyi imasankha kuyendera malo a mizu, yomwe ikuwoneka mu dzenje lakuya la mphika. Ndikofunika kuti mizu ili bwino komanso kuti palibe zowola.

Phokoso la maluwa siliyenera kukhala ndi masamba a chikasu ndipo ndibwino kuti pali masamba ambirimbiri osadziwika. Kukula kwa tuber kuli bwino. Masamba a chomera ayenera kukhala okhwimitsa, sipangakhale padzakhala mapesi ovunda kapena mphukira zawo mu mphika.

Cyclamen amasamalira nthawi ya maluwa

Kusamalira cyclamen kunyumba kumatanthauza chisamaliro posankha malo a phokoso la maluwa, kutentha kwa kutentha, kuthirira bwino, panthawi yake kudyetsa ndi kuyang'ana chofunikira chinyezi chomera.

Kusankha malo ndi kuunikira

Cyclamen amakonda kuwala. Iyenera kuyika pazenera pazenera, zomwe sizikulowa dzuwa, koma ndi masana ambiri. Kawirikawiri malo abwino kwambiri a cyclamen ndiwindo la kumpoto kwa nyumbayo.

Kutentha ndi chinyezi

Cyclamen pa nthawi ya maluwa ayenera kukhala ozizira. Adzakhala otentha kwambiri + 12-15 ° C. Ndizoipa ngati kutentha kumatsika pansi pa madigiri 10 kapena kumadutsa madigiri 20.

Kukula bwino ndi kukhala bwino kwa duwa, mlengalenga pozungulira iyo iyenera kukhala yosasunthika. Izi zidzathandiza kupopera kwapadera. Koma m'pofunika kuonetsetsa kuti chinyezichi sichigwera pamtunda wokha.

Kuthirira ndi kudyetsa nthaka

Kwa zomerazo zinali zabwino panthawi yamaluwa, ziyenera kuthiriridwa nthawi zonse. Pamene kuthirira madzi sikuyenera kugwera pazomera za mphukira za corm, pambali ndi maluwa a chomeracho. Njira zabwino zothirira - pafupi ndi m'mphepete mwa mphika, kapena kutsanulira madzi mu poto. Pa nthawi iliyonse m'moyo wa chomera, nkofunika kuti musapitirire dothi.

Kudyetsa cyclamen mu maluwa kumapangidwa milungu iwiri iliyonse. Pa izi, feteleza zamchere zimagwiritsidwa ntchito. Kuti mupange feteleza, mukhoza kukonza feteleza ya phosphate-potaziyamu: kutenga 1 g ya superphosphate ndi 0,5 g wa potaziyamu sulphate kwa 1 l madzi.

Cyclamen chisamaliro panthawi yopumula

Mitengo yambiri ikukula ndikukula m'chilimwe, perekani maluwa ndi zipatso. Koma pa cyclamen, chomerachi chimamera m'nyengo yozizira. Kusamalira cyclamen m'nyengo yozizira ndi kofunika kwambiri monga kusiya nthawi yamaluwa. Kulondola kwa chisamaliro pa nthawi yonseyi kudzawona mmene duwa lidzasinthire panthawi yomwe yatha.

Ndikofunikira! Amakhulupirira kuti ngati panthawi yachisangalalo yopuma mbewu ikupitirirabe pachimake, ndiye kuti iyenera kupuma pantchito - ndiko kuti, sungani masamba ndi masamba. Koma chochitika choterocho sichikutsogolera ku zabwino zilizonse, mabala amaluwawa ndi odwala ndipo nthawi zambiri amafa.

Pokonzekera nthawi yonse, cyclamen ikhoza kupitiriza kupanga masamba atsopano, pamene akalewo amasanduka chikasu ndikufa. Masamba akufa ayenera kuchotsedwa. Pa nthawi imodzimodziyo, tuber imasunga zakudya zomwe zidzathera panthawi yotsatira maluwa.

Ndikofunika kutsatira malamulo a momwe mungapititsire cyclamen kunyumba panthawi yopumula. Ndizolakwika kuti cyclamen sichiyenera kuthiriridwa nthawiyi. Ngati kudyetsedwa kwa nthaka kumaloledwa, ndiyeno kuthirira mbewu zambiri, ming'alu ikhoza kuwonekera pa tuber. Ming'alu awa si owopsa, koma ngati sangamwe madzi. Ngati agona tulo lophwanyika, ming'alu yamasiku angapo idzagwedezeka.

Panthawi yopuma, kuthirira moyenera kumafunika kuteteza kuvunda kwa tuber. Manyowa a cyclamen nthawiyi sagwiritsidwa ntchito. Pofuna kupewa zowola, mukhoza kuwonjezera madontho angapo a phytosporin kumadzi panthawi ya kuthirira.

