Zakale zatsopano m'mikhalidwe yatsopano - Moscow Griot Cherry

Chifukwa cha zakudya zake, chitumbuwa chakhala chikudziwika kwambiri pakati pa okonda zipatso zatsopano ndi mbale zosiyanasiyana zozikidwa pa izo.

Kutchuka uku kumawonjezeka ndi akatswiri mwa kuswana mitundu yatsopano ndi kufufuza makhalidwe atsopano oyambirira a chikhalidwe ichi. Koma palibe amene adzaiwala akale mwina, makamaka popeza adamutumikirabe mokhulupirika.

Kotero "akale", koma akulimbikira mwakhama mu Russia minda, ndi chitumbuwa Griot Moskovsky, kufotokoza kwa mitundu yosiyanasiyana ndi chithunzi cha chipatso chidzapezeka pansipa.

Mbiri yobereketsa ndi dera loswana

M'zaka za m'ma 1950, ku Soviet Union, yomwe inakakamizidwa kuthana ndi mavuto ovuta a chakudya cha pambuyo pa nkhondo, asayansi anayenera kupanga mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mbewu zomwe zingathe kubereka bwino mu nyengo yovuta.

Mmodzi mwa asayansi omwe anachita mwakhama ntchitoyi anali dokotala wa sayansi ya sayansi. Khasan Enikeev (1910-1984).

Wotsatira wotsutsa komanso wotsutsa malingaliro a Michurin, iye anakhala, monga akunena, mu chipangizo chake, kuyambira zaka zingapo asanadziwepo nyengo yozizira-yolimba ya maula ndi chitumbuwa.

Mlembi wa mitundu yambiri ya zipatso wakhala nthawizonse monga cholinga chake cha sayansi kulenga mbewu zotere, zipatso zomwe zikanakhala ndi makhalidwe abwino kwambiri.

Mu 1959 ku Zagorje pafupi ndi Moscow, pa minda ya mpesa ya All-Union Selection ndi Technological Institute of Horticulture and Nursery, Pulofesa Enikeev adabweretsa mitundu yatsopano pa nthawiyo - Moscow Griot.

Chitsamba chosakaniza ndi mkulu wokolola chiyembekezo chinapezeka ndi cloning a Western Europe zosiyanasiyana Griot Otsgeymsky.

Malingana ndi zigawo zake zazikulu, nthambi ya Moscow ya Griotov inkapangidwira kumadera akutali kuchokera kumadera a kum'mwera kwa Moscow.

Koma kulima kwake mwamsanga kunafalikira kumadera akumwera a Russia. Malo Osapambuka Padziko Lapansi ndi Central Black Earth Region ya Russian Federation. M'maderawa, mitundu yamatumbu monga Vianok, Odala ndi Lebedyanskaya amakula bwino.

Mu 1959 Griot Moskovsky inalowa mu Register Register. Kuchokera pakati pa zaka za m'ma 1960, zosiyanasiyana zidatumizidwa ku mayesero osiyanasiyana.

Kuwonekera kwa chitumbuwa Griot Moskovsky

Zotsatira izi zokhudzana ndi mitunduyi ndizopangidwa mu chitumbuwa ichi:

Mtengo

Ndilo gulu lamasewera zipatso mbewu. Amakula msinkhu ali wamkulu mpaka kutalika kwa 2.5 - 3 mamita. Lubskaya, Novella ndi Minx amasiyanitsidwa ndi zomwe ali nazo.

Panthaŵi imodzimodziyo, korona yochuluka kwambiri yowonongeka, yomwe, monga lamulo, kunja imakhala ndi mawonekedwe ofanana ndi mpira.

Akuwombera. Mwachidziwitso woonda. Wanena kuti ndizopweteka.
Masamba. Amadziwika ndi kukula kwake. Zosiyana ndi dzira. Mphepete dvuyakotupopilchatye. Mtundu - wobiriwira wobiriwira, matte.

Chipatso

Zosiyana owerengeka komanso oposa kukula kwake.

Mitengo yambiri yamtengo wapatali imakhala yolemera kwambiri kuyambira 3 mpaka 3.5 magalamu, Nthawi zambiri, chipatsocho chingakhale ndi magalamu asanu.

Ili pafupi mawonekedwe ozungulira.

Mtundu wa khungu woonda kwambiri ndi wosiyana ndi wofiira kwambiri, koma panthawi imodzimodziyo sichidziŵika bwino pamakhala mawanga omwe amawonekera. Rossoshanskaya Memory of Vavilov imakhalanso ndi zipatso zofanana.

Pansi pa khungu pali mapira a mdima wofiira, wothira madzi. Nkhungu yapakati-palimodzi fupa lozungulira silimangokhala losiyana ndi zamkati.

Komanso mu chithunzi nkhani yomwe mudzawona chimene Griot Moskovsky zosiyanasiyana chitumbuwa amawoneka ngati ndi kufotokoza za khalidwe.

