Zizindikiro, zithunzi ndi zochitika za European cyclamen: njira zitatu zosiyanitsira izo ndi mitundu ya Persian

Cyclamens nthawi yayitali inali ndi malo oyenerera mu kusonkhanitsa olima maluwa. Zomera zimayamikira maonekedwe awo okongola, maluwa okongola komanso obiriwira. European cyclamen ndi yotchuka kudziko lakwawo ngati munda wamunda. Muzitali zamtunda, zimakhala ngati chomera chamkati.

M'nkhaniyi tidzatiuza mtundu wa chomera ndi kupereka tsatanetsatane. Mudzaphunzira malamulo omwe mukuyenera kuwatsatira kuti maluwawo akule ndikukula.

Malongosoledwe a botaniki ndi mbiriyakale

Dzina lachilatini lotchedwa Cyclamen purpurascens ndi la European kapena la purple peclamen, ndilo limodzi mwa mitundu ya banja Primrose. Osatha herbaceous chomera chakum'mwera kwa Ulaya. M'madera otentha amamera kuthengo ndipo amalimidwa m'minda. Kawirikawiri zomera zimatchedwa alpine violet kapena dryakva. Tizilombo toyambitsa matenda timene timakhala tambirimbiri, timene timakhala ndi masentimita 10. Mphukira imakula pamwamba ponseponse.

Masamba a petiolate, owoneka ngati mtima. Pakati pa mapepala a pepala ndizochepa zazing'ono. Mbali yamtundu ndi yobiriwira, ndipo pansi pake - ndi nsalu yofiirira. Maluwawo amawoneka ngati mapiko a gulugufe, kukula kwake ndi masentimita 2. Maluwawo amajambula pansalu zosiyanasiyana za pinki ndi zofiira. Maluwa ndi yaitali, mpaka miyezi isanu. Panthawi imeneyi, mtundu wa alpine violet umafalikira kununkhira kokoma.

Chenjerani: Nsalu yotchedwa purple cyclamen ilibe nthawi yopuma yosiyana. Sichitha masamba ake, kusunga kukongoletsa kwake kwa chaka chonse.

Kodi mungasiyanitse bwanji fomu ya Persian?

Kwa wolima bwino wodziwa zambiri sangakhale ovuta kusiyanitsa pakati pa mitundu iwiri ya zomera zomwe zimakonda kwambiri. Kodi maonekedwe a maluwa ndi ati:

  • Tuber dongosolo - Mitundu ya Persia, yomwe imakhala ndi timadzi timene timakhala ndi masentimita 15, ndipo mizu ikukula pansi. Mu mizu yotchedwa European cyclamen mizu imapezeka mu tuber.
  • Maluwa nthawi - Persian blooms kuyambira autumn mpaka mochedwa yozizira, Europe - mu kasupe ndi chilimwe.
  • Kukula ndi mtundu wa maluwa, masamba - Mitambo ya ku Ulaya ndi yaying'ono kuposa Persian, kutalika kwa maluwa ndi 2 cm, kukula kwake kwa masamba ndi 3-4 masentimita. Zomera zimasiyana ndi fungo lamphamvu, labwino la maluwa. Mbali ya kumbuyo kwa masamba a alpine violet violet, mu Persian cyclamen ndi wobiriwira.

Za kukongola kwabwino ndi malamulo a chisamaliro cha Persian cyclamen, talemba apa.

Onani vidiyoyi pa kusiyana pakati pa European and Persian cyclamen:

Chithunzi

Chithunzicho chikuwonetsa Europe ndi Persian cyclamen, mukhoza kuona kusiyana pakati pawo.

European


Persian

Mankhwala

Msuzi ndi kulowetsedwa kwa mizu ya alpine violet zimathandiza ndi matenda osiyanasiyana a ziwalo zoberekera za akazi, rheumatism, neuralgia. Makamaka amagwiritsira ntchito mankhwala ochotsera cyclamen pofuna kuchiza ziwalo za kupuma. Madzi a chomeracho ali ndi alkaloids, saponins, zofunika mafuta, astringents. Iwo ali ndi zotsutsa-zotupa ndi zotsatira za antiseptic.

