Momwe mungamerekere chitumbuwa m'munda: kubzala, kutsirira, kudulira, fetereza

Popanda chitumbuwa, n'zovuta kulingalira munda weniweni. Pafupifupi pa tsamba lililonse timalima chitumbuwa m'munda. Ndipo nthawi zambiri si mtengo umodzi, koma angapo. Zipatso za chitumbuwa ndi zokoma, zathanzi, zonunkhira, ndi khalidwe lokoma-lowawa, lodziwika kwa ambiri kuyambira ali mwana.

Kuonjezerapo, chitumbuwa chimakhala bwino kwambiri ndipo chimayang'ana ndi mitengo yonse ya zipatso. Ndipo kulima yamatcheri ndi kumusamalira sikovuta kwambiri.

Momwe mungasankhire malo a chitumbuwa m'munda

Komabe, kuti chitumbuwa chizoloŵe bwino ndi kupereka nkhope yochuluka, m'pofunika kutsata zofunikira zonse kuti zikule bwino.

Kufunika kokwanira kotani kwa chitumbuwa

Kuunika kumakhala bwino - yamatcheri amakonda kuwala kowala komanso malo omasuka. Koma amatha kukula ndikukula bwino mu penumbra, koma pakadali pano fruiting ndi liwiro la kucha kwa zipatso zidzachepa.

Kodi chitumbuwa chikufuna nthaka?

Olima munda omwe ali ndi chitumbuwa pa webusaitiyi ayenera kudziwa mtundu wa nthaka yomwe amamukonda. Mtengo udzakula bwino pa dothi lachonde. Amamera pa mchenga, mchenga, mchenga, loamy, ndi alkalini kapena osalowerera ndale. Chinthu chachikulu ndikutanthauzira molondola dothi la pH ndipo, ngati kuli koyenera, lizisintha mwa kuyika zigawozo zoyenera.

Ndikofunikira! Musabzale yamatcheri pa dothi losavuta. The optimum acidity wa nthaka yamatcheri ndi 7, 0.
Ngati dothi lili losavuta, limakhala losafunika kapena lopangidwa ndi alkali, mwachitsanzo, powonjezera laimu, choko wothira, miyala ya dolomitic, ufa wa dolomitic, ndi zina zotero.

Nthaka sayenera kukhala yoyera, yolemetsa - mchenga umabweretsamo, komanso madzi - mtengo samakonda chinyezi. Choncho, sankhani malo okhala pansi pamadzi - zochitika zosapitirira 1.8-2 m.

Ndi nthawi iti yabwino kubzala chitumbuwa

Palibe yankho lomveka bwino la funso pamene kuli bwino kubzala chitumbuwa masika kapena autumn. Zidzakhala zomveka kutsatira ndondomeko yotsatirayi: kumpoto, kumene chisanu chazirala kufika -30-40 ° С, amafesa chitumbuwa kokha m'nyengo yamasika; kum'mwera madera, mbande obzalidwa masika ndi autumn, kapena mbande amawonjezeka m'nyengo yozizira kuti abzalidwe masika.

Kubzala chitumbuwa mu kasupe

Nthawi yodzala yamatcheri m'chaka chiri pamaso pa mphukira, pafupifupi pachiyambi kapena pakati pa April, malingana ndi kuti ndi oyambirira kapena kumapeto kwa kasupe. Ngati mwaphonya mphindi ino ndipo masamba adzatseguka, ndiye mitengoyi ikudwala ndipo sizingatheke kukhala mizu.

Nthawi zambiri anabzala yamatcheri m'chaka kumpoto ndi pakati msewu. Izi zimakhala chifukwa cha nyengo yovuta ya frosty, yomwe mtengo umakhoza kufa, udabzala mu kugwa. Nthaka yobzala yamatcheri m'chaka iyenera kukhala yopanda chisanu, zouma, tsiku - yopanda mphamvu, dzuwa, palibe mpweya.

Mbali za kubzala kwadzinja

Nthawi yabwino ndi kutha kwa September - kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa October. Pambuyo pake safesa, kuthekera kwa imfa ya mizu ya mbeu kuchokera ku chisanu ndipamwamba. Anamera mtengo wobzalidwa - owazidwa ndi wosanjikiza wa dziko lapansi mwa mawonekedwe a chitunda - 35-40 masentimita kuchokera pansi pamwamba.

Mukudziwa? Kodi kuli bwino kulima yamatcheri pa webusaitiyi? Ngati ili ndi chitunda chotseguka kapena phiri laling'ono, ndiye pamenepo. Musamabzala mwachindunji pansi pa mipanda, mipanda, nyumba kapena mitengo ina.

