Mmene mungagwirire ndi vutoli pa tomato, mankhwala a tomato pa nyumba yawo ya chilimwe

Atapeza zizindikiro za phytophtoras pamalo awo, munda aliyense amayamba kuwomba. M'nkhaniyi tidzakambirana za chilichonse chokhudzana ndi matendawa komanso momwe tingamenyane ndi vutoli pa tomato mu wowonjezera kutentha komanso kunja.

Kodi phytophthora: zifukwa ndi zizindikiro za matenda

Ngati simunakumane ndi vutoli ndipo simukudziwa chomwe chiri, ndiye kuti simunayesetse kukula tomato m'munda wanu. Phytophthora ndi matenda owopsa kwambiri a zomera, omwe amabwera chifukwa cha bowa phytophtorosis, kutanthauza "chomera chodyera" mu Chingerezi. Ndi kukula kwake kofulumira, ikhoza kuwononga mbeu ya tomato mu masiku owerengeka chabe.

Zifukwa za phytophthora

Poyamba, matendawa amachititsa mbatata, ndipo pambuyo pake amasintha kwa tomato. Choncho, chimodzi mwa zifukwa za matendawa ndi pafupi ndi mbatata. Matendawa amapezeka chifukwa cha kutentha kwamtunda, kutsika kapena kutentha kwadzidzidzi, kutaya dzuwa, kukulitsa kubzala kwa phwetekere ndi nayitrogeni.

Munthu akhoza kuzindikira kuonekera kwa phytophtoras pa zomera mu August ndi July. Panthawiyi, dzuwa likutenthabe, usiku watentha kale, ndipo m'mawa pali mame ambiri, omwe amayamba kutuluka pang'onopang'ono, makamaka kuchokera ku tchire. Mphindi uwu ndiwopambana pa chitukuko cha phytophthora.

Zizindikiro za phytophtora pa tomato

Pa zizindikiro zoyambirira za phytophthora pa tomato, mawanga wakuda amayamba kupangidwa pa masamba, kenako zipatso zimavutikira, ndipo pambuyo pake tsinde limakhudzanso. Mawanga akuda pa masamba mumvula amapezeka ndi mafuta obirira - izi ndi bowa. The inflorescences wa tomato mofulumira kutembenukira chikasu, ndiye kutembenukira wakuda ndi kugwa. Zipatso zimakhala ndi zofiira zakuda, zomwe zimachepetsa nthawi. Tsinde lamaphimbidwa ndi mawanga akuda. Matendawa amaletsa msangamsanga chitsamba, chomwe chimadzetsa imfa.

Phytophthora: momwe mungasamalire tomato potseguka pansi

Tomato omwe amakula msanga ndi omwe amadwala matendawa. Ndipo chotero, pofuna kuti musayang'ane ndi vuto ili, nkofunikira kuchita choletsa choletsedwa.

Kupewa Matenda

Tiyeni tione momwe tingatetezere tomato ku phytophthora. Pofuna kuti asamulowe m'munda wanu, Muyenera kutsatira malamulo awa:

  1. Matendawa amachititsa tchire tating'ono chifukwa cha nthaka yopanda chitetezo, motero onetsetsani kuchotsa namsongole m'mabedi a m'munda ndipo musabzale tomato mutatha mbatata ndi mbewu zina zomwe zimayambanso phytophthora.
  2. Musati mukhazikitse tchire moyandikana kwambiri, monga mvula yamvula izi zidzakulitsa chitukuko cha phytophtoras.
  3. Kuthirira kwa tomato kungakhale kokha pansi pazu, monga madzi pamasamba angayambitse matenda.
  4. Malo okhala tomato ayenera kusankha bwino.
  5. Musadwale ndi kuchuluka kwa feteleza ya nayitrogeni yogwiritsidwa ntchito.