Pogwiritsa ntchito kuwala kwa chilimwe, chomerachi chiyenera kutetezedwa ku dzuwa. Kuzizira sikofunikira, koma ngati n'kotheka kuyika duwa mumthunzi wozizira, ndiye kuti kumakhala bwino kumeneko.

Nthawi yotentha imakhala kwa miyezi 2-3, kenako masamba atsopano ndi masamba amayamba kuwoneka.

Yolani Cyclamen Kujambula

Mukagula, muyenera kukhala okonzekera kufunika kokhala ndi cyclamen. Zomera za Dutch zimaperekedwa ku gawo la peat, lomwe lakonzekera kutumiza maluwa, koma siloyenera kuwonjezeka kwa nthawi yaitali.

Kubwezeretsa kumachitidwa kamodzi pachaka, maluwawo asanaphuke. Nthawi yabwino kwambiri imalingalira kuti kutha kwa August ndi September, pamene kuchepetsa kutentha kwa mpweya kuli ndi phindu pa kukula.

Pofuna kubzala, mudzafunika nthaka yowulidwa. Zikhoza kukonzedwa kuchokera ku zigawo zotsatirazi: peat, humus, mchenga ndi tsamba lapansi. Nthaka yachitsulo mu chisakanizo iyenera kukhala yoposa zonse zopangira. Chomeracho chiyenera kuchotsedwa mu mphika ndipo pang'onopang'ono kuyeretsa mizu ya peat yotsalira. Ngati njirayi ikuwonetsa cuttings ovunda, ayenera kuchotsedwa.

Musanayambe kuikanso, muyenera kudziwa potengera mphika wa cyclamen. Kukula kwa mphika kumadalira zaka za maluwa. Kwa cyclamen wa zaka 1-1.5, mphika wokhala ndi masentimita 8 amasankhidwa. Kwa zaka zitatu zam'madzi, mphika wokhala ndi masentimita 15 ndi oyenera.

Pansi pa mphika ayenera kukhala mabowo, ngati sali pachiyambi, mungathe kuzichita nokha. Pambuyo pake, pansi imayikidwa ngalande - yowonjezera dothi kapena miyala. Mothandizidwa ndi kukhetsa, mungapewe zomera zowonjezera.

Musanadzalemo cyclamen mu nthaka yatsopano, ndibwino kuti muyiike mu uvuni kwa ola limodzi. Kapena mungathe kuchita poto kapena mutenge nthaka ndi potaziyamu permanganate. Miyeso imeneyi ndi yofunika kuti chitetezo chikhale chotheka ndi matenda a fungal.

Pakukudziikitsani nokha, dothi losakaniza mu mphika silikuyenera kuti likhale tamped. Kuchokera ku chomeracho muyenera kuchotsa masamba angapo akale, omwe amathandiza kulimbikitsa thanzi la zomera.

Ndikofunikira! Chotsani masamba akale powapotoza, osati kungowang'amba.

Duwa lokha liyenera kuyikidwa mosamala pakati pa mphika watsopano, kuigwira pamalo kuti asawononge mizu. Mizu iyenera kuwongoledwa ndi kulembedwa bwino ndi dziko lapansi. Thumba lokha siliyenera kuti lidzaphimbidwa ndi dziko lapansi, liyenera kuyang'ana pang'ono pamwamba.

Pambuyo pake, nthaka imathiriridwa ndipo imaloledwa kutenga. Kenaka kuthirira kumabwerezedwa, ndipo nthaka imayikidwa ku mphika. Koma ngakhale pambuyo pa gawo ili, tuber iyenera kukhala pang'onopang'ono pansi.

Ndikofunikira! Pambuyo pa kuziyika, cyclamen sungakhoze kuberekedwa kwa milungu iwiri kapena itatu.

Njira ziwiri zoberekera cyclamen

Pali njira ziwiri zowonjezereka zowonjezera cyclamen:

  • mbewu;
  • Kusiyanitsa kwa tuber.
Pofalitsa mbewu, iyenera kuyembekezera nthawi yaitali maluwa kusiyana ndi nthawi yobereka ndi tuber. Nthawi yabwino yofesa mbewu ndi August.

Musanafese, mbewu zimatsanulidwa ndi mankhwala a shuga 5%. Mbeu zokha zomwe zimamira pansi zimatengedwa, ndipo zomwe zimabwera sizili zoyenera. Tsiku lina mbewu zimalowetsedwa mu yankho la zircon.

