Mbali za kubzala tomato potseguka pansi

Osati munda aliyense amasankha pa kulima tomato. Ambiri mwina sangathe kuika malo otsekemera pa malowa, kapena alibe nthawi yokwanira yokwanira yovutitsa mbewu kumera, kukula mbande, kusamalira zomera zakulirapo.

Kukula mbande za phwetekere kuti mutsegule ndi njira yofunikira chifukwa imakupatsani inu tomato wathanzi ndikupeza zokolola zambiri. Nkhaniyi idzafotokoza mwatsatanetsatane za chochitika ichi. Timafotokozanso mbali za kukula mbande za tomato.

Kuipa ndi ubwino

Zina mwazovuta za kukula mbande ndi izi:

  • nthawi ndi khama;
  • Kulephera kukula m'mabuku akulu chifukwa cha kusowa kwa malo komanso kuunika kwakukulu;
  • Mbande zikhoza kukula ndi kudwala - izo sizingapereke zokolola zabwino.

Komabe, njirayi ili ndi ubwino wake:

  • agronomist adzakayikira kuti mbewu zimakula popanda kuwonjezera mankhwala;
  • Ngati mungathe kukula mbande molondola, mukhoza kupeza zokolola zambiri.

Kodi kudziwa nthawi kufesa tomato?

Kawirikawiri tomato amafesedwa masiku 55-65 asanadzalemo poyera. Zinyama zikuoneka mofulumira - kwenikweni mu sabata. Choncho, mbande idzakhala m'nyumba mkati mwa mwezi ndi theka.

Ngati agronomist amasunga mbande mu chipinda kwa nthawi yayitali, ingakhudze chitukuko cha tomato: kukula kwa chitsamba kudzachedwa, zomwe zidzathe kuchepetsa zokolola.

Nthawi yeniyeni yobzala mbande:

  • kum'mwera kwa dziko - kuyambira zaka khumi ndi zitatu za February mpaka pakati pa March;
  • m'chigawo chapakati cha Russia - kuchokera pa March 15 mpaka kumayambiriro kwa April;
  • kumpoto mbali za Russian Federation (Siberia, Urals) - kuyambira pachiyambi mpaka pakati pa April.

Kuti mudziwe nthawi yoyenera kubzala tomato m'dera lanu, muyenera kudziwa tsiku lomaliza la chisanu. Kuchokera pa chithunzi ichi muyenera kutenga masiku 55-65.

Ngati wolima akukonzekera kusuntha mbande osati kutseguka, koma mu wowonjezera kutentha, ndiye kufesa kumayamba masabata 2-3 kale.

Kukonzekera kwa dothi

Nthaka yobzala mbewu ndi yabwino kugula yokonzekera mu shopu la maluwa - ndi yabwino kwambiri. Komabe, ngati mlimiyo atatenga munda kuchokera kumunda wamunda, amafunika kuti asaphedwe kake kuti mbeu zisamwalire. Nazi mitundu ikuluikulu yolima:

  • Kuwotcha mu uvuni kwa kotala la ora. Chophikacho chiyenera kutenthedwa mpaka madigiri 180-200.
  • Kuwotcha mu microwave (mphamvu iyenera kuikidwa pa 850).
  • Kusamba madzi otentha. Kuti muchite izi, ikani nthaka mu chidebe ndi mabowo pansi ndikuyiyeretsa ndi madzi otentha. Pambuyo pake, madzi ayenera kukhetsa kwathunthu ndipo dothi liyenera kuuma.
  • Kutsekula m'mimba ndi njira yowonjezera ya potaziyamu permanganate. Njira yogwiritsira ntchito ndi yofanana ndi madzi otentha.

Mungagwiritse ntchito njira zingapo panthawi imodzi kuti mutenge madalitso ochuluka.

Mwamsanga mutatha kukonza nthaka sitingagwiritsidwe ntchito. Nthaka iyenera kuthiriridwa ndi madzi wamba ndipo imakhala yotentha kwa madigiri 8 mpaka masabata awiri. Choncho, mabakiteriya opindulitsa adzakula mu gawo lapansi.