Matenda a phwetekere

Ngati muteteza kuti matendawa asagwire ntchito, muyenera kudziwa momwe mungagwiritsire ntchito vutoli pa tomato. Nzosatheka kuthetsa izo, chifukwa nthendayi imafalikira kuchokera ku chitsamba kupita ku chimzake ndipo imapezeka nthawi yomweyo pa zomera zingapo. Chinthu choyamba chochita pa izi ndi kupatula tchire chokhudzidwa kuchokera ku thanzi labwino. Ndibwino kuti muwazule ndi kuwotcha nthawi yomweyo kuti awathandize kufalitsa. Ngati phytophtora ikanthira tchire lalikulu, ndiye kuti mankhwala okhudzana ndi mankhwala adzafunika.

Pamene kuchepa kwa tomato kumachitika ndi kukonzekera mu mawonekedwe a ufa, omwe amadzipukutidwa ndi madzi ndi kutsanulidwa pa zomera. Zopindulitsa kwambiri mwa iwo ndi boric acid, "Gamar", "Fitosporin".

Kodi kuteteza tomato phytophthora mu wowonjezera kutentha

Mpweya wochuluka ndi kutentha kwa madzi ndi zinthu zovuta kwambiri kukula kwa tomato mu wowonjezera kutentha. Mu chipinda chino, ngakhale kuti zomera sizikukhudzidwa kwambiri ndi matenda (popeza palibe chitsimikizo chenicheni cha matenda), koma ngati izi zichitika, kufalikira kwawo kuli kwakukulu. Pofuna kupewa chiwonongeko cha tomato ndi phytophthora, greenhouses ayenera nthawi zonse amawulutsa ndi kuthirira tchire kawirikawiri, koma ambiri.

Mukudziwa? Pofuna kupewa tomato kuti asadwale, zitsulo ziyenera kutengedwa ngakhale musanayambe kufesa, ndikuyesa mbewuzo ndi njira yowonjezera ya potaziyamu permanganate kwa mphindi 20.

Kupopera mankhwala kwa prophylaxis

Funso lofunika kwambiri ndi momwe mungaperekere tomato kuchokera ku phytophtoras, chifukwa mankhwala ambiri angapangitse chipatso chakupha komanso chosayenera. Kuonjezera apo, panthawi ya chithandizo, mukhoza kuwononga tchire, ndikuwapangitsa kuola. Pofuna kuti asawononge chomera, muyenera kudziwa tomato ku matenda.

Muzitetezera, nkofunika kuthirira tomato ndi njira ya mkuwa sulphate mkati mwa sabata mutabzala. Kenaka patapita masiku ena asanu, m'pofunikira kuchitira tchire ndi decoction ya horsetail, kenako masamba amathiridwa ndi iodide potaziyamu kuchepetsedwa ndi madzi. Ndipo patapita masiku asanu, zomera zimatengedwa ndi Epin.

Pofuna chithandizo cha mankhwala opatsirana pogwiritsa ntchito mankhwalawa, njira yothetsera magetsi a 2 l, phulusa la phulusa ndi supuni imodzi ya uchi pa chidebe cha madzi ikhale yoyenera. Njirayi imayambitsidwa ndi tchire sabata iliyonse. Nthawi yabwino kwambiri ya njira zonse ndilo theka loyamba la tsikulo.

Pofuna kupewa zifukwa za chitukuko cha phytophthora mu greenhouses, m'pofunika kuchotsa fumbi ndi mabubu, kuyang'ana ukhondo mkati mwa chipinda.

Phytophtora mankhwala pa tomato

Ngati pankakhala phytophthora pa tomato, ndiye kwa wamaluwa ambiri funsoli limakhala momwe angagwirire ndi mliriwu. Perekani phytophthora m'njira ziwiri:

  • kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala othandizira;
  • kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala ochiritsira.
Ndikofunikira! Pogwiritsa ntchito mankhwalawa pa tomato, amagwiritsidwa ntchito limodzi ndi chakudya chomera chomwe chimalimbitsa chitetezo chawo cha mthupi.
Pamene phytophthora pa tomato imachizidwa ndi mankhwala monga "Alirin-B", "Gamar", "Baikal EM-1". Njira yothetsera yothetsera ndi Bordeaux madzi.