Mbewu imafesedwa palimodzi la nthaka ndi peat - iyo imayikidwa pamwamba ndipo mopepuka imawaza pamwamba pa gawo lochepa la nthaka. Kutentha kwa kumera kumafunika kukhala 20 ° C. Pamwamba pa dera lodzala liri ndi filimu yoonekera, yomwe nthawi zina imachotsedwa kuti ikamwe ndi kuthirira nthaka. Mbande ayenera kukwera mu masiku 30-40.

Pambuyo pa mphukira, mthunzi umachotsedwa, anyamatawo amaikidwa pamalo omwe alibe kuwala kwa dzuwa ndi kutentha kwa 15-17 ° C. Pambuyo poonekera masamba awiri kapena atatu ndikupanga tinthu tating'onoting'ono, zomera zimathamanga. Izi zimachitika kuzungulira December. Pambuyo posankha chomera pa sabata, mukhoza kudyetsa ndi feteleza maluwa mu mlingo wochepetsedwa.

Miphika imodzi, cyclamen imabzalidwa kuchokera ku mbewu mu April - May. Iwo amasamba mu miyezi 13-15 mutabzala.

Kuphatikiza pa kubereketsa mbewu, cyclamen ikhoza kugawidwa pogawaniza tuber. N'zotheka kubereka kotereku mu nthawi ya dormancy ya chomera. Anyezi amachotsedwa pansi, pang'ono zouma. Pambuyo pake, idulidwa mzidutswa zingapo. Gawo lirilonse likhale ndi mizu yamoyo ndi masamba. Mbali zonse za muzu zikukonzedwera ndi makala ophwanyika ndi zouma kachiwiri. Pafupifupi tsiku lachitatu, mbali zina za tuber zikhoza kubzalidwa pansi, aliyense m'mphika mwake.

Kubalana pogawaniza tuber sikuli bwino, pali pangozi yotaya mbewu mosavuta.

Mankhwala a cyclamen

Cyclamen ili ndi zinthu ndi kuchiritsa katundu. Zina mwa izo ndi cyclamine, saponin, zinthu zowawa.

Mukudziwa? Cyclamine ali ndi poizoni wapadera. Koma m'malo otentha, imayambira hydrolysis n'kukhala cyclamyrethine, yomwe imachiritsa.

Madzi a cyclamen ali ndi zotsatira zotsatirazi:

  • amawononga mavairasi;
  • kumathetsa zotupa njira;
  • katemera;
  • imaletsa tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda m'mimba;
  • Kuchepetsa kupweteka kwa mphuno, matenda, ziwalo za mafupa ndi mafupa.
Madzi atsopano a cyclamen bwino maxillary sinuses. Zimakonzedwa kuchokera ku mazira atsopano, omwe amathyoledwa ku dziko la mushy. Gawo 10 la madzi limaphatikizidwa ku zamkati kuchokera ku cyclamen ndipo amapulumuka kupyolera m'madzi. Mankhwalawa amatha kulowa m'mphuno, madontho 1-2. Mmodzi wosakaniza mu mawonekedwe a douching amagwiritsidwa ntchito pa matenda a amayi.

Mukudziwa? Cyclamen kwa mankhwala maphikidwe kukolola kugwa. Tubers akumba ndipo amatumizidwa kuti akonzanso. Ngati mukumba tuber nthawi ina, iye sadzakhala ndi mphamvu zochiritsira zoterozo.

Mafuta osakaniza, masamba a cyclamen amagwiritsidwanso ntchito pochiza sinusitis. Kusakaniza uku kumayambitsa kupopera ndi kulimbikitsa kumasulidwa kwa pus.

Ngati zamkati zochokera ku cyclamen zathira mowa kapena vodka ndikuumiriza masabata awiri, mumamwa mowa. Tincture yatengedwa 15-30 akutsikira katatu patsiku. Monga kuthandizira kupweteka ndi kupweteka kwa rheumatic, kupweteka pamodzi komanso kumagwiritsidwa ntchito popaka.

Kutsekemera kwapadera kumakonzedwa mwa kutsanulira supuni imodzi ya mizu ya cyclamen ndi makapu awiri a madzi otentha. M'pofunika kuvomereza kutentha pa supuni 1 mutatha chakudya. Zimaperekedwa chifukwa cha matenda okhudza kugona, kupitirira pa dongosolo la mitsempha. Kutsekemera kotentha kumatenda m'matenda a m'mimba ndi chiwindi.

Kuphatikiza ndi phindu la cyclamen kungakhale kovulaza thanzi. Zotsutsanazi zikuphatikizapo kupezeka kwa chifuwa kwa mbewu, mimba, kuyamwitsa ndi zaka zoposa 7. Mankhwala a Cyclamen amatha kungotengedwa monga momwe adanenera ndi dokotala.

