Kukongola pawindo kapena momwe angakulire orchid kunyumba?

Mankhwala a orchids amachokera ku mvula yamvula ya ku Africa. Ku Ulaya, maluwa, omwe amadziwika ngati chizindikiro cha chikondi, adawoneka m'zaka za zana la 19 ndipo adagonjetsa ambiri mafani. Panopa, orchids amakula kulikonse kupatula Antarctica. Pali mitundu yoposa khumi ndi zisanu ndi zisanu, yomwe imabwereranso chaka chilichonse ndi mitundu yatsopano yoswana.

Pakati pa orchid pali mitundu yambiri yolimba ndi yodzichepetsa, yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito pakhomo. Dzinali likuchokera ku Chigiriki chakale. mawu akuti "dzira" chifukwa cha mawonekedwe ofanana a rhizome.

Zosamalira

  • Pa nthawi ya kukula kwachangu - kumapeto kwa dzinja ndi masika - orchids amafunika kuyatsa bwino ndi kuthirira nthawi zonse.
  • Pakati pa chitukuko champhamvu - m'chilimwe - ma orchids amafunika kuthirira mosamala ndi kuvala. Pali feteleza wapadera popereka chomera ndi zofunikira zofunika pa nyengo yokula.
  • Pamapeto a chilimwe pseudobulbs amayamba kucha ndipo maluwa amaikidwa. Panthawiyi, kuchepetsa kutentha kwa 4-6 ° C ndikuchepetsa kuthirira.
  • M'dzinja ndi m'nyengo yozizira, ma orchids amapita kumalo osungira ndi maluwa (momwe angasamalire orchid m'nyengo yachisanu? Mitundu yambiri ikuphuka kumayambiriro kwa nthawi yayitali kapena nthawi ya dormancy. M'nyengo yozizira, chisamaliro chimaphatikizapo kuwonjezeka kuwala ndi kuchepetsa kuthirira.

Tinawauza zambiri zokhudza zinsinsi komanso zovuta za chisamaliro cha orchid kunyumba.

Kodi ndi mitundu yanji yomwe ilipo pokonzanso kunyumba?

Mitundu ina ya orchid imakula bwino m'nyumba.:

  • Ng'ombe;
  • phalaenopsis;
  • cambria;
  • vanda;
  • denbrobium;
  • zygapetalum
Chenjerani: Yotchuka kwambiri pakali pano ndi maluwa okongola kwambiri omwe amatha kusintha - phalaenopsis.

Kodi zomera zimakula bwanji pa mafakitale?

Mankhwala a orchids omwe amakula m'mabotchi ndi malo obiriwira a Thailand ndi Holland amagulitsidwa pamsika wa Russia. (Zomwe mungachite mutagula orchid komanso momwe mungazisamalire kunyumba zingapezeke pano). Posachedwapa, kulima ma orchids mu wowonjezera kutentha kwakhala kulikonse. Kuyambira kubzala mpaka kuonekera pa maalumali ndi pafupi chaka. Kukula kwa orchid kumatheka m'njira zingapo:

  • vegetative (magawano a zigawo);
  • "ana" (mababu);
  • banja (kuchokera ku mbewu);
  • zopatsa mphamvu (chifukwa cha magawani pakati pa labotale).

Kukula kwa zomera kumayamba ndi siteji "ana":

  1. "Ana" amaikidwa mu trays imene amakula kwa masabata 30 motsogoleredwa ndi ogwira ntchito wowonjezera kutentha.
  2. Kenaka iwo amawongolera pamoto wowonekera, momwe iwo amakulira mwachindunji mu wowonjezera kutentha.
  3. Liwu lodziƔika bwino za chomera (mtundu, mtundu) imayikidwa pamphika ndipo imatumizidwa ku wowonjezera kutentha kumene iwo adzakulire kwa masabata khumi.
  4. Kenaka orchids amasunthira kumsonkhanowo ndikuyikidwa mu mphika wapadera wa pulasitiki yomwe ili ndi masabata 16.
  5. Pambuyo pa nthawiyi, amaikidwa m'phika lalikulu ndikukhalamo mpaka chiyambi cha kukula kwa peduncle (masabata 3-4).
  6. Pa siteji yotsiriza, ma orchids amaikidwa mu gawo lapadera "lachisanu" la wowonjezera kutentha, ndi kutentha kwa 19 ° C.