Momwe mungabzala chitumbuwa mmera

Mawu ochepa okhudza mmene mungabwerere chitumbuwa. Musanabzala, sapling imayang'ananso kachiwiri - mizu, nthambi, kuti zisamawonongeke ndi tizirombo. Ngati pali mbande zingapo, dera lomwe lili pansi pawo limapangidwira ndipo limapereka mtunda pakati pawo - 3-3.5 mamita, ndi pakati pa mizere - 3.5-4 mamita.

Pokhapokha, chitumbuwa ndi chikhalidwe chosadzichepetsa, kubzala ndi kusamalira si ntchito yamphamvu. Koma mutabzala mitengo yambiri, ndibwino kuti mukhale ndi othandizira.

Pitani kukonzekera

Dulani dzenje pasanakhale - kwa masabata 2-4 (ngati n'kotheka) musanafike. Panthawi imeneyi, nthaka idzauma mokwanira, kukhuta ndi mpweya ndi kutenga zonse feteleza zogwiritsidwa ntchito. Kukula kwake kwa dzenje la mbatata - 70 * 70 * 70.

Koma apa akuyang'ana pa chitukuko cha mizu - ngati yakhazikika, yakula bwino, ndiye dzenje likukulitsidwa. Dziko lofulidwa ligawanika mofanana mofanana ndi gawo limodzi lazophatikiza ndi feteleza.

Malamulo obwera

Nkhono yamatabwa yachitsulo (chithandizo cha mmera) komwe nthaka imasakaniza 50/50 ndi feteleza imayendetsedwa pakatikatikati mwa dzenje. Chomwe chimapangitsa chitumbuwachi kukula bwino ndikukula chimakhala pazinthu zakuthupi (humus) ndi kuwonjezera potaziyamu kloride, phulusa ndi superphosphate.

Pamtunda wa nthaka unayika mtengo kuti khosi lalikulu lidutse 3-5 masentimita pamwamba pa nthaka. Ndipo amayamba kufotokoza mowongoka mizu ndi dziko kumbali zonse, nthawi zonse kukakamiza, kugwirizanitsa dziko ndi chikhato cha dzanja lawo, ndiyeno nkuyendetsa dzenje pansi. Potsirizira pake, thunthu limamangirizidwa ku msomali wopangidwa ndi nyundo.

Mukudziwa? Ngati mizu ya mtengo ndi youma, imasungidwa kwa madzi kwa maola 2.5-3.5 musanadzalemo, ndibwino kuti muyike m'munda wamaluwa.

Kodi kusamalira yamatcheri m'munda, malangizo ndi zidule

Pali zifukwa zambiri zothandiza kusamalira yamatcheri, omwe ayenera kutsatira.

Malamulo a kuthirira Cherry

Pamene chitumbuwacho chibzalidwa, dothi ladothi limaponyedwa pamtunda wa dzenje, 20-25 masentimita, ndipo mosamala mu pulasitiki yomwe imapezeka pafupi ndi nyemba, pang'onopang'ono kuthira madzi - 1.5-2 zidebe. Madzi akawathira pambuyo pa ulimi wothirira, nthaka ikuyandikana. M'tsogolo, mtengo umathirira ngati pakufunika, kupeŵa madzi owonjezera.

Momwe mungaperekerere chitumbuwa

Kupititsa patsogolo ndi kuchepetsa kulima yamatcheri moyenera ntchito feteleza. Zaka 2 zoyambirira mutabzala sikoyenera kudyetsa yamatcheri. Pa nthawiyi, mtengo uli ndi zakudya zokwanira zomwe zimayikidwa mu dzenje lakudzala.

M'chaka chachitatu pamaso pa maluwa, nayitrogeni okhala ndi kukonzekera amayamba. Ndi bwino kuchita izi mwa ulimi wothirira, mwachitsanzo, kuchepetsa madzi otentha mumadzi - 25 g / 10 l. Pa maluwa yamatcheri amadyetsa ndi humus, kompositi kapena zitosi, komanso mu mawonekedwe a madzi (kuchepetsedwa ndi madzi) kwa ulimi wothirira. Komanso pakati pa chilimwe - July - kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa August, mutha kupanga kachilombo kamchere kapena mankhwala.

Kutsekedwa kumayambiliro - organic kapena potassium-phosphate feteleza. Iwo amapanga m'dzinja kukumba, ndiyeno kukumba mozama. Koma osapitirira masentimita 15.

Kodi kudula yamatcheri m'munda

Kudulira chitumbuwa mutabzala kudzachitika nthawi yomweyo. Kuchokera mu nthaka mpaka ku nthambi yoyamba iyenera kukhala 50-55 masentimita a mtengo wopanda - mtunda uwu umatchedwa shtamb. Zina zonse za nthambi zomwe zidapangidwa pamtengo zimadulidwa.

Sankhani 6-7 nthambi yamtengo wapatali pamtunda wosachepera 40-45 digiri ku thunthu, yomwe idzakhala maziko a korona wamtsogolo, ndi kufupikitsa iwo ndi masentimita 7-10.