Pochizira chimfine, sinusitis ndi sinusitis mankhwala amapatsidwa, omwe ali ndi madzi a cyclamen "Sinuforte", "Neonox".

Ndikofunikira: Zomwe zili ndi poizoni mizu ya chomera zingasokoneze moyo wa munthu. Mankhwalawa amagwiritsidwa ntchito mosamala, atakambirana ndi dokotala.

Kulima malamulo

Kubzala amasankha chophika chaching'ono. Mphamvu ziyenera kukhala 2-3 masentimita kuposa kukula kwake kwa tuber. Zomwe zilibezo zilibe zofunikira, zingakhale zowonjezera kapena pulasitiki. Mukamabzala, nkofunika kukumbukira kuti tuber ili m'manda. Kuwombera sikuchitika kawirikawiri - kamodzi pa zaka 3-4. Nthawi yabwino ndi kuyamba kwa mwezi wa March. Pa nthawi yomweyi, mwana wamkazi wamagazi amasiyanitsa kubereka.

Onani vidiyoyi pa malamulo a cyclamen transplantation (kutsetsereka):

Kusankhidwa ndi kuunikira

European cyclamen imafuna kusankha mosamala malo. Duwa likufuna kuwala kodabwitsa. Mawindo akum'mawa ndi kumadzulo akulimbikitsidwa. Kumbali yakumwera, mumayenera kumeta mthunzi wabwino kuti musapsere pamoto.

Mphepo yatsopano ndi yofunikira kwa Alpine violet. Zimakhudza zonunkhira, mphika sungakhoze kuikidwa khitchini kapena kusuta kuzungulira. Kumapeto kwa kasupe, maluwa amaikidwa pa khonde kapena m'munda, nthawi zonse mumthunzi wokha.

Zosowa za nthaka

Gawo lapansi liyenera kukhala lotayirira komanso lopepuka. Pa nthaka yolemetsa, phokoso lofiira limakhala pansi kumbuyo. Njira yabwino yogulira kusakaniza kosakwanira m'sitolo. Gawo lachonde lodzala likhoza kukonzekera pandekha, muyenera:

  • tsamba lapansi;
  • peat;
  • humus;
  • mchenga wonyezimira.
Bungwe: Kutsimikizika kwa nthaka acidity ndi 5.5-6.5 pH (otsika asidi kapena ndale).

Kusamalira kunyumba: Malangizo ndi zidule

Maphunziro a moyo wa pakhomo amapangidwa magawo awiri: zomera ndi mpumulo. Nyengo yokula ikuchokera ku kasupe mpaka kumapeto kwa autumn. Panthawiyi, kutentha kwa mpweya ndi 15-18 °. M'nyengo yozizira, duwa limasamutsidwa ku chipinda chozizira, kumene 12-15 °. Panthawi yopumula, ziphuphu zimagona, koma masamba amakhala obiriwira.

Wowola maluwa mapesi ndi masamba sangathe kulekanitsidwa ndi tuber. Iwo achotsedwa, akuwombera kuzungulira mzere.