Chithunzi






Makhalidwe osiyanasiyana

The descriry chitumbuwa Griot Moscow ndi zosiyanasiyana chilengedwe zothandiza ntchito. Mtsinje wa Moscow umagwiritsiridwa ntchito moyenera ponseponse mu mawonekedwe atsopano ndi mawonekedwe a zakudya zowonongeka (kupanikizana, jams, etc.). Kusinthasintha kwa ntchito kumasiyanitsidwa ndi msinkhu womwewo, Volochaevka ndi Mayak.

Mbali yake ndi yeniyeni kwa mitundu yopanda mphamvu - gulu lalikulu kwambiri la yamatcheri. M'mawu ena, izi zosiyanasiyana osatha kufesa pamadzi awo okha.

Izi zikutanthauza kuti pakukula bwino ndi fruiting pafupi ndi Moscow Griot ndikofunika kudzala mitengo yokhala ndi zozizwitsa. Izi, Pink, Vladimirskaya, Shubinka, Shpanka Kurskaya, Orlovskaya Kumayambiriro ndi botolo la mitundu ina ndi abwino.

Mitengo ya Moscow Griot amakhala zaka 16-18. Zothandiza Fruiting ikuyamba zaka 4 kapena 5 mutabzala.

Ndi zofunikira zonse zosavuta zokolola ndi kusamalira bwino mbewuyi, ikhoza kutero Zowonjezera zokwanira mu 15-17 makilogalamu kuchokera pamtengo.

Koma pakuchita, pafupifupi pafupifupi zokolola zimakhala zochepa, zimasinthasintha 8-9 makilogalamu ochokera pamtengo, omwe ali pafupifupi matani 6-8 a zipatso pa hekitala.

Monga taonera, izi zosiyanasiyana zinapangidwa ku Russia chapakati, yomwe imadziwika ndi nyengo yozizira, osati kutentha kwa chilimwe ndi chisanu ndi nyengo yozizira kwambiri ndi zotsatira zonse zotsatira za thermophilic pachikhalidwe chikhalidwe.

Chifukwa cha zosankhidwazo, Griot Moskovsky anayerekezera ndi pulogalamu yake yoyambirira. zambiri zozizira yolimba. Malingana ndi zochitika, nthawi zambiri amalekerera nyengo yozizira ya ku Russia.

Nthandazhda, Tsarevna, kukumbukira Enikeeva.

Komabe, ngati nyengo yachisanu imakhala yozizira, ikhoza kuyambitsa kuzizira kwa mizu, nthambi ndi masamba. Choncho, mwini munda yemwe amalima izi mosiyana mu chiwembu chake ayenera kukumbukira mfundoyi ndikuchita zoyenera.

Cherry Griot Moscow amatanthauza mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mitundu. Zipatso zake, zomwe nthawi zambiri zimakhala pa mphukira za chaka choyamba cha moyo, ndizozoloŵera Zipsere kuyambira July 15 mpaka July 20. Chizindikiro chomwecho chikuwonetsedwa ndi Ashinskaya Steppe ndi Lubskaya.

Kukoma kwa zipatso zowutsa mudyo kumakhala kokoma, ndi zokoma zowawa. Kwenikweni, zipatso za zosiyanasiyanazi zimagwiritsidwa ntchito patebulo latsopano. Koma nthawi zambiri chitumbuwachi chimakonzedwanso kukhala timadziti komanso timasunga.

Chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa juiciness Kuti muyendetse, makamaka muchuluka kwambiri, nkofunikira ndi chisamaliro chachikulu.

Ponena za kuchuluka kwa mankhwala, "zithunzi" za Griot Moskovsky zikuwoneka ngati izi:

KupangaChiwerengero cha
Sahara10,6%
Zida zapanda1,5%
Nkhani yowuma13%

Kubzala ndi kusamalira

Kuti chitukuko chodziwika bwino chikhale chofunika kwambiri. Kupambana pa kulima kwa Griot Moskovsky zosiyanasiyana, thanzi lake ndikhazikika zimayikidwa pa sitepe yoyamba - siteji ya kusankha malo obzala mmera.

Chimera chokonda kutentha mwachilengedwe pamalo omwe nthawi zonse kudzakhala kuwala kwa dzuwa.

Pa nthawi yomweyo, malowa ayenera kukhala otetezeka. kutetezedwa ku mphepo yozizira yozizira ndi kutentha mphepo zouma chilimwe. Nthaŵi zambiri, malo oterowo ndi kum'mwera kwa munda.

Ndi bwino kubzala mtengo masika. Ngati mukuchita izi mu kugwa, ndiye kuti pangakhale chiopsezo kuti mtengowo ndi mtengo wofookabe umangowonjezera pansi pa ululu wa chisanu.

Ngati mlimiyo akuganiza kuti afesa Griot Moscow mu September, mmera umalimbikitsidwa kuti mosamala prikopat.

Ndifunikanso kukhalabe pakati pa mbande mutabzala.

Popeza zosiyanasiyanazi ndi mawonekedwe a chitsamba, chiyanjano pakati pa anthu pawokha chiyenera kukhala osachepera 2 m mzere ndi 2-2.5 mamita pakati pa mizere.