Mmene mungagwirire ndi njira zowonongeka

Timalemba mndandanda wambiri owerengeka mankhwala kuchokera phytophtora pa tomato:

  1. Tincture wa adyo ndi potaziyamu permanganate. Mudzafuna 100 g wa adyo mchere wophika nyama, womwe umathiridwa ndi madzi ndikusiya maola 24. Patapita tsiku, fyuluta ndi kuchepetsa ndi 10 malita a madzi ndi 1 g ya potaziyamu permanganate. Kutaya tchire amafunika sabata iliyonse.
  2. Whey Mu chiwerengero cha 1: 1, whey amayeretsedwa ndi madzi ndi tomato amachiritsidwa kuyambira July tsiku ndi tsiku.
  3. Phulusa. Patangotha ​​masiku asanu ndi awiri atatsika ndikukhala ndi zipatso, phulusa limatulutsidwa pakati pa mizere isanamwe madzi.
  4. Tincture wa udzu wovunda kapena udzu. Mufunikira 1 kg ya udzu kutsanulira 10 malita a madzi, onjezerani orea orea ndikupita kwa masiku 3-4. Patapita kanthawi, mavuto ndi kukonza tchire mu masabata 1.5-2.
  5. Iodini ndi mkaka. Amatenga 10 malita a madzi, 1 lita imodzi ya mkaka wa nonfat, madontho 15 a ayodini, sakanizani chirichonse ndikukonzekera tchire milungu iwiri iliyonse.
  6. Kuphika mchere Khalala imodzi ya mchere, tenga ndowa ya madzi ndikupanga zipatso zazikulu zobiriwira kamodzi pamwezi.
  7. Mkuwa wa sulphate. Pa chidebe cha lita khumi cha madzi onjezerani 2 tbsp. l mkuwa sulphate ndi chifukwa cha njira yothirira madzi.
  8. Yiti Kwa malita 10 a madzi adzafunikira 100 g yisiti. Athandizeni zomera pamene phytophthora akuwonekera.
  9. Kukulunga mizu ya mbande ndi waya wamkuwa asanadzalemo kapena kupyoza zimayambira za tomato. Nkofunika kutenthetsa waya wamkuwa ndi kudula mu zidutswa 4 masentimita ndikuphwanya tsinde pamtunda wa masentimita 10 kuchokera pansi, kenani waya ndikuwongolera.
Nkhondo yolimbana ndi vuto lochedwa tomato ndi mankhwala ochiritsira ndi othandiza ngati kulimbana ndi mankhwala.

Mukudziwa? Copper sulphate ingathandize kuthetsa phytophthora, koma ndi owopsa kwa masamba. Madontho onse a yankho akhoza kuwotcha mbewu, pambuyo pake akhoza kufa.

Mitundu ya tomato yotsutsana ndi Phytophthora

Mwatsoka, palibe mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya tomato yomwe idzakhala yogonjetsedwa ndi phytophthora. Ngakhale kuti ndi osiyana kwambiri, pali ochepa kwambiri omwe amatha kudwala matendawa tomato.

Chifukwa chokula m'mitengo yotentha ndipamene zimakhala zowonjezera mitundu yambiri ya mitundu yosiyanasiyana. Iwo ali otsika, oyambirira ndi kubweretsa zokolola zabwino.

Mitundu yambiri ya tomato:

  • Grandee - amadula zomera ndi zipatso kukula mpaka 0,8 makilogalamu.
  • Oak - zipatso zofiira zolemera mpaka 0,1 makilogalamu.
  • Perseus - tomato wofiira mawonekedwe ophwanyidwa.
  • Persimmon - zokoma zokoma tomato zolemera pafupifupi 0,3 makilogalamu.
  • Chozizwitsa cha Orange - zipatso za lalanje zinagwedezeka pansi, ndipo zimakhala ndi beta-carotene.
Mitundu yambiri imakhala ndi zipatso zazikulu ndi zazikulu. Amatha kukhala wamkulu m'mphepete mwa greenhouses komanso pamalo otseguka. Chofunikira kuti chitukuko chawo chikhale chogwira ntchito pasynkovaniya.

