Matenda akulu ndi tizirombo ta irises, momwe tingawachotsere

Irises ndi zomera zokongola kwambiri, osadzichepetsa, komanso osakhudzidwa nazo kwambiri. Koma poyeretsa kwambiri, kuwonetsa mitundu yosiyanasiyana, kumakhala kovuta kwambiri ndi zomwe zimasungidwa ndipo zimakhala zotheka kuti zisawonongeke ndi tizilombo ndi matenda. Ngati tikukula izi, ndiye kuti tikuyenera kutsatira malamulo ofunikira zaulimi. Kuchokera m'nkhani ino mudzaphunzira zifukwa zazikulu za umphawi wathanzi, komanso njira zothandizira matenda, kuthana ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ndi njira zochizira mitundu iyi.

Mukudziwa? Anthu a Asilavo ali ndi maina awo a irises monga "pivnik" ("cockerel" mu Chiyukireniya), "kasatik" (masamba amawoneka ngati scythe), komanso "phokoso" (pambuyo pa mulungu wakale wachi Slavonic Perun).

Mmene mungagwirire ndi tizirombo irises

Chikhalidwe chachikulu cha kukula kwabwino ndi kusapezeka kwa tizirombo ku irises ndiko kusunga malamulo a agrotechnical ndi kuyang'anitsitsa kwa maluwa nthawi ya kukula.

Muzu (anyezi) mite

Zimapweteka osati irises yekha, komanso zomera zina zambiri. Tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa ali ndi thupi loyera, loyera komanso miyendo 8, lokhoza kuyika mazira 800 pa nyengo. Kuti mukhale wofulumira, kubereka mwamphamvu, muzu wa mite uyenera kukhala wothira (osachepera 60%) ndi malo otentha. Kawirikawiri zimakhudza zomera zomwe zili ndi kachilomboka. Kulowa mu mizu, imatha kukhazikika pakati pa mizu kapena pakati pa mamba. Chifukwa chaichi, mizu imayambira, ndipo masambawo amatembenukira chikasu. Mukamayambitsa kubzala, imatha.

Monga njira yogonjera, gwiritsani ntchito kukumba maluwa pakagwa, onetsetsani kuti muchotseratu ma rhizomes omwe sanagwidwe ndi irises odwala, yang'anani masiku odzala. Ndibwino kuti maluwa awa asankhe malo pafupi ndi karoti. Malo osungirako mabakiteriya ayenera kutetezedwa ndi tizilombo toyambitsa sulfure, ndipo mababuwo ayenera kuyidwa pa ~ 36 ° C ndipo amatsanulira ndi choko (20 g pa 1 makilogalamu). Musanabzala, gwiritsani ntchito nkhupukuta kuti mugwire mababu.

Pa kukula kwa nyengo, chithandizo cha irises kuchokera ku tizirombo timaphatikizapo kupopera mbewu mankhwalawa ndi yankho la 0.1% Rogora, 0.2% Trichlormetaphos, 0.2-0.3% Karbofos, kapena kuthirira 0,2% Keltan, Rogor "ndi" Chlorofos ". Amaloledwanso kuthirira nthaka ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda.

Mankhwala a anyezi

Ichi ndi tizilombo toopsya osati irises yekha, komanso mbewu zambiri zamasamba. Nyongolotsi yoyera iyi 1.5mm imapangitsa mbewu ndi mbewu kubzala, zimatha kupulumuka zaka zambiri za chilala, koma zimakhala ndi malo ozizira kwambiri operekera misala. Mankhwalawa amadyetsa madzi a iris, amalepheretsa kukula kwawo, zomwe zimayambitsa kupanga maluwa opotoka ndi kutupa.

Monga molimbana ndi mizu ya mite, m'pofunika kuzimitsa yosungirako ndi kuuma anyezi. Pakuti chodzala mutenge malo pafupi ndi karoti. Kugwiritsira ntchito percalcite kudzawononga mazira ndi mphutsi za nematodes. Tiyeneranso kuthirira madzi ndi ammonia mankhwala ndi urea.

Ndikofunikira! Musabzale iris pamalo omwewo kwa zaka zingapo. Pakati yosungirako, chinyezi sichiyenera kupitirira 70%.