Kukonzekera mbewu ndi kubzala

Musanafese, m'pofunika kuyendetsa osati nthaka yokha, komanso mbewu.

Kuchotsa matenda omwe alipo pakabzala zakuthupi, mungagwiritse ntchito njira imodzi zotsatirazi:

  • Potaziyamu permanganate yankho - 1 g ya mankhwalayo akuyeretsedwa mu 0,1 lita imodzi ya madzi oyera. Mu njira yothetsera, yikani nsalu iliyonse yachilengedwe ndikuyika mbewu kumeneko kwa theka la ola limodzi. Nthawi yowonjezera sayenera kuwonjezeka, chifukwa izi zingachititse kuchepa kwa mbeu kumera.
  • Soda yankho. 0,5 g wa koloko imasungunuka mu 0,1 lita imodzi ya madzi. Mu tincture iyi kusunga mbewu kwa tsiku. Kugwiritsidwa ntchito koteroko kumangolepheretsa mbewu, komanso kumachepetsa nthawi yoberekera.
  • Tincture pa madzi aloe. Sakanizani ndi madzi mu chiwerengero cha 1: 1. Kulimbana ndi mbewu kumafunika maola 12-24. Tomato oterewa ali ndi chitetezo chokwanira, mkulu wa zokolola komanso khalidwe lonse la tomato.
  • Phytosporin yankho - Chifukwa cha ichi, dontho limodzi la mankhwala lidasinthidwa mu madzi okwanira 0,1. Mbewu iyenera kukhala yothetsera maola angapo okha.

Mu chidebe chodzala (chingakhale chikho cha peat kapena mapulasitiki onse) kutsanulira nthaka yokonzeka. Kenaka mu nthaka mizere imapangidwira akuya masentimita imodzi. Mtunda pakati pa mizere iyenera kukhala pafupifupi masentimita 3-4.. Kuchokera kumbewu imayenera 1-2 cm ndi zina zambiri.

Pakati pa mbeu, nthawi yochulukirapo yochulukirapo mbeu. Pambuyo pake, mbewuzo zimawazidwa ndi dothi lochepa. Ndiyeno mbewuzo zimadzazidwa ndi filimu kapena galasi.

Kuthamanga kwafupipafupi

Nthaka ya dothi iyenera kuyendetsedwa tsiku ndi tsiku.. Ngati gawolo liri louma, liyenera kuthiriridwa, koma izi zikhoza kuchitidwa ndi botolo lopopera. Apo ayi, mbewu ikhoza kusambitsidwa. Ngati mvula imatha, ndipo nthaka imakhala yonyowa kwa nthawi yaitali, muyenera kutsegula filimuyi kwa kanthawi ndikudikirira mpaka dziko lapansi liume.

Zimakhala kuti chinyezi chochulukira chingayambitse kapangidwe ka nkhungu. Choncho, muyenera kuchotsa maonekedwe a nkhungu pokhapokha, kenako pangani nthaka ndi njira yothetsera potassium permanganate kapena anttifungal agent (mwachitsanzo, Readzole kapena Fitosporin).

Mbewu zikangowonjezera pang'ono, ndipo filimuyo yatha, muyenera kuonjezera kamwedwe kake ka kuthirira, monga mbande yomwe ikukula imakula mwamsanga. Ndi bwino kuthirira mbande m'mawa uliwonse dzuwa lisanatuluke.kuti musapange kutumphuka.

Kutentha kwa nyengo pa kulima

Kuti mbewu zikule, ziyenera kusungidwa kutentha kwa madigiri 25-30 pamwamba pa zero. Mphukira yoyamba idzaonekera masiku angapo - panthawi imeneyi, kutentha kumayenera kusungidwa pa madigiri 23-27 Celsius. Patatha sabata, kutentha kumadutsa madigiri 20-22. Ndipo patadutsa masiku asanu ndi awiri ndi masiku ena onse, mbande ziyenera kukula mumlengalenga, kutentha kwa 12-15 madigiri.