Mu mawonekedwe osasinthika, cyclamen ikhoza kuyambitsa kuyaka kwa mucous nembanemba. Kuwonjezera apo kumayambitsa poizoni ndi malungo. Pa milandu yovuta, ntchito ya mtima wamtima imasokonezeka, pulmonary edema ndi bronchospasm zimawonekera.

Matenda ndi tizilombo toononga: Zochitika za chithandizo ndi chisamaliro panthawiyi

Cyclamen imakhala ndi matenda ena komanso tizilombo toyambitsa matenda. Pa nthawi yovuta imeneyi, chomeracho chimafuna chisamaliro chapadera.

Zifukwa za imfa ya cyclamen:

  • kutentha;
  • madzi;
  • kuwonongeka kwa tuber;
  • zovunda ndi masamba.
Nthaŵi zambiri, chomeracho chingapulumutsidwe ngati muwona zizindikiro za matenda nthawi ndi nthawi.

Matenda a Cyclamen ndi mankhwala awo:

  • Masamba achikasu. Matendawa amapezeka pamene zomera zimakhala pamatentha kuposa madigiri 18, ndipo mpweya uli m'chipinda chouma. Pofuna kuthana ndi kuteteza masamba a chikasu, mpweya wozungulira mbewuyo umayambitsidwa ndi kupopera madzi, ndipo zomera zimayikidwa pamalo opanda kutentha zipangizo kuti zisinthe kutentha.
  • Kuvunda kwa mapesi a masamba. Matendawa ndi ofanana ndi zomera zomwe zasungunula nthaka. Ndizowonjezeranso kuti chomera chidzavunda pamene madzi alowa pamwamba pa tuber. Polimbana ndi matendawa muyenera kupereka madzi abwino. Mphika umayikidwa pa thireyi ndi miyala yozungulira ndipo imayendetsedwa kuti miyalayi ikhale yonyowa.
  • Leaf deformation. Matendawa amapezeka chifukwa cha tizilombo toyambitsa matenda - cyclamen mite. Ndizochepa kwambiri, zofanana ndi fumbi wamba. Mite ili pansi pa tsamba la zomera. Pakubwera kwa cyclamen mite, kukula kwa zomera kumachepetsanso, m'mphepete mwa masamba atsekedwa. Mankhwalawa ndi kuchotsedwa kwa masamba omwe akukhudzidwa ndi kupopera mankhwala a cyclamen insecticide.
  • Fusarium Matenda a fungal okhudza minofu ya maluwa ndi zitsulo. Tizilombo toyambitsa matenda timalowa mu nthaka kudzera muzu. Masamba apamwamba amatembenukira chikasu, nthawi zambiri kumbali imodzi. Chomeracho sichipatsa maluwa mokwanira ndipo sawoneka bwino. Kuchiza kwazomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pansi 0,1% pa ulimi wothirira wazu ndi kupopera mbewu mankhwalawa ndi topsin-M 0.1%.
  • Bowa lakuda. Ngati chomeracho chikhala pa nsabwe za m'masamba, chimachokera ku masamba a cyclamen. Ndiye bowa amawoneka pa iwo. Kuopsa kwake kumakhala chifukwa chakuti pepala silingapeze kuwala kokwanira. Chomeracho chimachepa ndipo chimachepetsa kukula. Mankhwalawa ayenera kuchotsedwa ndi nsalu yonyowa ndipo masamba amathandizidwa ndi sopo ndi mkuwa.
  • Anthracnose. Kuwonetsedwa pa nthawi ya maluwa. Anthracnose ikuyenda bwino ndi chinyezi ndi kutentha, imakhudza masamba ndi mapesi a maluwa. Maluwa amauma, pachimake sichimachitika. Kenaka, kachilomboka kamadutsa masamba, amapotola mu chubu, masamba akale amafa. Pofuna kuthana ndi matenda a anthracnose, choyamba chofunika kuchepetsa chinyezi, kuchotsa mphukira zakuwonongeka ndikuchizira mphika katatu ngati fungicide.
  • Madzi ovunda. Izi ndi matenda a bakiteriya. Cyclamen imafota, masamba akugwa, tuber exudes ndi mafuta onunkhira. Mizu ya chomera imavunda. Matendawa amabwera kudera la masamba kapena mabala pa zimayambira, ndipo tizilombo toyambitsa matenda timatha kuchiza mbeu kudzera m'madzi. Matendawa ndi osachiritsika, ndipo chomeracho chiyenera kuwonongeka ngati chiwonongeke.