Cherry-Cherry Zophatikiza - Toyu zosiyanasiyana

Chikondi chokoma chitumbuwa zabwino zabwino zake ndi zokoma kukoma, wowawasa yamatcheri kupanga zodabwitsa kupanikizana.

Momwe mungagwirizanitsire mbali za zipatso za zipatso izi kuchokera ku banja la Rosaceae?

Yankho linaperekedwa ndi obereketsa, kulenga ndi kudutsa mkati, cultivar - chitumbuwa-chitumbuwa chosakanizidwa.

Cherry, chitumbuwa chokoma kapena wosakanizidwa?

Poyamba, chitumbuwa ndi chitumbuwa chokhala ndi dzina lofanana - "chitumbuwa cha mbalame".

Kumpoto kwa Ulaya, kudalira zozizwitsa za kukoma, zomerazi zidasankhidwa ngati "yamatcheri oyipa" ndi "sweet cherries".

Kumeneku, m'zaka za zana la 17, mitundu yosiyanasiyana idatuluka "Mai-Dyuk" kuchokera mwachisawawa pollination wa yamatcheri yamatcheri.

Chifukwa cha kuwoloka modzidzimutsa, zipatsozo zinakhala zazikulu ndi zokoma kuposa chitumbuwa chodziwika, ndipo zinawathandiza wamaluwa kuti agwire nawo ntchito kuti agwire ntchito "Cherries". Kotero panali gulu la hybrids interspecific - atsogoleri.

M'dziko lathu, bwanamkubwa woyamba adawonekera mu 1926 m'maphinda a I.V. Michurin adaitana "Wogulitsa ogulitsa".

Kumapeto kwa zaka za zana la 20, obereketsa anali atagwira kale ntchito yobereketsa ndi kutentha kwa chisanu, kufalikira kutali chakumpoto. Kuwonjezera apo adatha kuchotsa mitundu yatsopano ya matenda omwe ali ndi fungal wa chitumbuwa - coccominose.

Zoonadi Dyuk samobesplodny, zomwe zimafuna kukhalapo koyenera m'munda wa wodalirika wowonjezera mungu - yamatcheri okoma.

Thandizo: Mukhoza kupeza duki mwa kukulumikiza chitumbuwa chokoma pa chitumbuwa cha chitumbuwa. Komabe, mtundu wosakanizidwawu umakhala wovuta kwambiri, sikuti nthawi zonse umayamba kubala chipatso, koma ngati mitundu iwiri yowonjezera bwino, zokolola zambiri ndi kugulitsidwa kwapamwamba kwa chipatso kumayang'anira mlimi.

Zokolola zoterezi zikuwonetsedwa ndi mitundu monga Chernokorka, Black Black, Chokoleti ndi Wopatsa.

Zosiyanasiyana zofotokozera Toyu

Mu Registry State ya cherry-cherry hybrid inayamba mu 1996 monga toy Toys, yolengedwa Institute of Maluwa Omwe Anameretsa ku Ukraine. MF Sidorenko.

Kufalitsa zosiyana zanu zopezeka kumadera a kumpoto kwa Caucasus, kumene kumalimidwa monga chilengedwe chonse.

Toy Cherry - ndemanga za "makolo" a zosiyanasiyana:

  • Cherry "Lyubskaya" - osakhala ndi wolemba, koma adalandira kale kuyambira 1947 pakati pa Russia; Kubala kwa chomera kumabwera kuchokera m'chaka chachitatu ndikupitirira kuwonjezeka kwa zaka 25; Kukolola kumafikira makilogalamu 12 a zipatso zofiira pamtengo; chisanu chosagwira; kupirira nthawi yaitali;
  • Cherry "Sola mpira" - mtengo wa zipatso wa Melitopol kuswana (Ukraine) umabwera muntchito komanso chaka chachitatu; zokolola zodabwitsa - makilogalamu 40 a mtengo; zipatso zolemera - 15 magalamu; chisanu kukana ndipamwamba; Kulimbana ndi matenda ndi tizirombo.
Zosangalatsa: Yamatcheri okoma, mu assortment wa zipatso amadya ndi anthu, ndi okalamba kuposa cherries. Komabe, chitumbuwa mabulosi kwambiri bwino kukoma kwa mankhwala mu processing ndipo ali ndi thanzi lalikulu kuposa chitumbuwa.

Kufanana ndi kusiyana kwa yamatcheri ndi yamatcheri.

KufananaKusiyana
1. Zomera zambiri zamoyo chifukwa cha zaka zambiri.1.Cherry ali ndi makolo achilendo; chitumbuwa - chogulitsa cha hybridation.
2. Kukula m'dera la Russia.2. Cherry - kulikonse, lokoma chitumbuwa kokha kumwera madera.
3. Zamoyo ziwirizi zimatha kukhala mtengo.3. Pali mitundu yambiri yamatcheri. Cherry ili ndi tsinde la tsinde.
4. Flower samobesplodny kapena amuna kapena akazi okhaokha.4. Maluwa amaimiridwa: mu chitumbuwa ndi mapaipi ozungulira, mu chitumbuwa - ndi maluwa ambiri inflorescences.
5. Zipatso mwa mawonekedwe a zipatso ndi mwala.5. Zipatso zimasiyana mosiyanasiyana: mu chitumbuwa - zonse zofiira; yamatcheri amachokera ku zoyera ndi zachikasu zofiira ndi zakuda. Mnofu wa chitumbuwa ndi wamatsenga. Mabulosi a Cherry ndi akuluakulu ndipo amakhala ndi minofu, ndi fupa lophweka.
6. Mapesi a zipatso ndizitali.6.Masamba mawonekedwe.
7. Ndi mtundu wa makungwa.7. Mphukira yopingasa.
8. Zonsezi zimakhudzidwa ndi nkhungu zakuda.8. Matenda omwe amapezeka yamatcheri - coccomycosis - osati owopsa yamatcheri.
Zosangalatsa: Mankhwala a chitumbuwa amachititsa kukhala wodabwitsa kwambiri wotsutsa-thrombotic agent. Mitsempha ndi yamatcheri, ndi yamatcheri ali ndi chinthu chomwe chimapanga hydrocyanic acid pamene chimataya mu matumbo.