Mungapeze kachilomboka

Mphutsi za cockchafer akhala akukhala pansi kwa zaka zingapo. Iwo amakola mizu ya irises. Zabwino zonse zimathandiza kupanga makina osokoneza pang'onopang'ono kukumba. Ndipo popeza zimapezeka mu manyowa, musanamere feteleza, ndi bwino kupeta ndi kuchotsa mphutsi zonse. Nkhondoyi imagwiritsanso ntchito misampha yowala komanso kutulutsa ammonia anhydrous.

Medvedka

Medvedka ali ndi mapaundi awiri a mapiko, kutsogolo kukumba mapazi ndi nsagwada zamphamvu. Amagunda mizu ndi zimayambira. Zoopsa kwambiri kwa irises bearded. Pofuna kuteteza chimbalangondo, gwirani mozama mu nthaka, gwiritsani ntchito misampha. Pakatikatikatikati, khala slate, plywood, ndi zina zotero pa chiwembu. Tizilombo tizakwala pansi pawo, ndipo muyenera kuyang'ana misampha ndikuwononga tizirombo. Kapena muziyika milu yaing'ono, pomwe mitu idzaika mazira, ndipo mutha kusonkhanitsa tizilombo.

M'dzinja, koperani mabowo ambirimbiri ndikudzaza ndi manyowa. Medvedka amakafika kumeneko m'nyengo yozizira. Ndipo mwamsanga pamene chisanu chibwera, manyowa ayenera kuponyedwa kunja kwa maenje. Izi zidzatsogolera ku imfa ya tizilombo. Kugwiritsira ntchito misampha yamadzi ndi kotheka. Kuti muchite izi, lembani mitsukoyo ndi madzi, koma osati mpaka mapeto, koma ndi ndondomeko ya masentimita 10 ndi kuzimba pansi. Nthawi zambiri muyang'ane mumsampha ndikuwononge tizilombo tinazigwira kumeneko.

Zima zozizira

Nthawi zambiri zimapweteka pa dothi lonyowa. Chifukwa cha ntchito yake, zimayambira, masambawo amatembenukira chikasu ndipo amatha. Kuphatikiza apo, mbozi zimatha kuwononga mizu, yomwe imakhala yovuta mosavuta ndi matenda. Kugonjetsedwa ndi mapesi a mapesi kumalo otseguka pamtunda kudzaonekera.

Kuti awononge ziphuphu, kukumba mozama ndipo nthaŵi zonse kumasula nthaka. Kumayambiriro kwa nyengo yokula, fufuzani ndi 10% yothetsera Karbofos ndikubwezeretsanso ndondomeko pambuyo pa sabata.

Wireworm

Wireworm imatchedwa larva ya kachilomboka kakang'ono. Ili ndi chikasu ndipo ikhoza kukhala m'nthaka kwa zaka 3-4. Tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa timakhala m'midzi, pali mabakiteriya, bowa, ndi nthawi yambiri, imayambitsa matenda a irises, omwe amatha ngakhale kufa kwa mbewu.

Namsongole monga wheatgrass ndi kufesa nthula ndizo chakudya chake chachikulu, motero, tiyenera kumvetsera nthawi yocheka ndi kutulutsa nthaka. Ndiponso, waya imakonda nthaka ya acidic, choncho ndi bwino kupanga choyo, phulusa, choko kapena ufa wa dolomite. Ndipo ngati mupanga ammonium nitrate kapena ammonium sulphate, zimathandiza kuchepetsa chiwerengero cha mphutsi.

Slugs

Kuwonongeka osati irises yekha, komanso mbewu zina zamaluwa ndi masamba. Pezani mabowo oblong pa masamba, ndipo nthawi zina maluwa a zomera. Amakhalanso owopsa chifukwa amalekerera bacteriosis. Masamba a siliva atsala pa masamba.

Kukhazikitsa misampha ya zikhomo ndi zida zowonongeka kudzakuthandizani kugwira ndi kuwononga slugs. Madzulo kapena m'mawa, mu nyengo youma ndi yotentha, amabalalitsa granulated metaldehyde pakati pa irises kapena kugwiritsa ntchito fodya fumbi ndi hydrated laimu. Nthaka yozungulira chomera chodzaza ndi superphosphate idzawopseza iwo. Kupewa ndiko kuchotsa namsongole.