Lamulo la kukula kwa orchids ndi: njira yabwino yotulutsa mpweya wabwino, kutulutsa mpweya wabwino ndi kutentha; Kuunikira kokwanira kuti uwonjeze bwino ntchito ya photosynthesis; kupereka nthaka yabwino ndi feteleza.

Kodi ziyenera kukhala zotani kwa mitundu yoweta?

  1. Kutentha. Orchids amasiyanasiyana ndi thermophilicity. Mitundu ya kumudzi imakonda kutentha: m'chilimwe - 18-23 ° C, m'nyengo yozizira 15-18 ° C.
  2. Chinyezi. Kwa ulimi wothirira, madzi amagawanika (otsika) amagwiritsidwa ntchito, omwe ndi madigiri angapo otentha kuposa firiji. Kuthirira ndibwino kuti muyese - kuyambira kamodzi katatu pa sabata pa nthawi ya kukula, kuti musayambe kuvunda mizu. Madzi sayenera kugwedezeka mu nthaka. Chinyezi sichiyenera kupitirira 70%, ngati sichikwanira, chomera chiyenera kupopedwa ndi botolo.
  3. Kuunikira. Orchid ndi chomera chachikondi. M'nyengo ya chilimwe, zimakhala bwino pawindo lazitali-shade - kuti musapezeke kutentha, filimu yapadera imagwiritsidwa ntchito (mungathe kupeza komwe mungaike ma orchids m'nyumba, apa). Pofuna kulimbikitsa kulima m'nyengo yozizira, ma orchids amawalitsidwa ndi nyali zowala.
Ndikofunikira: Ngati palibe kuwala, masamba amawala ndi kutambasula.

Milandu yeniyeni ndi zikhalidwe za orchid, werengani m'nkhaniyi.

Ndondomeko ndi sitepe ya Oyamba kumene angamere maluwa

Kukonzekera nthaka ndi mphamvu

Pulasitiki (makamaka mwachangu) kapena mphika wa ceramic porous ndi malo okwanira kuti mizu, yokhala ndi maenje a madzi, ikuyenera kukhala ngati chidebe. Pansi pa mphikawo ali ndi chigawo cha ngalande (miyala yaying'ono, mapepala apakati).

Gawo la nthaka liyenera kukhala ndi zigawo zomwe sungasunge chinyezi: moss, makungwa a mtengo, malasha, ndowe, dongo la granulated. Dothi ladothi silinapangidwe pansi.

Technology

  • Kuchokera kuzu (kapena kupatula chitsamba). Mmene mungamere chomera kuchokera muzu? Gawoli limaphatikizidwa ndi kukonzekera kwa chitsamba chachikulu. Chomeracho chimachotsedwa mu mphika, mizu imachotsedwa mu nthaka. Mankhwala (anyezi) aakulu amadziwika, omwe amagawidwa ndi mpeni kuti 4 pseudobulbs akhalebe mbali iliyonse. Zigawo zimakonzedwa ndi makala ndi zouma. Chiwembu chirichonse chimabzalidwa mu mphika wosiyana. Nthawi yoyamba, m'malo modiririra kupopera mbewu.
  • Orchid. Kodi mungakule bwanji kuchokera mababu omwe amagulidwa mu sitolo? Pseudobulbs yaing'ono imadulidwa ndi mpeni; mabalawo ali ndi ufa ndi makala ndipo mababu amaikidwa mu moss.
  • Kuyambira cuttings. Mphukira (10-15 cm) imadulidwa ndi mpeni wosabala kuchokera ku chomera ndi mizu iwiri kapena yambiri ya mpweya. Zigawo zimapangidwa ndi fungicide ndi makala. Cuttings amaikidwa pamalo osanjikiza mu chidebe cha pulasitiki chodzaza ndi moss. Pamene mizu ikuwonekera, zigawozo zabzala miphika. Njirayi ikuchitika kumapeto kwa nyengo.
  • Kuchokera kwa ana. Mwana amawonekera pa tsinde pamwambamwamba ndi kutentha (pamwamba pa 28 ° C). Mwanayo amagawanika pamene masamba ake amafika kukula kwa masentimita atatu, ndipo amangiridwa ndi moss. Mwamsanga pamene mphukira imakula masentimita asanu asanu kuchokera pansi pa mwanayo, imayikidwa mu mphika ndi dothi. Kuti amange mizu yawo, mwana amafunika pafupifupi miyezi isanu ndi umodzi. N'zotheka kulimbikitsa maonekedwe a makanda ndi chithandizo cha mankhwala osokoneza bongo - cytokinin paste.
  • Kuchokera ku mbewu. Nthawi yowonongeka ndi njira yosawerengeka yolima orchids. Mbewu zipsa kwa miyezi isanu ndi umodzi, kenako zimamera mu botolo lopanda kanthu, zodzala ndi moss kapena zodzaza ndi maziko a agar-agar. Ngati mbeu yamera (imatenga miyezi itatu kufikira chaka), mbande zimabzalidwa pamsana wa pine makungwa ndi moss, zomwe zimatha kuyembekezera kubwezera mu mphika kwa chaka chimodzi.

