Malangizo apamwamba pa kusamalira kunja

Calla wakhala akukopa mtundu wosadziwika wa inflorescence, maonekedwe ochititsa chidwi ndi kununkhira kwakukulu. Koma alimi a maluwa amawakonda chifukwa chakuti duwa likhoza kukula mosavuta m'munda ndi poto kunyumba. Mmodzi mwazifukwazi, calla ndi chomera chodzichepetsa.

Kubzala Calla m'munda wa masika

Kudyetsa calla pamalo otseguka kumachitika kasupe kokha. Kudyetsa kwadzukulu kumapangitsa wintering pansi, ndipo mizu ya chomera silingalekerere izi.

Mukudziwa? Calla ndi wa zomera zosatha, ogwirizana mu banja la arum. Malo ake achilengedwe akukula ndi dothi lonyowa ku South America ndi Africa. Wachibale wapafupi kwambiri ku Northern Hemisphere ndi calla (marsh calla).

Kusankhidwa kwa malo ndi nthawi yabwino yoyendetsera nthawi

Ngakhale calla ndi chomera chodzichepetsa, n'zovuta kusankha malo. Ziyenera kukhala mthunzi kapena penumbra, koma ndi kuwala kokwanira mokwanira. Onetsetsani kuti nthawi ya chilimwe masana, maluwa siwotentha dzuwa, mwinamwake masamba a zomerawo adzauma ndi kuwuma. Ndibwino kuti duwa likula mumthunzi wa mitengo kapena tchire. Kumbukiraninso kuti callas salola kulemba bwino.

Iwo sakonda madzi ochulukirapo. Choncho, pansi pamtunda pansi pa malowa ayenera kukhala kutali, ndipo gawolololo lisamapangitse kuti madzi asapitirire. Nthaka pansi pa chomeracho iyenera kukhala ndi madzi abwino ndikukhala ochepa pang'ono. Nthaka yabwino ya duwa ndi yofanana ndi tsamba humus, peat, mchenga ndi munda.

Mukudziwa? Calla ali ndi dzina linalake - zantedeskiya. Nthawi zina imatchedwa rihardia kapena calla ya ku Ethiopia. Dzina lachiwiri la chomeracho linaperekedwa ndi Kurt Sprengel wazamaluwa wa Germany. Anapatsa maluwa dzina lake Giovanni Zantedeschi, yemwe anali katswiri wa zomera za ku Italy, yemwe anali bwenzi lake. Dzina ili silili lozikika kwambiri maluwa a maluwa, ndipo chomeracho chimatchedwa calla.

Funso lina lofunika: pamene chodzala callas kutseguka pansi. Nthawi imasankhidwa pamene chisanu chotsiriza chimasiya ndipo mpweya ndi nthaka zimatenthetsa mokwanira. Monga lamulo, ichi ndi chiyambi cha May.

Kukonzekera kwa kubzala zakuthupi

Pakuti chodzala ndikofunikira kusankha wamphamvu ndi amphamvu tubers wa chomera. Ndipo zazikulu kwambiri, ndizotheka kuwona maluwa m'chaka choyamba chodzala. Zowola ndi zouma za tubers sizikhoza kukhala zothandiza. Mwamsanga anabzala tubers pansi sakuvomerezeka, iwo ayenera kuti asanalandire chithandizo. Choncho, ngati munawagulira mu February, chofunika chodzala chiyenera kukulumikizidwa mu chopukutira ndikukhala pansi pa firiji.

Zokonzekera zonse zobzalala calla mababu zimapangitsa kuti tubers mufooke potaziyamu permanganate ndizokhazikitsanso. Malo oonongeka ndi ovunda akudulidwa mosamala, mabala amachiritsidwa ndi utoto wobiriwira. Pambuyo pake, iwo ali okonzeka kubzalidwa poyera.

Amaluwa ena amayamba kubzala mofulumira miphika - mu March-April. Mababuwa amabzalidwa makamaka miphika yopanda madzi: zitsulozo zimayambitsidwa kuikapo tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ndipo nthaka imayikidwa mu uvuni. Mu gawo lapansi la tubers laviikidwa 2-3 masentimita ndi kuthirira kamodzi kapena kawiri pa sabata. Kuyambira mwezi wa April akhoza kutulutsidwa pankhonde kapena mu wowonjezera kutentha. Mitengo yosindikizidwa pamalo otseguka ndi earthy mpira.

Ndikofunikira! Kwa calla, miphika ya porous amasankhidwa kuti athetse mpweya wokwanira wa mpweya. Ndikofunika kuti palibe zomera zina zomwe zimakula mumphika kapena pafupi - calla ndi nsanje kwa oyandikana nayo. Nthaŵi zambiri, dothi losanjikiza limachotsedweratu kuti lisayambe kuwononga mizu yowonongeka, ndi kuwaza mwatsopano.

