Mmene mungagwirire ndi matenda a apurikoti

Armenia imaonedwa kuti ndi malo obadwira okoma apurikoti. Zakhala zikukula mu India ndi China. Chifukwa cha kudalirana kwa dziko, chipatso ichi chodabwitsa chafalikira padziko lonse lapansi. Apricot ndi mtengo wosagwira matenda, koma nyengo yathu ino ingakhudzidwe ndi matenda osiyanasiyana. Choncho, pokhala mtengo wa apricot m'munda wanu, muyenera kukonzekera kulimbana ndi matenda a chikhalidwe chino. M'munsimu muli matenda ambiri a apricoti ndi njira zawo zamankhwala.

Monilioz

Moniliasis kapena zowola zipatso ndi matenda omwe amabwera ndi marsupial bowa monilia. Ndili pakati pa matenda opweteka kwambiri a zipatso zamwala. Mwa chikhalidwe cha mawonetseredwe, mitundu iwiri yaikulu ya moniliosis ndi yosiyana: monilial kutentha ndi imvi zipatso zowola. Ganizirani kuteteza apurikoti motsutsana ndi bowa.

Monilial kutentha

Maluwa a apricot amapezeka mu March, ndipo zokolola zimasonkhanitsidwa mu July-August. Monilial kutentha ndi mtundu wamba wa moniliosis. Nthawi yotentha yotentha imayesedwa kuti ndi imene imayambitsa matendawa, chifukwa pa kutentha onse moniliosis tizilombo toyambitsa matenda nthawi zambiri amafa. Kuphulika kwa monilial kutentha pa apricot mitengo imapezeka nthawi ya apurikoti maluwa, mvula ndi nyengo yamvula (fogs ndi mame).

Zizindikiro. Chizindikiro cha monilial kutentha ndi kuvunda kwa maluwa. Mtundu wa maonekedwewo umasintha. Pankhaniyi, nkhuni imakhala yofiirira ndipo imatha kufa mwamsanga. Izi zimachokera ku kutuluka kwa tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda. Zotsatira zake, zokongola zonse za mtengo zimatha. Ndi chitukuko champhamvu cha matenda, bowa limapangitsa mphukira zazing'ono. Izi zimayambitsa kuwonongeka kwa nthambi zingapo za mtengo; masamba ayamba kupachika, kenako amawoneka ofiira ndi ovuta. Kawirikawiri masamba samagwa pansi, amakhala pamthambi mpaka masika. Ming'alu imayang'ana pa nthambi zakuda, zomwe zimakhala mabala ndi mpweya wolimba kwambiri. Mtengo umawoneka ngati watenthedwa ndi moto. Patapita nthawi, apricot akhoza kufa kwathunthu.

Limbani ndi matendawa. Pa zizindikiro zoyamba za kutentha kwa monilial, ndikofunikira kuchotsa mbali zonse za matenda. Izi zikhoza kuletsa kufala kwa matendawa pa mphukira. Pambuyo pa masabata awiri mpaka 3 mutatha maluwa, bwerezani ndondomekoyi. Kuwonetseredwa kwa matenda ndi kotheka mwa mawonekedwe a zipatso zowola. Ndikofunika kusonkhanitsa ndi kuwononga zipatso zonse zovunda. Kuthetsa monilial kutentha, kupopera mbewu mankhwalawa ndi 3% Bordeaux madzi kapena 0.9% zamkuwa oxychloride ndi othandiza. Musanyalanyaze kuyera kwa madzi, chitani kumapeto kwa autumn - musanayambe kuzizira.

Zipatso Zowola

Zipatso zowola ndi nyengo yosiyanasiyana ya moniliosis, yomwe imachitika nyengo yamvula m'masabata apitawo asanayambe kukolola apurikoti. Ichi ndi matenda omwe amafala kwambiri a apurikoti, chipatso cha chipatsocho ndi kuvunda, kupanga zovunda zofiirira ndi nkhungu yoyera.

Zizindikiro za matenda. Choyamba, malo ochepa a bulauni amawonekera pa apricot, yomwe imatulutsa ndi kufewetsa, ndipo pamapeto pake imaphimba zipatso zonse. Pambuyo pa imvi yoyera, nyemba yoyera imapangidwa. Patapita nthawi, apricots amafota ndi kuvunda. Njira zolimbana ndi kupewa. Kulimbana ndi kuwonongeka kwa apurikoti kumayamba kumayambiriro kwa chaka chamawa. M'nyengo yachisanu-yozizira, Bordeaux madzi ndi sprayed, kukonzanso ntchitoyi kawiri kapena katatu pa masiku khumi ndi asanu. Pofuna kupewa chitukuko chovunda, kumayambiriro kwa maluwa amatha kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala a moniliosis: "Nitrafen", "Confidor", "Horus". M'chaka, zipatso zikawonekera pamtengo, chotsani nthambi zina kuti mupewe fruiting kwambiri. Monga chiyero chochitetezera, kugwa, kusonkhanitsa ndi kuwotcha masamba ndi zipatso za mtengowo kapena kuziponya kutali. Samalani kwambiri ku tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, monga momwe tizilombo nthawi zambiri timatengera zowola zowola. Pofuna kuteteza tizilombo toyambitsa matenda.