Kusankha

Mabala oyambirira a masamba a mbande amapezeka kale pa tsiku 10 pambuyo pa kumera. Ngati nyembazo zimabzalidwa kwambiri, panthawiyi ziyenera kuyala mbewu mmagawo osiyana. Tomato amaloledwa kukhala pansi, komabe, ziyenera kuchitidwa mosamala kwambiri.

Tumizani mbande ku mphika ndi dothi la nthaka pa mizu. Palibe chifukwa chotsitsa mizu, chifukwa pambuyo pake mbeu zimatha kufa.

Mitsempha yoyamba kuika ayenera kukhala pafupifupi 0,2 malita. Pambuyo pa masiku 15-20 mutangoyamba kubzala, muyenera kusintha miphika kwa zikuluzikulu. Mapulogalamu abwino - mphika umodzi wokha potsamba.

Timapereka kuwonera kanema momwe tingasankhire bwino kusankha phwetekere mbande:

Feteleza mutatha kusankha

Atangothamanga tomato, chovala chapamwamba chiyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito pansi.. Kenaka amapangidwa masiku asanu ndi awiri. Nthawi zambiri sikoyenera, chifukwa njira yotere ikhoza kutsogolera matenda opatsirana. Oyenera kwambiri feteleza ndi organic - manyowa kapena zitosi. Ngati mumasankha pakati pa njira zogula, ndi bwino kupatsa zokonda zida zochokera ku guano kapena biohumus.

Tikupereka kuwonera kanema ponena za ntchito ya feteleza mutatha kutenga mbande za phwetekere:

Kuunikira

Popanda kuunikira bwino sikutheka kukula mbande zabwino. Choncho, mwamsanga pamene mphukira yoyamba ionekera, zitsulozi ziyenera kuikidwa pamalo abwino. Ngati ndondomekoyi idzachitika mu February-March, kuunika kwachilengedwe sikudzakwanire, choncho muyenera kugwiritsa ntchito phytolamps. Ngati palibe, mungagwiritse ntchito mapulogalamu amodzi.

Agronomists omwe akumana nawo akuyamikira kupereka maola ozungulira maola awiri kapena atatu atabzala mbewu. M'tsogolomu, muyenera kutsatira maola 16.

Kulemetsa

Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti Kulephera kwa njira yovuta kumayambitsa kufota ndi kufa kwa chomera chodzala.

Kuwopsya kuyenera kuchitika masiku 10-15 asanapite kumalo osatha. Muyenera kuyamba ndi nthawi yochepa - pafupifupi theka la ora. Pofika nthawi yobzala tomato kutaya nthawi ayenera kufika 10-12 maola.

Ndondomekoyi idzakuthandizani kuti musamangopewera chitetezo cha tomato, komanso kukoma kwawo. Kuwonjezera apo wovuta tomato akhoza kukhala pa sitepala yoyamba yoyamba yophukira chisanu.

Timapereka kuwonera kanema pa momwe mungamve bwino phwetekere mbande:

Malangizo Akubwera

Kenaka, ndikuuzeni momwe mungamere bwino tomato mbande. Mtunda pakati pa mizere ya tomato yotseguka ayenera kukhala pafupifupi 30-40 centimita. Koposa zonse, musanabzala, muyenera kuwonjezera peat ku nthaka (chabwino, ngati dothi lakuda) (lingasinthidwe ndi nthaka yamtengo wapatali).

Pofuna kubzala mbande, muyenera kusankha mitambo, yozizira, yopanda mphepo. Zomera zimabzala akuya masentimita angapo. Pambuyo pa masiku 2-3, mizu yowonjezera idzawoneka pa mizu, ndiye mizu idzalimba ndi kukhala wamphamvu kwambiri. Pali njira ina yopezera.

Simungathe kugwedeza mizu ya dothi, ndikubzala pamodzi panja. Kenaka dzenje limakonzedwera mmera, zomwe zimakhala zochepa pang'ono kuposa kukula kwa mizu yokha ndi nthaka.

Timapereka kuwonera kanema pa momwe mungamere bwino mbewu ya tomato:

Kutsiliza

Kukula mbande ya phwetekere kunyumba sikophweka. Koma nkofunikira ngati agronomist akufuna kupeza zokolola zabwino.