Zifukwa za kusowa kwa maluwa mu callas, matenda ndi tizilombo toononga maluwa

Maluwa okoma, okongola callas enthralls Maluwa a chomerachi ndi okongola komanso okongola kwambiri. Ngakhale kuti kusamalira callae sikufuna khama, palinso nthenda zambiri zomwe zingayambitse maluwa kapena imfa ya mbewu. Kuchokera m'nkhaniyi, muphunziranso chifukwa chake mavutowa amayamba komanso zomwe zingathetsere matenda a callas.

Matenda a Calla oyambitsa matenda osayenera

Calla - Chomera chodzichepetsa, komabe, monga chamoyo chilichonse, chimafuna chisamaliro choyenera. Pansi pa zolakwika, ulemelero wa ku Africa sungathe kuphulika, kukhala ndi maonekedwe owawa, osasangalatsa ndi masamba opotoka, kapena kutha konse. Zolakwitsa zokhazikika panthaŵi yake poyang'anira maluwa zimathandiza, ndipo mukhoza kusangalala ndi kukongola kwake.

Calla samasintha

Kulephera kwa calla maluwa ndi chimodzi mwa zotsatira zowonongeka komanso zowawa za kusamalidwa bwino kwa mbewu. Zifukwa zomwe calla sizimafalikira zingakhale zingapo:

  • kuthirira madzi okwanira;
  • mphika wochepa;
  • palibe nthawi yopumula;
  • fetereza zosayenera kapena kusowa kwa izo.
Calla amafunika kuthirira nthawi zonse (kupatula nthawi yotsalayo, pamene kuthirira kwafupipafupi kuyenera kuchepetsedwa). Kuthirira kumachitika tsiku lirilonse. Zimalimbikitsanso kuwonjezera madzi mu poto ndikuzibweretsanso nthawi zonse. Madzi ayenera kukhala ofewetsa ndi kutetezedwa, amakhala ndi ubwino pa nthaka.

Chomeracho chikusowa kwambiri. Chophimba chochepa chochepa chidzabweretsa kuwona kuti nyamayo sidzaphuka. Kutalika kwa chidebecho chiyenera kukhala chomwecho kuti mizu sichigwira ntchito kuposa theka la izo, ndipo muyeso iyenera kukhala yayikulu pang'ono kuposa korona wa masamba. Anawo akawonekera, ayenera kuchotsedwa.

Kalle amafunika nthawi yopuma. Izi nthawi zambiri zimakhala nyengo yozizira. Panthawiyi, masamba amayamba kuuma. Phika ndi chomera ayenera kusunthira kumalo ozizira ndipo nthawi zina kuthirira madzi kuti maluwawo asaume. Nthawiyi ndi yofunikira kuti mizu ikhale ndi mphamvu. Ngati duwa silikonzekera tchuthi lija, silidzaphuka. Kumayambiriro kwa kasupe, calla ikhoza kubwezeretsedwa pawindo ndikuyambiranso kuthirira.

Ndikofunikira! Kuti calla isuke pachimake patatha nthawi yopumula, ndibwino kuti abweretse maluwa ku khonde, loggia kapena zenera nthawi zambiri mpweya wokwanira. Ziri bwino ngati n'zotheka kulima pamalo otseguka nthawi ya chilimwe ndi chilimwe.
Chomera chiyenera kudyetsedwa phosphate-potaziyamu feteleza. Ngati pali masamba ambiri pa calla, komabe palibe maluwa, zikutanthauza kuti pali nayitrogeni wambiri mu fetereza. Kuti tizilombo timene timatulutsa maluwa amafunikira phosphorous yokwanira ndi potaziyamu.

Fragility ya masamba mapesi

Kuphulika kwa masamba ndi kudula kwa masamba mapesi kumachitika chifukwa cha kusamalidwa kosayenera. Chokhachokha cha petioles chimayambitsa kusowa kwa zakudya m'nthaka. Ndi kusowa kwa nayitrogeni ndi potaziyamu masamba amakhala otumbululuka ndi kugwa pansi.

Vuto likhoza kuchitika chifukwa cha ulimi wothirira molakwika: kuchulukitsa kapena kusowa kwa chinyezi. Mbalameyi imakhala yopota ndipo nthawi imene zomera zimayikidwa pansi pa dzuwa.

Mukudziwa? Pa nthawi yopuma, masamba a mitundu yonse ya callas, kupatula yoyera, kutembenukira chikasu ndi youma. Ndi zokongola zokongola zokha zomwe masamba awo amakhalabe obiriwira ngakhale m'nyengo yozizira.