Ndikofunikira! Ngati zipatso za apurikoti zowonongeka sizichotsedwa ndi zokha, zidzakhalabe pamtengo nthawi yonse yozizira. Bowa loopsa, monga mukudziwira, lingathe kuzizira pa zipatso za mbewu. Matendawa adzawonetsa ndikukhudzanso zokolola za chaka chotsatira. Choncho, onetsetsani kuti kuchotsa zipatso zonse zakufa ndi mphukira!

Brown Leaf Spot (Gnomoniosis)

Gnomoniosis sakhudza masamba okha, komanso zipatso za mtengo. Zipatso zingathe kutha popanda ngakhale nthawi yoti zipse. Ngati apurikoti akadali okoma, ndiye bowa uwu ukhoza kuwapangitsa kukhala chipatso choipa cha mawonekedwe osasintha.

Zizindikiro. Chizindikiro chachikulu cha gnomoniosis ndi mawonekedwe aang'ono a chikasu pamawanga. Patapita nthawi, mawangawo akuwonjezeka, amakhala ofiira ndipo amaphimba pamwamba pa pepala. Ngati mutalola chitukukochi, masambawo adzauma ndi kugwa msanga.

Kupewa ndi chithandizo. Ngati mutapeza chowonongeko pamtengo, sikuvomerezeka kusiya apricot mu dziko lino. Malo okhudzidwa ayenera kuyeretsedwa. Kuwonjezera apo, yambani nthaka pansi pa mtengo ndi 1% zamkuwa sulphate kapena Nitrafen. Musaiwale kupopera kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa March. Ogwira ntchitoyi ndi kupopera mbewu mankhwalawa Bordeaux madzi. Komanso, kuti mupewe kufunikira kuchotsa masamba otsala mutadutsa.

Holey malo (klyasterosporioz)

Klesterosporiosis ndi matenda a fungal omwe amakhala pa impso za matenda ndi mphukira pafupifupi mitengo yonse yamwala. Mankhwalawa amawathandiza kwambiri kumayambiriro kwa matendawa.

Zizindikiro. Pa masamba a apricot mtengo amawoneke kuzungulira mawanga a kuwala kofiirira. Mawanga amawoneka ngati akukankhira mu tsamba. Malo okhudzidwawo amauma ndi kugwa, akupanga dzenje m'masamba. Ndicho chifukwa chake matendawa adalandira dzina lakuti "perforated spotting". Komanso, ngati bowa limakhudzidwa kwambiri, masamba akhoza kutha msanga. Kuonjezerapo, kukula kumapangidwa pa apricot stem, yomwe madzi okoma (gamu) amatha. Kodi angachize bwanji apricot mtengo? Maonekedwe a perforated pa apricot amatha kuchitika chifukwa cha matenda a fungal, komanso monga momwe zomera zimayambira ku matenda opatsirana, kutentha, komanso mankhwala. Choncho, ngati mupeza zizindikiro za zizindikiro, muyenera kupeza choyamba cha matendawa.

Ngati matendawa ali ndi kachilombo koyambitsa matenda, muyenera kuyesa kuthetsa chifukwa cha kufooka kwa mtengo. Ngati malo opangidwa ndi perforated ali ochokera ku fungal, tengani njira zoyenera kutetezera. Bowa amatha kubisala m'masamba ogwa, kusonkhanitsa ndi kuwononga masamba omwe wagwa. Kenaka kukumba tsinde la tsinde. Njira yodalirika yogwiritsira ntchito apricot mansa ndiyo mankhwala amkuwa omwe ali ndi mankhwala (imodzi mwa magawo a mkuwa wa sulfate kapena bordeaux madzi). Kupopera mbewu mankhwala akuchitika kumayambiriro kwa masika, molingana ndi malangizo a osankhidwa mankhwala. Musaiwale kutseka mabala a ching'onoting'ono a nkhuni ndi phula la munda.