Malo okonzekera kubzala

Malo omwe calla ayenera kukula, amatsukidwa ndi kukumbidwa ndi gawo la mchenga ndi hardwood humus, lotengedwa mu magawo ofanana. Onetsetsani kuti nthaka ili ndi madzi abwino. Popeza calla amakonda nthaka yowawasa, ndi bwino kuwonjezera zisoti zing'onozing'ono kumalo ozungulira malo obzala. Zidzakhala zokopa tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti mchere ukhale wochuluka. Komanso konzani feteleza yovuta, yomwe imayenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito pa 30-40 magalamu pa mita imodzi ya malo.

Kubzala tubers pa tsamba

Mukadzala munda wa callas mutseguka pansi, chotsani mosamala m'phika kuti musamawononge tubers, popeza iwo ndi ofooka kwambiri. Amadzizidwa m'mayenje osakanikidwe pafupifupi 5-10 masentimita mozama. Mtunda pakati pawo umadalira kukula kwa babu, koma osachepera 40 cm. Kuyala zakuthupi sikulimbikitsidwa kuti zikhale pansi, koma pang'ono zokha zimadulidwa pamwamba, mwinamwake mizu ikhoza kuvunda.

Zomera zimayenera kuthirira bwino ndipo masabata angapo otsatira samasamalira kuthirira. Ngati patapita masabata angapo maluwawo sanawonekere, m'pofunika kusungunula nthaka mozungulira dzenje kuti madzi asagwe pa tubers okha, omwe angathe kuvunda.

Ndikofunikira! Kupanda kumera m'masabata oyambirira sayenera kuwopsyeza. Chomeracho sichimafutukula mpaka icho chikhale mizu, ndipo izi zingatenge mpaka mwezi. Calla amasunthiranso kwa mwezi umodzi.

Kodi mungasamalire bwanji munda wa calla?

Agrotehnika calla ndi yophweka kwambiri. Iyenera kuthiriridwa ndi kumasulidwa nthawi zonse pambuyo pake, pamene kuyang'ana kuwala kokwanira ndi kutentha. Ngati munagwiritsa ntchito feteleza mutabzala, ndiye kuti kudyetsa kochepa sikukufunika. Ngati mwakopeka kale ndi malo otsekemera, ndiye kuti kumasula sikungakhale kofunikira, ngakhale kuli bwino kuchita izi mutatsirira madzi.

Mukudziwa? Mvula isanafike, mame amapezeka pa tsamba ndi nsonga za masamba obiriwira a calla omwe amavala inflorescence.

Ngati feteleza ndi kofunika, feteleza iyenera kusankhidwa kuti ikhale yamaluwa obiriwira, omwe ayenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito kamodzi pa masabata awiri kapena atatu. Pamene chomera limamasula, kuwonjezera 15-20 g wa potaziyamu pansi pa chitsamba chilichonse. Ndikofunika kuti tisapitirire feteleza omwe ali ndi nayitrogeni, chifukwa amachititsa kuti pakhale zobiriwira.

Funso lofunika kwambiri - momwe mungamwetsera callas? Amakonda chinyezi, koma musalekerere pamene madzi akutha. Choncho, munthu sayenera kulola kudyetsa nthaka, koma siyeneranso kudzaza tubers.

Mukudziwa? Kuyambira alimi a maluwa calla maluwa wotchedwa tsamba limene limatulutsa mphukira ya inflorescence ndipo ikhoza kukhala ya mtundu wosiyana. Ndipotu, duwa la chomeracho, ngakhale chobisika, koma nondescript.

Pofuna kulimbikitsa kukula kwa chitsamba, nkofunika kuthetsa mapesi onse a maluwa pambuyo pa maluwa. Pa nthawi yomweyo, mphukira zazing'ono siziyenera kukhudza. Ngati mutasamalira bwino calla, mumatha kufika pa khumi ndi awiri.

Ubwino wa duwa ndi kuti kawirikawiri tizirombo kapena matenda amawonekera pa izo. Nthawi zina ma whiteflies amatha kuwonekera, koma sizimapweteka kwambiri mmera.

Njira zobadwira calla

Kubereka kwa calla kumadalira mtundu wa mbewu. Ena ali ndi rhizome yamphamvu ya nthambi, ena - zida zamphamvu. Pachifukwachi, kuberekanso kumachitika pobzala zokolola zomaliza. Mmodzi - pogawanitsa chitsamba. Koma onse awiri akhoza kufalitsidwa ndi mbewu. Zoona, izi ndizovuta komanso zosakhulupirika.

Mukudziwa? Pali mitundu iwiri yokha ya maluwa, yomwe ndi itatu yokha yomwe imalimidwa: Ethiopiya calla, calla otsala, calla eliot. Zina zonse zimachokera pa kuswana kwa izi.