Nyerere ya Aphid

Tizilomboti timene timakhala pamasamba, mphukira zazing'ono ndi masamba, tili ndi mtundu wakuda kapena wobiriwira. Amadyetsa zomera, ndipo chifukwa chake mphukirazo ndizopunduka, ndipo masambawo amamasulidwa ndi kupotoka.

Nthaŵi zonse phosphorous-potaziyamu imathandizira ndi kupalira mbeu zimagwiritsidwa ntchito monga njira zowonetsera. Ngati nsabwe za m'masamba sizikhala ndi nthawi yochulukitsa, zimachotsedwa pamanja, ndipo zikadwala kwambiri, zimagwiritsa ntchito tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, ndikuzisinthasintha masiku khumi ndi awiri.

Ndikofunikira! Njira yabwino yothetsera matenda a irises kumapeto kwa matenda ndi manganese yankho. Disinfection yoteroyo iyenera kukhala mphindi 20.

Kupuma

Thrips - osadziwika, ochepa, mpaka 1 mm, tizilombo. Pali wakuda, imvi, bulauni, ndi mphutsi - otumbululuka chikasu, chobiriwira ndi imvi. Amagwiritsa ntchito kuyamwa kwapadera, chifukwa cha masamba omwe amawotukulidwa ndi opunduka, ndipo mphutsi yowonongeka ili ndi mawanga ofiira. Kawirikawiri kubisala mumphuno ndi masamba omwe amathira masamba.

Pofuna kuteteza ndi kuchepetsa, dulani nthaka, chotsani namsongole ndi madzi madzi omwe amawotcha ndi nyengo yozizira. Ngati mankhwala ambiri ali ndi thrips, chitani zomera mmasiku 7-10 ndi organophosphate njira.

Matenda aakulu a irises, mankhwala awo

Irises ndi otsutsana kwambiri kuposa ena osatha, koma akadali okhudzidwa ndi mavairasi, ndi fungal, ndi mabakiteriya. Kenaka, timaganizira za matenda akuluakulu a irises ndi njira zothetsera iwo.

Alternaria

Izi ndi vutolo la fungalomu, momwe mdima wakuda umapanga pamphepete mwa masamba a masamba, ndiyeno amauma ndi kugwa. Chomerachi chiyenera kuchotsedwa, chifukwa matendawa amatha kukhala pansi. Gwiritsani ntchito kupopera mankhwala kwa Bordeaux kusakanikirana musanafike maluwa (kapena ofanana nawo) ngati mankhwala.

Ascohitosis

Ascochitis, yomwe imatchedwanso malo otchedwa tsamba la mushroom, imatsogolera ku mawonekedwe a madzi ofiira a mtundu wozungulira, womwe uli pamphepete mwake. Ngati matendawa akufalikira, masamba omwe amawidwawo amauma msanga. Panthawi ya chithandizo, ayenera kukumbukira kuti matendawa amatha kukhala ponse m'nthaka komanso m'minda yotsalira. Kulimbana kumagwiritsira ntchito mankhwala ndi mkuwa, monga Bordeaux osakaniza kapena m'malo mwake, musanakhale maluwa.

Kupuma kwapadera

Heterosporia, kapena tsamba lodziwika, limatsegulidwa kuyambira pakati pa mwezi wa July ndipo zimakhala bwino ngati nyengo imakhala yofunda komanso yozizira. Kugonjetsa kumayambira pa masamba okwera kwambiri, okalamba. Malo amtundu wonyezimira amadziwika ndipo amakula. Patapita nthawi, masamba onse akunja amauma, ndipo matendawa amalowa mkati. Ndikofunika kwambiri kuti matendawa athetsedwe nthawi zonse. Mukhozanso kugwiritsa ntchito fungicides ndi mkuwa ndi zinki.

Mosaic

Mayi irises nthawi zambiri amadwala aphid. Zikuwoneka mikwingwirima yaying'ono ndi mawanga owongola pa masamba. Popeza kuti njira zothandiza zogwiritsira ntchito zojambulajambula sizinapezeke, pamafunika kuyesetsa kutenga njira zothandizira. Zikuphatikizapo: njira zoyenera zaulimi, kuchepetsa nsabwe za m'masamba ndi tizilombo tina tiyamwa timathandizidwe ndi mankhwala, kuwonongeka kumeneku kwa zizindikiro za matenda.