Kupewa. Perekani zabwino pa kukula kwa mbeu: kuthirani mtengo nthawi, kusamba korona, kudyetsa feteleza, kuchotsa nthambi zomwe zakhudzidwa nthawi.

Tsamba lofiira

Chotupitsa cha masamba (causative agent - taffrin bowa kupunduka) ndi matenda owopsa kwambiri a zipatso zamwala. Mitengo yomwe imakhudzidwa nthawi zambiri imatayika bwino. Matendawa nthawi zina amatha kuwonongeka kwathunthu kwa mbeu. Odziwika ndi mawonekedwe a kutupa ndi kofiira pa masamba. Masamba amakhala opotoka, "kupotoka" - choncho dzina la matendawa. Zizindikiro:

  1. M'chaka, achinyamata amasungunuka (kuthamanga).
  2. Miphika imakhala yachikasu, lalanje ndi yofiira pamaso pa mdima ndi abscission.
  3. Zipatso ndi masamba amafa m'magulu.
  4. Mphukira ndi opunduka ndipo imataya mawonekedwe awo.
Kupewa. Mofanana ndi nkhungu zambiri, kupyapyala kumakhala nyengo yozizira pamene mpweya ukuda. Asanayambe nyengoyi, kumapeto kwa dzinja kapena kumayambiriro kwa masika, muyenera kuchita kale.

Ndikofunikira! Pankhani ya matenda monga tsamba lopiringa, palibe chomwe chimalowetsa chithandizo cha prophylactic. Kupewa ndi njira yokhayo yogwiritsira ntchito bowa ili! Pamene kusungunuka kunkaonekera pa masamba a mtengo wa apurikoti, kunali kochedwa kwambiri kuchita chinachake.
Nsonga Zopewera Pulogalamu ya Apricot Leaf:
  • Ma bowa nthawi zambiri amawombera mumtambo, choncho kugwa mosamala kumachotsa masamba onse ogwa mumunda wanu.
  • Ndiye kuchita woyamba mankhwala Bordeaux madzi. Khwerero ili ndi kofunika kuti muteteze zotupa kuchokera masika.
  • Ntchito yopopera mbewu ikuyambiranso mu February.
  • Gawo lachitatu la kupopera mbewu mankhwalawa Bordeaux madzi akuchitika ndi yoyamba masamba mu mitengo mpaka May (masiku khumi ndi awiri).
Bwanji ngati matendawa adziwonetsera kale? Pachifukwa ichi, tingathe kupeŵa kufalikira kwa tsamba lopiringa. Bowa liyenera kuchotsedwa mwamsanga, makamaka kumapeto kwa January. Mukhoza kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala ophera mkuwa. Ngati matendawa apita patsogolo, kuchotsedwa kwathunthu ku mtengo wa masamba onse ogwira ntchito, nthambi ndi zipatso zimathandiza. Komabe, ndibwino kupewa kupewa kudulira - mtengo ukhoza kufooka kwambiri. Pofuna kuteteza mizu ku chisanu cha chisanu ndi kutentha kwa chilimwe, khalani pansi pamtengo. Komanso musaiwale za kasupe feteleza wa mtengo ndi organic feteleza. Kapena muzitenga nkhuni zomwezo ndi Bordeaux osakaniza (molingana ndi malangizo).

Mwala wa fupa

Nkhumba ndi matenda ena a fungal mumtengo wa zipatso. Fungasiyi imapanga mavitamini omwe amawononga makoma a chipatso cha chipatsocho. Sewer overwinters pa masamba akugwa. Kuonjezera apo, chitukuko cha matendawa chimapangitsa kuti chinyezi chikhale chokwanira (mvula yambiri). Mitengo ya mtengowo ikadali yochuluka ndipo kutentha kwa mlengalenga kumathamanga, mofulumira matendawa akufalikira. Kuyambira May, choyamba chowonongeka kwa masamba ndi zipatso chikuwoneka kale. Zizindikiro. Patangopita nthawi yochepa maluwa, mdima wandiweyani umapangidwa pamasamba, kenako amawoneka ofiira. Ichi ndi matenda oyambirira. Tsabola pa apricots akhoza kukula mofulumira. Panthawi yovuta kwambiri, bowa amafalikira pamwamba pa tsamba lonse. Masamba adzauma kwathunthu ndikugwa. Nthaŵi zambiri amawombera amathanso kutenga kachilomboka ndikufa. Ngati matendawa atatha, zipatso za mtengo zimayamba kuvutika. Chipatsocho chimadzazidwa ndi zofiira zofiirira kapena imvi. Thupi la apurikoti ming'alu. Nkhumba imawononga thupi la chipatso. Apricot amataya kukoma kwawo, amatha kuona mosavuta ndipo amataya mtengo wawo wokongoletsera.