  • Kuthirira. Pa nyengo yolima nyengo kuthirira ndi nthawi zonse ndi yunifolomu. Musalole kuyanika ndi kuchepa kwa madzi. Njira yabwino - m'munsi madzi okwanira mu poto. Madzi ndi ofewa, amakhala, kutentha. Kufunika kwa chinyezi kumayang'aniridwa pamwamba pa dothi - ngati likuuma, ndi nthawi yomwetsera maluwa. M'nyengo yozizira, chinyezi chacheperachepera.
  • Kupaka pamwamba. Pakati pa kukula kwachangu ndi maluwa, zomera zimadyetsedwa sabata iliyonse. Zida zopangira feteleza zimagwiritsidwa ntchito. Kukonzekera kwa maluwa ndi koyenera, koma mlingo wovomerezeka uli wochepa. M'nyengo yozizira, kudyetsa sikuchitika. Zovala zapamwamba ziyenera kukhala za nayitrogeni, izi zimapangitsa kuti tuber.
  • Kuwaza. Purple cyclamen moipa amakhudzidwa ndi transplantation. Ndondomekoyi imachitika kawirikawiri - 1 nthawi muzaka 3-4. Icho chimapangidwa ndi njira ya kusintha, ndi zovuta kwambiri ku mizu. Mzere wothirira umathiridwa mu mphika wawukulu, malo omasuka kuzungulira tuber ali ndi nthaka yatsopano.

Onani vidiyoyi pa malamulo oyang'anira cyclamen:

Matenda wamba ndi tizirombo

Amagetsi a cyclamen ndi bowa ndi mabakiteriya. Kuzindikiritsa matendawa komanso chithandizo cha panthaƔi yake chingathandize kupulumutsa mbewu.

  1. Madzi ovunda - Matenda a bakiteriya, amawonetseredwa mu kuvunda kwa tuber. Zizindikiro: kuthamanga, kutentha kwa masamba ndi mapesi a maluwa, zonunkhira zochokera kunthaka. Palibe mankhwala, maluwawo amawonongedwa kuti athetse kufalikira kwa matenda.
  2. Fusarium - Matenda a fungalomu omwe amakhudza zida za maluwa. Kutenga kumapezeka kudzera muzu. Zizindikiro: masamba akutembenukira chikasu kuchokera pamwamba. Chithandizo: kuthirira ndizitsulo, kupopera mbewu "Topsino-M".
  3. Grey kuvunda - spores wa bowa amalembedwa ndi mphepo kapena madzi. Zimakhudzidwa ndi zomera zomwe zimakhala ndi mvula yambiri komanso kutentha. Zizindikiro: imvi nkhungu pa masamba, mapesi a maluwa ndi tsinde lamdima, kenako amafa. Chithandizo: Chotsani mbali zomwe zakhudzidwa, yambani chomera ndi systemic fungicide.

Odziwika kwambiri ndi adani a cyclamen ndi nkhupakupa, thrips, nsabwe za m'masamba, tizilombo ting'onoting'ono.

  1. Cyclamen mite - tizilombo tating'onoting'ono (0.1-0.3 mm), zomwe sizingatheke panthawi yoyesedwa. Tengerani nkhumba kumbuyo kwa masamba. Pamene gulu lalikulu likufanana ndi fumbi losanjikiza. Ntchito yofunikira ya tizilombo imayambitsa kukomoka kwa masamba ndi maluwa, kupotoza tsinde, kuchepetsa kukula. Masamba opatsirana amatha, chomeracho chimaphatikizidwa ndi yankho la Agravertina losakaniza sopo.
  2. Aphid - wodwala tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, kudyetsa madzi awo. Tizilombo timasungidwa kumbuyo kwa masamba, koma ndi kubereka kwakukulu kumaonekera. Njira ya Aktara ya tizilombo ingathandize kuwathetsa. Musanayambe kukonzekera, ndibwino kuti musambe masamba pamadzi.
  3. Shchitovka - tizilombo tawoneka ngati mdima wambiri pa tsinde ndi masamba. Zilibe mphamvu, amadya kukhala pamalo amodzi. Kuwombera kwachikulire kumachotsedwa ndi swab oviikidwa mu mowa. Mphutsi zowonongeka zimachotsedwa ndi tizilombo "Karbofos", "Aktellik".
  4. Kupuma - zamoyo zambiri zowonongeka zoyera kapena zakuda. Tizilombo timadyetsa maluwa ndi masamba, zomwe zimayambitsa mabala a bulauni ndi kumenyana. Zambiri zimayenda, akuluakulu amathawira ku zomera zoyandikana nawo. Kuchotsa tizilombo kumathandiza katatu mankhwala "Condiforom", "Kinmiksom" kapena "Ditoksom."
Chenjerani: Zomera zodwala zimatulutsidwa nthawi yomweyo ndi zomera zathanzi. Kulekanitsa kudzateteza kufala kwa matenda.