Mavuto ndi mavuto

  1. Ngati pali kusowa kwa chinyezi ndi kuwala, masamba kapena masamba angagwe.
  2. Mukamwetsa masamba ambiri mumakhala ouma.
  3. Ngati zinthu zotentha zimatha, masambawo adzasweka.
  4. Ngati maluwa a orchid samasamba, m'pofunikira kukonza "kutentha kwapadera" kwa iwo - kuonjezera kusiyana pakati pa usana ndi usiku kutentha kwa madigiri 8-10.
  5. Pamene mizu ikuyang'ana kunja kwa mphika, izi zikutanthauza kuti chomeracho sichikhala ndi malo okwanira ndipo chiyenera kuikidwa mu chidebe chachikulu.

Matenda ndi tizirombo

Akakulira panyumba, amaluwa amawombera ndi tizirombo ndipo amatha kudwala.. Ganizirani zomwe zimavulaza thanzi la maluwa:

  • schitovka (madontho amdima ndi ntchentche amaoneka pamasamba);
  • mapiritsi (masamba amasanduka chikasu ndi kugwa);
  • whitefly (chomera chosungunuka).
  • powdery mildew (maluwa ali ndi maluwa oyera);
  • nthendayi (yomwe imadziwika ndi maonekedwe a bulauni);
  • zowola

Timalimbikitsa kuwonera kanema za ma orchid tizirombo ndi matenda:

Zinsinsi

  1. Kuti mukhale ndi chinyezi choyenera, teknoloji yapadera yothirira imayikidwa: mphika wa maluwa umayikidwa mu chidebe chodzaza madzi pamene dothi lidyetsedwa (pambuyo pa mphindi 3-5), chidebecho chimasamalidwa ndikuyikidwa pa kabati kukatunga madzi owonjezera pamabowo.
  2. Maluwa a orchid amafunika kubzala pamtunda wozama, popeza masambawo amayamba kuvunda panthawi yochepa, ndipo pammera waukulu mbewuyo imakhala yosasunthika mumphika. Pazochitika zonsezi, kukula kumachedwa.
  3. Ndi bwino kubzala orchid mu chikhalidwe chatsopano, pamene yayamba ndi kupumula kwa kanthawi. Ndikofunika kuchotsa malo onse owonongeka ndi ofewa ndikukonza kudula ndi makala. Pambuyo pa kusintha kwa mlungu sabata simukulimbikitsidwa kumwa madzi (pambuyo pa masiku atatu mukhoza kuyamba kupopera mankhwala).
  4. Katemera wa adyo akhoza kuikidwa mumphika kuti awopsyeze ntchentche za maluwa.
  5. Mizu ya orchid imakhudzidwa ndi zithunzi zamakono, kotero mphika wonyezimira ungakhale njira yabwino yobzala.
  6. Kulima kumayambira ndi matenda osagwira komanso oyenera kusamalira mitundu.
  7. Kupaka zovala zapamwamba kumabweretsa miyezi ya chitukuko champhamvu komanso kuthirira.

Kutsiliza

Zodabwitsa komanso zodabwitsa zosiyanasiyana za maluwa a orchid sizimasiya anthu osakonda kwambiri munda wamaluwa. Kukongola kwa orchids kumafuna kusamala kwambiri. ndi zofunikira kuti zikhale bwino, popanda mbewu yomwe ikhoza kufa.