Kupewa ndi chithandizo. Zidzakhala zovuta kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala ophera tizilombo m'munda, chifukwa adzayenera kulengeza nyengo yamvula (kuyambira April mpaka June) pafupifupi masiku onse 4. Kuwonjezera apo, mitengo yambiri ya apurikoti ndi yaikulu kwambiri moti sangathe kukonza masamba onse ndi kuwombera ndi wothandizira. Choncho, chitetezo chabwino kwambiri ndicho kusankha bwino mitundu ya apurikoti. Pewani mitundu yodzikongoletsa. Sankhani zowonjezereka, zosagonjetsedwa ndi matenda a fungal. Mitundu yambiri ya apricot inasonyeza kutsutsa kwakukulu: Denisyuk Special, Monastyrsky, Gold Rich.

Verticillus wilt (Verticillis)

Mitengo ya mitengo ya zipatso imapezeka m'mayiko onse, koma nthawi zambiri kumadera ozizira. Chikhalidwe cha Apricot chimayambitsa matendawa.

Zizindikiro. Matendawa amawoneka kumayambiriro kwa chilimwe; kuwonetseredwa ngati kutayika kwa masamba ndi miyendo ya kachilombo, kuyambira kumunsi kwa nthambi iliyonse. Asanagwere, masamba akhoza kuyamba kukhala achikasu ndi osakanikirana. Kumapeto kwa chilimwe, gulu la masamba okha lingakhalebe pa nthambi zokhudzidwa kwambiri. Mitundu imeneyi imakhalabe pamtengo kwa milungu ingapo. Zizindikiro zingasonyeze mtengo wonse, koma zizindikiro zingathe kukhazikitsidwa ku nthambi imodzi yokha.

Kuti muzindikire molondola verticillus mu apurikoti, dulani nthambi ndi kutsegula mkati. Pa nkhuni zopweteka, kuwala kapena kofiira mawanga a mawonekedwe osasunthika akuwonekera pamtanda. Nthawi zina mawanga amamangirizana mu mphete. Pa matenda ochepa, matabwa amatha kuchitika popanda zizindikiro za masamba. Mitengo yowonongeka imafa pang'onopang'ono, koma ngozi yowonongeka ya matendayi imakhala chifukwa chakuti mitengoyo imakhala yochepa komanso yopanda phindu kwa nthawi yaitali. Kuletsa ndi chithandizo. Bowa limakhala mu nthaka kwa zaka zambiri ngati mzuzi wa parasite. Popeza magwero a matendawa ali m'nthaka, verticillary wilting ndi zovuta kwambiri kulamulira. Kuonjezera apo, bowa imafalikira mkati mwa nkhuni za mtengo wonse. Palibe njira yothandizira pa nkhaniyi siyodalirika.

Pofuna kuteteza mtengo wa apricot ku verticillary wilting, kapena kuchepetsa chiwerengero cha bowa ndi njira zotsatirazi:

  • Zipatso zatsopano zamatabwa ziyenera kuikidwa pamtunda kumene zaka zingapo zapitazi sizinapange kanthu. Pewani kubzala mitengo mmadera omwe mbewu monga mbatata, tomato, kapena strawberries analipo kale.
  • Kuchotsa nkhungu zotsala m'nthaka, fumigate kapena kusinthanitsa nthaka musanadzalemo mitengo (mwachitsanzo, dothi likhale losakaniza).
  • Chofunika kwambiri ndi khalidwe la kubzala. Gwiritsani ntchito zokolola zokhazovomerezeka komanso zopanda matenda.
  • Pewani kuwonongeka kwa mizu ya mbeu yaying'ono ndi feteleza ochuluka.
  • Nthawi zonse chotsani pamitengo yonse yosakhudzidwa, nthambi zosabereka.

Kuchetsa kwa cytosporosis (cytosporosis)

Chifukwa cha kuyanika kwa nthambi zazing'ono za mtengo wa zipatso zingakhale matenda monga cytosporosis. Ndi mitengo ya apricot yomwe nthawi zambiri imawopsyeza matendawa. Amatchedwanso kuti kuyanika, ndiko kuti, spores za bowa zimadutsa kupyolera mu mawonekedwe osiyanasiyana, mabala ndi mabala.