Tubers

Kwa kubzala, kubzala kumagulidwa m'masitolo apadera, komwe kumagulitsidwa kumapeto kwa February. Pambuyo posankha olimba, wandiweyani ndi lonse tubers, uwaike mu thireyi ndi malo pamalo ozizira ndi kutentha kwa 5-7 ° C. Nthaŵi zambiri mpweya ndi kuwamasula.

Kubzala tubers mu miphika yayikulu ayenera kukhala mu April. Mbalame iliyonse imakhala ndi chidziwitso chooneka bwino, chomwe chiri pamwamba pa chomera. Sakanizani zokolola mu gawo lapansi ndi 2-3 masentimita, muziwaza ndi nthaka ndikuzibweretsa mu chipinda ndi kutentha kwa 20-22 ° C. Onetsetsani kuti nthaka mu mphika suma, koma musati muizitsanulire.

Pang'onopang'ono tengani miphika pa khonde kuti muumitse. N'zotheka kudzala chomera pamalo otseguka kumapeto kwa kasupe kapena kumayambiriro kwa chilimwe. Zomwe zimayendera zimadalira kalasi. Maluwa amenewo omwe ndi ochepa, anabzala pamtunda wa masentimita 20, masentimita - 35 masentimita, masentimita 50 cm.

Kugawa chitsamba

Njira iyi ndi yabwino yokha ya mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya Aitiopiya ndi zochokera. N'zotheka kugawanitsa chitsamba chake mu kugwa pa kukonzekera kukumba. Kuthawa pamodzi ndi rhizome imasiyanitsidwa ndi chitsamba chofala, kuyesera kupulumutsa malo ochulukirapo pamtunda, ndikubzala mu mphika ndi chisakanizo chapadera. Phika ayenera kuikidwa m'chipinda chosatsekedwa ndi kutentha kwa 12-15 ° C ndi chinyezi. Kumayambiriro kwa kasupe, mphukira zoyamba ziyenera kuonekera, ndipo kumayambiriro kwa chilimwe mmera uli wokonzeka kubzala. Zomera zowyala zingathe kugulitsidwanso mu malo alionse.

Mbewu

Odyetsa makamaka amagwira ntchito yobala mbewu za calla. Mukachita izi panyumba, pali mwayi waukulu kuti mbewu zisakule. Kuwopseza mwayi wopambana kumathandiza kuti muyambe kutsogolo kwa maola 5-6. Nthaŵi zambiri, potaziyamu humate imagwiritsidwa ntchito paichi. Pambuyo kudumpha mbewu zimayikidwa pa poto yamadzi, yomwe imayikidwa masiku 6 mpaka 8 pamalo otentha. Onetsetsani kuti mbewu siziuma. Akangomera, ayenera kuikidwa pansi ndikukula mu chipinda chofunda mpaka mphukira zamphamvu zikuwoneka. Pokhapokha ngati chomeracho chikulimbitsa, chikhoza kubzalidwa poyera. Ngati mubzala mbewu zowonjezereka mmenemo, kupyolera mu siteji iyi, nthawi zambiri amamwalira.

Kodi mungasunge bwanji calla tubers m'nyengo yozizira?

Ambiri ali ndi funso, chochita ndi calla pambuyo maluwa, chifukwa chomera ndi thermophilic. Sitilekerera nyengo yathu yachisanu, kotero kumapeto kwa mwezi wa September, tikulimbikitsidwa kuti tipeze tinthu tomwe timapanga tizilombo tomwe timapanga.

Mitundu ya tuberous calla iyenera kufukula popanda kudula gawo kumapeto kwa September. Zipangizozi ziyenera kuchotsedwa pansi, bwino ndikuzimutsuka bwino, kuti musawononge zomera. Pambuyo pake, theka la ora limakhala ndi yankho la potaziyamu permanganate ndikutsukanso. Kenaka amaikidwa pamalo ozizira ndi kutentha kwa 5-10ºC ndikudikirira mpaka masamba onse afota ndipo zouma. Pambuyo pake amachotsedwa, ndipo tubers imatumizidwa kusungirako.

Kodi mungasunge bwanji callas? Mu thumba la mapepala m'zipinda zapansi kapena mu bokosi la masamba mufiriji. Mitengo ya Ethiopia yotchedwa calla imasungidwa kuti isungidwe, motsogoleredwa mofanana. M'nyengo yozizira, nthawi zonse fufuzani momwe zinthu zobzala zimakhalira. Onetsetsani kuti palibe zovunda zikuwoneka pa izo, palibe makwinya ndi zouma. Imeneyi ndi njira yokhayo yokonzekera bwino kubzala kwa kasupe.

Ngakhale kuti kusungidwa kwa calla kumafuna changu, kubzala mbewu m'munda ndi kusamalira izo ndi zophweka. Ndimodzichepetsa, osati yosangalatsa kwa tizirombo. Koma mu nthawi ya maluwa wolima amakondwera ndi zodabwitsa kukongoletsa maluwa.