Nthambi zina zonse zimadulidwa.

Mukudziwa? Kukonza kulikonse kochitidwa bwino komanso molondola. Nthambi zodulidwa pansi pa "zero", ndiko kuti, popanda kusiya hemp. Ndipo malo odulidwa amachiritsidwa ndi phula la munda.
M'tsogolomu, chaka chilichonse, kudulira yamatcheri - mupitirize kupanga korona, kuchotsa zouma kapena nthambi zodwala, komanso nthawi zonse muzu, ukukula.

Mmene mungatetezere chitumbuwa m'nyengo yozizira

Kawirikawiri, chitumbuwa ndi mtengo wosasana ndi chisanu, umalekerera pansi-zero kutentha ndi hibernates kawirikawiri. Koma pali nyengo yopanda chisanu, momwe mchenga wa chitumbuwa umayambira poyamba. Chitetezo chosavuta cha vutoli ndikutseka thunthu la mtengo ndi chisanu ndikuliyesa ndi udzu ndi utuchi pamwamba, kuphimba ndi nthambi za spruce.

Kupewa tizilombo ndi matenda

Kusamalira bwino kwa yamatcheri kumathandiza kupewa matenda ndi tizirombo. Matenda onse amatha kupeŵa. M'dzinja, pambuyo poyamba frosts, yamatcheri ndi phesi-based nthaka ndi sprayed ndi 5-6% njira ya urea kuwononga tizilombo toyambitsa matenda.

Njira yowonjezera ya urea imakhudza kwambiri tizilombo towononga, tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ndi bowa.

Ndipo pamaso kupopera mbewu mankhwalawa - Chotsani matenda onse, shrunken, nthambi zosweka, masamba ogwa ndipo mutseke ming'alu pa makungwa. M'malo mwa urea, mankhwala a fungicidal ndi mankhwala osokoneza bongo angagwiritsidwe ntchito - Zineb, Scor, Nitrafen, Flatan, Topsin M, copper oxychloride, bordeaux madzi, ndi zina zotero.

Ndikofunikira! Coccomycosis ndi moniliosis ndi matenda akuluakulu a nkhuku za chitumbuwa. Kupewa kwawo, kupewa matenda ndi ntchito yaikulu ya wamaluwa.
Kuchokera tizilombo kugunda weevil chitumbuwa, aphid, akuwombera njenjete, sawfly. Kuwatsutsana ndi mankhwalawa "Inta Vir", "Spark", "Aktara".

Kusakanikirana njira zopangira

Cherry ikuchulukitsa m'njira zingapo.

Cuttings

Imodzi mwa njira zabwino zobereketsera. Ubwino wake ndikuti mutha kupeza mizu yokhala ndi mizu yosiyanasiyana.

Cuttings adadulidwa mu nthawi ya kukula kukula kwa mtengo - chiyambi - pakati pa June.

Mbali yamtengo wapatali ya nthawi yabwino kwambiri ya kudulidwa idzakhala kulimbika kwa mbali ya tsinde ya mphukira ndi makungwa ofewa pamwamba ndi pakati.

Ndibwino kuti tipewe kuthawa tsiku lozizira m'mawa kapena madzulo. Dulani mphukira 25-30 masentimita kutalika ndi kuchuluka kwa kukula kwa masamba, gawanizani nthambi izi zodulidwa pakati, kusiya awiri internodes pa gawo lirilonse. Kenaka phulani masamba ndi malo mumadzi, momwe mungathe (koma osati) kuonjezera olamulira kukula.

Nthambizi zimamizidwa m'madzi kwa 1.5-2 masentimita. Zimasungidwa kwa maola 12-24 ndipo zimabzala mu wowonjezera kutentha - kuya kwa masentimita 3-4, chiwembu - 8 * 5. Kwa wowonjezera kutentha, peat ndi mchenga zimatengedwa mofanana molingana ndi zofanana, zosakanizika ndi kuziika pansi. Dulani pamwamba ndikuwaza mpaka 2 masentimita ndi mchenga kachiwiri, khalani bwino. Mutabzala bedi locheka pamwamba lomwe liri ndi filimu.

Nthawi zambiri pambuyo masabata 3-4 atayamba mizu kuwonekera, filimuyo imatsitsa pamphepete mwa mpweya wabwino ndi kuuma kwa cuttings. Komanso, pambuyo poti mizu ipangidwe, feteleza imayambitsidwa kwa zomera - madzi akumwa kapena potaziyamu-phosphorous.

The cuttings ndi mizu, osungunuka ndi kusiya kwa dzinja pansi kapena anakumba ndi kusungidwa mpaka kasupe m'chipinda chapansi pa nyumba, pansi. Mwa kubzala ndi kukula kwa cuttings nthawi yachisanu, mu kugwa amalandira awo athunthu bwino chitumbuwa mbande.