Zinthu zoberekera

Mbalame yotchedwa Alpine violet imabereka nthambi yothandizana ndi mbewu. Njira yoyamba ndi yophweka pakupha ndipo imakulolani kupeza msanga maluwa. Ndikwanira kudula chida cha tuber ndikuchima mu mphika wosiyana.

Ndikofunika kugwiritsa ntchito nthaka yosasunthika. Zokwanira padziko lonse zosakaniza kwa maluwa, zomwe zawonjezeredwa ndi mchenga. Mwana wa tuber waikidwa pansi.

Kufalitsa mbewu kumatenga nthawi. Pakhomo, padzafunikanso kupukuta maluwa. Musanabzala, mbewu iyenera kuviikidwa mu njira ya zircon kwa maola 20-24. Mbewu imafesedwa mu chisakanizo cha peat ndi vermiculite (1: 1), owazidwa ndi mchenga pamwamba.

Pambuyo pa kutuluka kwa mphukira yophimbidwa ndi filimu yakuda. Kumera kumatengera pafupifupi mwezi umodzi, nthawi zonse moisten nthaka. Zotsatira za mbande zimakula mu miyezi 8-14.

Penyani kanema pa kubzala kwa European cyclamen ndi tubers ndi mbewu:

Zomera zofanana

Mtundu wa Cyclamen uli ndi mitundu 20, pakati pawo:

  • African cyclamen - mbali ya khalidwe la zomera - maonekedwe a peduncles pamaso pa masamba. Nthawi yamaluwa kuyambira masika mpaka autumn, ikutsatiridwa ndi tsamba kugwa ndi nthawi yochepa. Mtundu wa masambawo ndi wofiira, masamba ndi 15 masentimita awiri.
  • Cyclamen ya Collachian - mitundu yosawerengeka yotchulidwa m'buku la Red Book. Maluwa ndi ang'onoang'ono, masamba ndi obiriwira opanda mtundu.
  • Kanyumba kapena Neapolitan Cyclamen - malo ake obadwira ndi gombe la Mediterranean la France ndi Turkey. Zosindikizidwa masamba ndi khalidwe la silvery.
  • Kosam Cyclamen - anapezeka pachilumba cha Kos, ku Crimea ndi ku Caucasus. Iwo umamasula mu kasupe, pamakhala oyera, pinki ndi pabuka. Pa masamba a chitsanzo cha siliva-marbled.
  • Cyclamen Cypriot - mitundu yosawerengeka ikukula pamtunda. Maluwa ndi onunkhira, oyera kapena pinki ndi nsalu zofiirira. Nthawi yamaluwa kuyambira September mpaka January-February.

Kuti mumve zambiri zokhudza mtundu uliwonse wa cyclamen, mudzapeza m'nkhani ino, komanso za mitundu yosiyanasiyana yomwe imachokera ku mbewu yosakaniza "Cyclamen Mix", komanso momwe angayesedwere.

Kutsiliza

European cyclamen si maluwa ambiri omwe amapezeka mkati, ndi otsika kwambiri pakudziwika kwa a Persia osiyanasiyana. Zitsamba zowonongeka nthawi zonse ndi kusamalidwa bwino ndikutsatira malamulo pa nthawi yobereka zimakongoletsera mkati nthawi iliyonse ya chaka. Osati zokha zokondweretsa zokondweretsa, koma thanzi limapereka abambo wofiirira cyclamen. Tincture ndi madzi kuchokera ku mizu zidzathetsa sinusitis ndi matenda ena.