Zokwanira kwambiri zimayambira

Calla sakonda kuchuluka kwa kuwala. Komabe, pamene sali okwanira, mapesi a zomera adzatengeka kwambiri ndikukhala otupa. Izi zimachitikanso kutentha kwambiri pamalo omwe duwa limakula.

Chomeracho chiyenera kudziwika pamalo ochepa kwambiri, komabe, kuti pakhale kusowa kwa dzuwa. Makamaka muyenera kupewa dzuwa molunjika pa duwa. Sitikulimbikitsidwa kuika calla pazenera sill, pafupi ndi batiri. Izi zidzatentha kwambiri maluwawo, mwamphamvu kwambiri.

Matenda opatsirana calla, njira zochitira nawo

Chifukwa cha chisamaliro chosayenera kapena zokolola zabwino, malo osauka a nthaka calla amadziwika ndi matenda opatsirana. Amafulumira kudzidziwitsa okha: mtundu wa chomerawo umatha, calla masamba akupiringa kapena kutembenukira chikasu, owuma, zimayambira zimakhala zowonongeka. Pofuna kupewa imfa ya chomeracho, m'pofunika kuwerengera chifukwa cha dzikoli ndikuchitapo kanthu pa nthawi.

Anthracnose

Anthracnose ndi matenda a fungal a calla. Matenda otere pakati pa zokongolazi ndi ofala.

Calla anthracnose ali ndi mawonetseredwe otsatirawa:

  • mabala achibwano osadziwika amawoneka pamasamba;
  • Patapita nthawi, mawanga amakhala aakulu, kukula kwake kumawoneka pamphepete mwawo, ndi nkhungu yoyera pakati;
  • masamba akuwoneka ndi owuma;
  • zimayambitsa kufooka;
  • maluwawo amakula bwino.
Zomwe zimayambitsa zowonongeka ndi izi:

  • kuwonjezeka kwa kutentha kwa mpweya;
  • chinyezi chochuluka cha mpweya ndi dothi.
Njira zovuta:

  • kuchotsani masamba owonongeka ku zomera ndi nthaka;
  • kuchepetsa kuthirira;
  • kusuntha chomera kuchoka ku mabatire;
  • mankhwala ndi fungicides ("Fundazol", "Fitosporin-M").
Ndikofunikira! Nkhumba zimayenda kuchoka ku masamba kupita kunthaka. Choncho, kuwonongeka kwa masamba otsala ayenera kuchotsedwa nthawi yomweyo. Ngati zowononga sizikuthandizani, muyenera kupalesanso duwa, ndipo mphika uyenera kutetezedwa bwino.

Mame a Mealy

Mame amayamba chifukwa cha kuwonongedwa kwa calla ndi bowa. Ndi nthenda yotereyi, maluwa amaonekera pamasamba a chomera, omwe amamveka mwamsanga ndipo nthawi imakwirira masamba onse a duwa. Pachilumbachi, chipikacho chikufanana ndi ufa wa ufa, umene umaphimba pamwamba pa calla. Pakapita nthawi, mbali zomwe zakhudzidwazo zimatembenuka wakuda ndikusowa.

Njira zovuta:

  • kuchotsedwa kwa masamba oonongeka (ngati sali ochuluka kwambiri);
  • chithandizo cha fungicide;
  • kuthirira.
Mukudziwa? Mame a mvula samasowa chinyontho chochuluka, choncho amatha kukhala mu nthaka youma. Njira yeniyeni yothetseratu ndiyo mankhwala a nthawi zitatu ndi fungicides for houseplants (1 nthawi pa sabata).

Grey kuvunda

Gray calla zowola zimayambitsidwa ndi botrits cinera. Mosiyana ndi anthracnose, imvi yovunda ingakhudze malo onse a zomera: masamba, zimayambira, maluwa. Masamba odwala amadwala maluwa, ndipo mawanga obiriwira amaoneka pamaluwa. Patapita nthawi, mbali yofalikira imakhala ndi nsalu ya bulauni ndipo imadzazidwa ndi chophimba.

Zifukwa za matendawa:

  • mkulu chinyezi;
  • kuthirira madzi;
  • kubzala mu nthaka yoipitsidwa;
  • chodzala kachilombo.
Njira zovuta:

  • chotsani masamba onse;
  • kuthirira madzi okwanira;
  • onetsetsani zomera ndi nthaka ndi fungicides (Rovral, Fundazol).

Ndikofunikira! Bowa akhoza kusungidwa pansi kwa zaka zingapo, kupatsirana pamodzi ndi kachilombo ka mbeu. Choncho, maluwa owonongeka amafunika kuikidwa mu nthaka yatsopano, ndipo wakaleyo amachotsedwa. Mukamadzaza ana, muwaphe ndi fungicides.