Zizindikiro. Matendawa amawoneka pamwamba pa mphukira mwa mawonekedwe a bulauni, mawanga amawoneka pamakungwa, masamba amafota. Ntchentche imatha kupha nthambi zazing'ono, kufalitsa pansi mtengo ndi kukhudza mphukira yakale ndi mtengo. Patapita nthaŵi, nthambi za chigoba zimafa. Kufalikira koteroko kumapangitsa kufa kwa mtengo wonse. Kuyanika kungatheke ngati mphezi, makungwawo amawonekera mwadzidzidzi mtundu wofiira. Kotero, zikuwoneka kuti kugonjetsedwa kumachitika mwadzidzidzi ndipo popanda chifukwa. Koma cytosporosis sichimveka mosavuta. Kotero mtengo unali utafooka kale ndi chinachake.

Njira zothetsera matendawa. Chinthu chachikulu ndikuteteza mikangano yolowera nkhuni. Kuti izi zitheke, zindikirani kuwonongeka kwa mtengowo ndi phula la munda, ndi simenti mapiritsi aakulu. Zonse zovulazidwa kuchokera ku dzuwa, chilala ndi chisanu ziyenera kukhala zotetezedwa ndi tizilombo ta mkuwa ndi sulphate, potsatidwa ndi kulowa. Mtengo wa apricot ndi wosavuta kusunga nthawi yoyamba ya matendawa. Koma, tsoka, chithandizo chirichonse pa chitukuko cha cytosporosis sichingakhale chopindulitsa.

Mukhoza kusunga mtengo motere: Posakhalitsa, chotsani nthambi zonse zowonongeka, mutenge masentimita 10 a mbali yathanzi ya mphukira. Njira zina zotetezera ziyenera kutengedwa. Muyenera kusankha momwe mungagwiritsire ntchito apricoti kumapeto kwa nyengo. Pambuyo kudulira, mtengo uyenera kukhala ndi phula la munda, kutenga maperesenti oposa 2 cm. M'dzinja, onetsetsani kuti muwonjezere potash ndi phosphorous kuvala. Phulusa ikhoza kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati feteleza. Sakanizani kuvala pamwamba ndi kuthirira nthawi zonse.

Mukudziwa? Manyowa a Foliar amathandiza kwambiri pa mtengo wa apricot (pali zambiri feteleza zabwino zogulitsa). Njirayi imalola kuti zakudya zikhale ndi mchere komanso zimasintha zinthu mofulumira kudutsa mu mphukira za mtengo ndi kusunga zomera. Musanyalanyaze mwayi wotero!

Fusarium Drying (Fusarium)

Kudyetsa fusarium kumakhudza apurikoti pa msinkhu uliwonse, koma nthawi zambiri maluwa. Kufalikira ndi kukula kwa matendawa kumapangitsa kuti nyengo izizizira.

Zizindikiro. Poyamba, masamba amawoneka ofiira, amalala, amapezeka pang'ono. Pambuyo pake, mawangawo amawoneka pa zipatso, mnofu pansi pa malo umakhala wouma, wovunda, tsambalo limafooka. Matendawa amapezeka chifukwa cha matenda m'nthaka.

Kuchiza ndi kupewa. Fusarium idzakhudza mitengo yofooka kwambiri. Mitengo yowononga makina (ming'alu, mabala) amatha kutenga matendawa. Choncho, polimbana ndi kuyanika, ndikofunika kuti muzitha kudula mtengo nthawi yake, kudyetsa dothi, madzi, kuvulaza mabala, ndi kuwateteza kupopera mankhwala ndi kuchitira apurikoti ku matenda (mu masika ndi autumn). Mu kugwa, chotsani ndi kuwotcha zotsalira zazomera - malo omwe angathe kutenga matenda. Sankhani moyenera nthaka yobzala mitengo.

Mukudziwa? Nthawi zina zimachitika kuti mtengo wa apurikoti umadwala ndikufa ngakhale mwachangu kupewa ndi mankhwala abwino. Osamalira minda samapeza izi. Абрикосовые деревья очень теплолюбивые, поэтому основной причиной считается неподходящая для абрикоса климатическая зона.
Choncho, monga mitengo yambiri ya zipatso, apricoti imadwala matenda omwe nthawi zina amawononga zipatso. Mtengo wa apricot uyenera kuyang'anitsitsa nthawi zonse kuti ugwiritsidwe ndi matenda, ngakhale mutakhala m'nyumba. Nthaŵi zambiri, matenda a apurikoti amachokera ku chisamaliro chosayenera ndi kubzala zosayenera. Kuchiza mofulumira ndi kupewa kudzathandiza kupewa matenda ndi bowa. Ngati chirichonse chikuchitidwa moyenera pamasamalidwe a mitengo, eni ake am'munda adzasangalala ndi zipatso zokoma ndi zokoma mu chilimwe.