Sapling pansi mu dzenje ndi awiri a masentimita 60 ndi kuya kwa 50-60 masentimita, kumene feteleza ankagwiritsidwa ntchito pasadakhale. Nthaka yotengedwa ku maenje imasakanizidwa ndi humus ndi potassium chloride.

Mbewu yomwe imalowetsedwa m'zitsime imaphatikizidwa ndi kusakanikirana kwa nthaka ya umuna Thirani zitsamba 2-3 za madzi ozizira omwe poyamba munali otetezedwa.

Pambuyo pa madziwa, nthaka ikuzungulira chingwecho Promulchrovat utuchi. Mtengo wa mulch pa 2-3 masentimita sungalole kuti madzi asungunuke, ndipo nthaka youma idzasweka.

Kusamalira chitumbuwa Griot Moscow nthawi yonse ya moyo wake ndi makamaka mwachilungamo koma nthawi zonse ntchito - Kutsegula, kuthirira, feteleza, chitetezo ku tizirombo zosiyanasiyana ndi matenda, kudulira molondola.

Kudulira mitengo ndikoyenera kutchula, ngati kudulira moyenerera kuli kofunika kwambiri. Chifukwa cha kudulira bwino, mwini munda akhoza, mwachitsanzo, kukonza shuga wa zipatso ndi mlingo wa zipatso, apatseni chomeracho ndi kupirira kwakukulu ndi kukaniza matenda.

Kupanga korona kuyenera kupangidwa mwamsanga mutangotha. Pachifukwa ichi, nthambi za mmera ziyenera kudulidwa kwa gawo limodzi mwa magawo atatu a kutalika kwake. Chifukwa cha ichi, korona idzapangidwa molondola.

Nthawi zonse kudulira kwa yamatcheri kumachitika masika, pafupifupi 18-20 masiku pamaso Mphukira kuswa.

Zomwezo ziyenera kuchitidwa poyenderana ndi nthambi zowodwala, zouma, ndi cholinga chochepetsera korona.

Nthambi zowonjezereka zimadulidwanso ngati zimakhala zautali kwambiri ndipo zimatsikira pansi.

Ngati atapangidwa Kudulira kwathunthu, nthambi iyenera kudulidwa pa maziko ake enienipopanda kusiya ntchito yopuma. Inde, nthambi zamphamvu komanso zamphamvu kwambiri zimasungidwa pamtengo.

Matenda ndi tizirombo

Mtundu wa chitumbuwa uwu uli nawo mwachilungamo mkulu chitetezo cha nkhanambo. Pa chifukwa ichi, amagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi obereketsa ambiri monga wopereka chitetezo cha matendawa.

Komabe, Moscow Griot, monga mitundu ina yakale yamatcheri, akhoza kudwala matenda a fungal monga coccomycosis ndi moniliasis.

Kukaniza kwa coccomycosis kumasonyezedwa ndi Zhukovskaya, Podbelskaya, Kharitonovskaya ndi Minx.

Coccomycosis zomwe zimayambira pa chomera cha bowa Sossomuse hiema, limodzi ndi maonekedwe a masamba a bulauni poyamba, ndiyeno mawanga akuluakulu. Panthawi imodzimodziyo, pansi pa masamba amatha kufotokozera mtundu wa patina wotumbululuka.

Patangopita nthawi yochepa, masambawo amawombera kwambiri, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti mtengo usasinthe.

Zaka zochepa za matendawa zimayambitsa imfa ya chitumbuwa.

Popeza nkhungu za fungali zimakhalabe pamunsi, zimayenera kuchotsedwa. Iyeneranso kukumba nthaka mu kugwa ndi masika.

Kumayambiriro kwa chaka, ndikofunikira kupopera masamba ndi gawo la 3% la Bordeaux osakaniza. Pambuyo pa maluwa akudutsa, kupopera mankhwala kachiwiri kumapangidwa ndi njira ya mkuwa oxychloride. Kupopera mbewu katatu kumachitika mutatha kukolola - mwina ndi yankho la mkuwa oxychloride, kapena ndi 1% yothetsera Bordeaux osakaniza.

Masamba ndi nthambi za zomera zomwe zimakhudzidwa ndi moniliasis zimatenthedwa, choncho nthendayi imakhala ndi dzina lake lachiwiri - monilial kutentha Odwala amawombera ndi kufa.

Chizindikiro china cha matenda owopsa ndi kuoneka kwazing'ono za mthunzi wa grayish pa makungwa. Kukula komweko pa zipatso, monga lamulo, posachedwa kumatha mu kuvunda kwawo.

Mungathe kumenyana ndi monilioz ndi njira ya 3% ya ferrous sulphate kapena Bordeaux osakaniza. Amagwiritsira ntchito mtengo ndi dothi pozungulira mphukira.

Monga chithandizo chowonjezera chingathe kuchitidwa. fungicide kupopera mbewu mankhwalawa (1% Bordeaux madzi) pambuyo pa maluwa.

Ngakhale kuti ukalemba wa mtundu wa Griot Moscow ndi wosiyana, umakhala wokongoletsa wa tebulo lililonse lamakono. Zimangotenga khama pang'ono.