Kupatula

Monga njira yothetsera mitundu yonse ya mabala, kupopera mbewu maluwa ndi 1% Bordeaux osakaniza amagwiritsidwa ntchito.

Mukudziwa? Mawu akuti "Iris" amatembenuzidwa kuchokera ku Chigriki monga "utawaleza", chifukwa duwa limatchulidwa ndi mulungu wamkazi wachigiriki wakale Iris, amene adatsikira padziko lapansi ndi utawaleza.

Kutupa

Ndi nthenda yotere ya irises, ngati dzimbiri, masamba ofiira amaoneka pamasamba, omwe amawombera nsaluyo, ndipo pakapita nthawi masamba amauma, amawombera ndi kufa. Zimayambira ndizopunduka. Spores akhoza kupitilira mu nthaka ndi kubzala zinyalala.

Muyeneranso kutsatira chikhalidwe (imbani iris kachiwiri kumalo omwewo pambuyo pa zaka 3-4), dulani dothi, liwononge masamba onse omwe ali ndi kachilombo kaye ndikupatsanso mankhwalawo ndi sulufule (kubwereza milungu iwiri iliyonse kuti zizindikiro za matenda ziwonongeke).

Madzi ovunda (bacteriosis)

Mvula yowawa kapena yofewa ndi matenda a bakiteriya omwe angadziwike kumayambiriro kwa kasupe, ngati mumvetsera mabala a bulauni pa masamba otsala. Iwo amayamba kukula bulauni kuchokera kumalekezero ndipo potsiriza amauma. Pansi pa mapesi kununkhiza. Mbali ya mkati ya rhizomes yokhudzidwayo ikuwoneka ngati mzungu woyera ndi mafuta onunkhira.

Ndikofunikira! Matendawa amafalikira chifukwa cha chinyezi chachikulu ndi kubzala, kufikitsa kwa rhizomes ndi kukhazikitsa manyowa atsopano. Kupanda calcium ndi phosphorous, kuphatikizapo nayitrogeni, zimayambitsa matenda a bacteriosis.

Mitundu yomwe imakhudzidwayo iyenera kuchotsedwa ndi mpeni ndi kudulidwa ndi potaziyamu permanganate. Kwa kuswana, gwiritsani ntchito zakuthupi zokha. Chotsani masamba omwe ali ndi kachilomboka pa tsamba ndikuwononga, ndipo mu kugwa, musonkhanitse ndi kuchotsa zitsamba zonse za zomera.

Grey kuvunda

Zikuwoneka chifukwa cha mitundu iwiri ya bowa. Yoyamba imayikidwa pamwamba pa chinyezi ndipo imachita kumapeto kwa masamba ndi zimayambira. Pamapeto pake, masambawa amakhala ndi maluwa. Yachiwiri imayambitsa zowola zowopsa.

Pofuna kuteteza matendawa kuti asawononge irises, tiwatseni panthaka, mugwiritseni ntchito zowonongeka, mutenge mwamsanga zowonongeka ndipo musaiwale kusonkhanitsa ndi kutentha zatsalira zonse.

Zowola zowuma (Fusarium)

Zowola zowola zimafalikira ku mizu, kumene, kukula, kuphimba ziwiya za zomera. Rhizomes zouma. Pa nyengo yokula imakhala yooneka mofulumira maluwa ndi masamba. Mitengo yakufa imayenera kuchotsedwa pa webusaitiyi, ndipo malo awo akukula amathandizidwa ndi mkuwa oxychloride. Kutaya irises wathanzi ndi fungicide.

Njira zopewera matenda ndi tizirombo

Monga momwe mukuonera, chitetezo chabwino pa matenda aliwonse ndi tizirombo zizitsatira malamulo a ulimi wamakono, feteleza yoyenera komanso yanthaŵi yake, kuthirira, kukumba nthaka, kuchotsa namsongole, ndikusankha udzu wokwezeka kwambiri ndikukonzekera njira zapadera ngati pakufunikira.

Tikukhulupirira kuti nkhaniyi yokhudzana ndi tizirombo, matenda a irises ndi chithandizo chawo chinakuthandizani. Samalani ndi mitunduyi ndipo musamalire bwino, ndipo mufunikira kokha mfundo zomwe zimaperekedwa ngati njira yothandizira.