Kubalanso kumachokera muzu

Iyi ndi njira yophweka. Mitengo yabwino, yobala zipatso ndi yabwino kwa iye. Pafupi ndi mayi wa chitumbuwa amasankha mphukira za zaka ziwiri zokwanira nthambi ndi mizu yolimba.

Ndikofunikira! Mphukira zikukula mwachindunji kuzungulira thunthu sizitengedwa, chifukwa izi zingawononge mizu ya mtengo wamkulu.
Ndiye iwo amadula mizu ikugwirizanitsa achinyamata osankhidwa ndi tsinde la ana - ndizo zonse. Mu kasupe, mphukira yopatulidwa imakumba ndikubzala pamalo ena. Mbeuyi idzakhala imodzi, ndipo potero, kusunga zizindikiro zonse za mtengo wa makolo.

Kufalitsa mbewu

Kuyambira kugawidwa kuti "okhwima", mbewu zowonongeka. Pochita izi, mafupa a chitumbuwa amauma, kenako mafupa owuma amamizidwa maola ambiri m'madzi. Ndiwo okha omwe anapita kumunsi amasankhidwa kuti amere, ndipo omwe adatuluka amachotsedwa. Mafupa otsala a yamatcheri pamtentha wa 13 ... +15 ° C amaikidwa mu mchenga ndi madzi ndipo amasiyidwa mu chidebe mpaka masika.

Mukudziwa? M'madera okhala ndi nyengo yozizira, miyala ingabzalidwe pakati kapena kumapeto kwa August.
Mutha kuchoka mafupa pazenera, pansi pa nthaka. Monga mukufunira, sungani mchenga kuti usaume. Mbewu yofesedwa imakhala yozama 2-2.5 cm ndi nthawi ya 40-45 masentimita kuchokera kwa wina ndi mzake. Top prutrivayut peat, utuchi. Pambuyo kumera kudakonzedwa kunja.

Komanso, pambuyo pa chomera, mwachizolowezi chisamaliro ndi kusamalira, kuthirira, feteleza ndi organic kanthu kapena mchere feteleza. Mbande kapena kukumba wintering m'chipinda chapansi pa nyumba, kapena kumasiyidwa m'nyengo yozizira ndi yosungira filimu. Mbewu zowonongeka mumasika zimapitsidwira ku malo osatha.

Mitengo yomwe imapezeka mwa njira iyi sikungasunge katundu wa mtengo wa mayi - kukula kwa zipatso, kukoma, zokolola zazosiyana.

Katemera

Pangani mchere wamatcheri pamzu wa mphukira, pa mbande (zowonjezera) kapena pa mbeu imodzi kapena ziwiri. Cuttings kwa inoculation wa 12-15 masentimita ndi 2-3 masamba amatengedwa kumapeto yophukira kapena kumayambiriro yozizira - kwambiri frosts. Ikani kudula mkati kapena pansi pa chisanu, pritrushchenny peat, utuchi.

Katemera amachitika m'chaka - Panthawi yopuma kutaya, iyi ndi nthawi yoyenera ya engraftment. Mungayesetse katemera m'chilimwe, koma, mwinamwake, osakhudzidwa kwambiri. Ngati mutenga katemera m'chilimwe, timadula timatengapo timene timatulutsa. Pali njira ziwiri za katemera. Budding - ndizosavuta komanso kusinthika - ichi ndi chogwirira ntchito. Njira zowonongeka - mugawanika, mu khungwa, mumtsinje, kudula. Zomwe zinachitikira wamaluwa amalangiza oyambitsa kuyamba ndi njira - mugawikana.

Dulani nthambi ya katundu ndikusiya chitsa. Pachimake, amagawanika, amaikamo mowonjezereka ndi kukonzedwa mwatsopano, khungwa lodulidwa ndi mphete. Makungwa a kudula amaikidwa pamtunda.

Kenaka nthambi yogawidwa yokhala ndi chogwirira mwamphamvu primyvayut tepi. Webusaiti ya inoculation imakhala yowongoka kwambiri ndi munda wa pulasitiki, ndipo thumba la pulasitiki likuikidwa phesi lophatikizidwa kuchokera pamwamba. Pambuyo pa masiku 12-15, fufuzani katemera, ngati kudula kwakhazikika, phukusi lichotsedwa.

Kulima chitumbuwa ndi kusamalirako kumatha ngakhale munthu kutenga njira yoyamba m'munda. Kuwonetsa kulimbikira ndikuchita zonse bwino, patadutsa zaka 2-3, mutha kupeza zokolola zoyamba. Onse awiri enieni ndi ophiphiritsa - kusangalala ndi zipatso za manja awo.