Ndikofunikira! Polima mitundu yodalirika m'munda wawo, ayenera kumangiriridwa ku malo okwera, chifukwa tsinde loyamba limatha chifukwa cha kulemera kwake kwa tomato.
Mitundu yambiri yosagonjetsedwa ya mitundu yambiri ndiyo:

  • De Baro. Tomato mu mawonekedwe a kirimu wolemera mpaka 80 g
  • Mavwende osiyanasiyana amakhala ndi zobiriwira, zofanana ndi mavwende. Zipatso zolemera mpaka 0,1 makilogalamu.
  • Chinsinsi cha agogo. Zipatso zamitundu yofiira ndi zazikulu kwambiri, zolemera makilogalamu 1.
  • Mtima wa chinjoka Zipatso za mthunzi wofiira wa rasipiberi ndi mnofu wa minofu ndi kulemera kwa 0.8 kg.

Kupewa phytophthora

Kuteteza tomato ku phytophthora kumathandiza kusamalira bwino. Chisamaliro chimayendetsedwa malinga ndi mtundu wa chitukuko, chomwe chimagawidwa kuti chikhale chobala komanso chomera.

Pamene njira yowonjezera zomera ikukula mofulumira, koma zipatso zimapangidwa pang'onopang'ono. Ndipo chifukwa cha mapangidwe apatsogolo a zipatso, makamaka mvula yachilimwe, phytophthora sichidzatenga nthawi yaitali kuti ifike. Ndipo kupewa zimenezi, muyenera kuchita pasynkovanie. Izi zidzaonetsetsa kuti mpweya uziyenda bwino ndikufulumizitsa kukula kwa chipatso.

Pamene njira yobereka ikugwira ntchito fruiting. Chiwerengero cha tomato m'tchire chimabweretsa mavuto a mbewu, zomwe zimachepetsa kukana kwake. Pofuna kupewa zochitika za phytophthora, m'pofunika kuyang'anira chiwerengero cha tomato pa chitsamba. Pa nthawi yosasangalatsa, ndibwino kuchepetsa chiwerengero cha zipatso ndikuchotseratu masamba. Choncho mudzaonetsetsa kuti mukutha msanga komanso kuwonjezereka kukana matenda. Pofuna kupewa zochitika za phytophthora m'nyengo yamvula, ngakhale mbewu yokolola imatha kukolola, izi zidzathandiza zomera kuti zilimbana ndi matendawa.

Mmene mungapulumutsire ndikudya tomato okhudzidwa

Tomato omwe agwiritsidwa kale kale ndi phytophthora akhoza kusungidwa ndi chithandizo cha kutentha. Kuti muchite izi, muyenera kutsanulira madzi a 60 ° C mu beseni ndikuchepetsa zipatso zomwe zakhudzidwa. Samalani: tomato ayenera kutenthetsa osati kuphika. Madzi akaphulika, yikani yatsopano mpaka tomato atenthedwa. Pambuyo pochiza madzi, tomato zouma ndi kuikidwa m'malo amdima kapena pawindo kuti zipse. Nthawi yotentha, spores ya phytophthora amafa, ndipo tomato amadya. Zitha kukhalanso zamzitini. Kugonjetsedwa kwa zipatso kuti zisawonongeke zowonongeka sikungathandize, ndipo ziyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito.

Kutaya 100% kwa phytophtora sikungathetsere njira iliyonse. Komabe, kuteteza kuchitika kwa matendawa ndi kulimbana ndi kuchepa kwa tomato kuli m'manja mwanu. Kuti muchite izi, muyenera kutsata ndondomeko yonse yomwe ili pamwambayi, kuti mukhale ndi njira zothandizira, ndiyeno mutenge tomato wathanzi.