Mizu yovunda

Calla mizu yovunda imayambitsidwa ndi bowa la Fitovtor. Zizindikiro za Matenda a Calla:

  • masamba ndi maluwa zowuma;
  • chomera mwamsanga chikufooketsa;
  • grey nkhungu ikhoza kuwonedwa pa nthaka;
  • mizu yavunda.
Zifukwa za matendawa:

  • kutentha kwa mpweya;
  • mkulu chinyezi;
  • kuthirira madzi;
  • fetereza feteleza;

Njira zovuta:

  • Thirani mu nthaka youma ndi madzi poyamba moyenera;
  • sungani chomera ku malo ozizira bwino, mpweya wabwino;
  • miyambo yowonongetsa;
  • kupanga fungicides ("Ridomir", "Phindu la Gold").

Bakiteriya zowola

Bacterial rot calla amayamba ndi mabakiteriya a mtundu wa Erwinia. Ndi nthendayi, muzu wa chomera ndi m'munsi mwa masamba mumdima, ndipo potsiriza kuvunda. Pamwamba pa masamba amakhala wachikasu. Chomeracho sichimauma, chomwe chimatulutsa.

Zifukwa za matenda:

  • kutentha ndi chinyezi;
  • kuthirira madzi;
  • kwambiri nayitrogeni feteleza.
Kutha kwa mabakiteriya - nkhaniyi ndi yovuta kwambiri. Ndikofunika kuchepetsa kuthirira, kuyendetsa chomera ndi fungicides ndi kuziyika mu nthaka yathanzi.

Mmene mungagwirire ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda

Mofanana ndi chomera chilichonse, tizilombo tingathe kulimbana. Amayamwa zinthu zonse zothandiza kuchokera ku chomeracho, amayipitsa ndi mankhwala awo, ndipo chifukwa chake mbewu imamwalira. Miyeso yanthaŵi yake yolimbana ndi mliri idzapulumutsa kukongola kwanu.

Kangaude mite

Nthata zimadyetsa pamwamba pazitsamba za masamba. Pogonjetsedwa ndi calla ndi kangaude, masamba ake amawoneka imvi, pakati pawo mumatha kuona kabokosi kakang'ono ka kangaude. Pansi pa masamba, timadontho tating'onoting'ono timapanga. Mafinya nthawi zambiri samasamba, amauma ndi kutha.

Zifukwa za kangaude:

  • mpweya wouma kwambiri;
  • malungo;
  • kuthirira madzi okwanira.
Njira zovuta:

  • mpweya;
  • malo m'malo ozizira;
  • kupukuta masamba ndi yankho la sopo kapena Neoron, Fufan.

Kupuma

Amadyetsa chomera chomera. Ndi kugonjetsedwa kwa calla ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa, masambawo amatembenuka ndi ouma, ophimba, mawanga oyera akhoza kuwonekera pa iwo. Pochotseratu tizilombo tomwe timayambitsa tizilombo timene timayambitsa matendawa, tifunikira kuti tipewe tinthu tomwe timayambitsa tizilombo toyambitsa matenda.

Mukudziwa? Thrips musalole fungo la naphthalene. Imathandizanso kuthandizira tizilombo toyambitsa matenda.

Aphid

Nsabwe za m'masamba ndi tizilombo tating'onoting'ono (zakuda, zobiriwira, zoyera kapena za imvi) zomwe zimadyetsa zomera. Amayipitsa callah ndi zonyansa. Kawirikawiri tizirombo timapezeka m'munsi mwa masamba. Zisonyezero za kugonjetsedwa kwa nsabwe za m'masamba ndi chikasu cha masamba, kuthamanga kwa maluwa mwamsanga. Maluwa omwe alipo alipo samasamba, ndipo amauma. M'kupita kwa nthawi, pamwamba pa masamba amadzala ndi zokutira.

Njira zovuta:

  • amasiya feteleza ndi kanthawi kochepa;
  • Pangani chomeracho ndi mafuta a potashi (magalamu 20 pa lita imodzi ya madzi otentha otentha) kapena ndi kukonzekera ("Decis", "Aktara").
Kulephera kutsatira malamulo a chisamaliro cha callae kumapangitsa kugonjetsedwa ndi matenda osiyanasiyana ndi mabakiteriya. Miyeso yakanthaŵi yolimbana ndi matenda ndi tizilombo toononga imathandiza chomera kubwerera kumoyo ndikukondweretsani ndi maluwa okongola.