Komanso mu nkhani yomwe muwona mu chithunzi chomwe toyirako yamatcheri amawoneka ngati.

Chithunzi

Kodi Toy cherry imawoneka bwanji?



Zida

Dyukovy chitumbuwa cha chitumbuwa cha mtundu wa chitumbuwa chimakhala ndi dzina labwino kwambiri la zipatso zazikulu ndipo amadziwika ndi:

  • chitumbuwa Chidole ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana yomwe mtengo umafika Mapamwamba 7 mamita;
  • korona woboola kwambiri kapena oval;
  • imvi, ngati chitumbuwa, ikani pamtengo ndi nthambi za mafupa, zomwe zimawomba pang'ono;
  • akuwombera, wakuda, ngakhale, bulauni;
  • masamba obiriwira amdima ofunika ndi mawonekedwe ovoid; Mapeto a tsambali amaloledwa ndipo amawongolera, ndipo tsamba la tsamba ndi lochepa pang'ono pakati pa mitsempha yamkati;
  • serrated m'mphepete ndi mizu yowopsya kumaliza kukonda tsamba;
  • white samobesplodnye maluwa omwe amawonekera nthawi zambiri pawonjezeka pachaka ndipo amasonkhanitsidwa mumaluwa inflorescences (zidutswa 3-4);
  • zipatso mu mawonekedwe a zazikulu (mpaka 9 gr.) zipatso Mdima wofiira: Ali ndi khungu lofewa komanso fupa lofewa mosavuta;
  • Pamwamba pa mabulosiwa ndi ofewa ndiwonyezimira ndi zipatso zochepa za zipatso ndi "mimba" msoko;
  • zokometsera zamkati, zojambula mu mtundu wofiira wakuda;
  • mabulosi ali nawo shuga wokhutira - 10.9%, zidulo - 1.5% ndipo chifukwa chake - chodziwika bwino chokoma ndi chowawa, chomwe chimawerengedwa ndi kulawa kwake 4.6 mfundo;
  • mitundu yonse ya cholinga: mchere ndi mafakitale opangira vinyo ndi madzi;
  • kuyambira kwa mbande zokhala pamodzi za fruiting kuyambira chaka chachitatu;
  • kumapeto kwa zipatso - pakati pa August;
  • zokolola zazikulu ndikuwonjezeka chaka ndi chaka;
  • Kawirikawiri zokolola za mtengo wa zaka 10 - makilogalamu 45-50;
  • zabwino kulekerera kwa chilala;
  • chisanu kukana chifukwa mtengo mkati - 25 ° C (makamaka masamba ozizira ndi maluwa amalephera kuzizira);
  • kukana fungal matenda - chofunika kwambiri pa chikhalidwe.

Kulimbana ndi matenda a fungal kumasonyeza mitundu Molodezhnaya, Morozovka, Nadezhda ndi Novella.

Chidziwikiratu cha kudzidetsa kwa mitundu yosiyanasiyana kumafuna zowonongeka polumikiza malo osungirako munda, omwe Akatswiri amati: chitumbuwa mitundu "Minx" ndi "Samsonovka" yamatcheri - "Krupnoplodnaya", "Valery Chkalov", "Franz Joseph".

Mitundu yosiyanasiyana imadziwika ngati yodalirika ndipo imakhudzidwa ndi kupitiriza ntchito yobereketsa kuti iwonjezere zokolola ndi kukana tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ndi mabakiteriya.

Zosangalatsa: Njira ya chitumbuwa ku Russia inkadutsa mu Byzantium. Mfundo yaikulu ya Vladimir m'zaka za zana la 13 inakhala popularizer ya zomera zomwe zili pakatikati. Amodzi mwa mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya Russian yamatcheri amatchedwa Vladimirskaya. "Vladimirskaya" ndi "Lyubskaya" kalekale akhala ngati makolo a mitundu yatsopano imene inalengedwa, kuphatikizapo abakha.

Kulima ndi kusamalira

M'dziko lathu, mbiriyakale, zinapezeka kuti chitumbuwa chitatha apulo chimaonedwa kuti ndichiwiri chambiri munda. Zoonadi, m'zaka zapitazo, dera lawo limachepetsedwa.

Chifukwa:

  • kusintha monga momwe mwini munda ulili komanso kugwa kwa minda yapadera
  • Kuwonetsa kawirikawiri nyengo ya nyengo yoipa (nyengo yotentha, nyengo yotentha);
  • zinyama za mitundu yosiyana siyana chifukwa cha pollination yowonongeka;
  • kuchepetsa kugula kwa malonda a yamatcheri chifukwa cha kukula kwa msika kwa zowonongeka zopatsa zipatso;
  • kufalikira, kutumizidwa ku dziko lathu ku Western Europe, matenda a fungal, mitundu yodabwitsa yopanda kuzizira.

Kukula bwino ndi fruiting ya mtengo wa chitumbuwa muyenera:

  1. Kusankha malo abwino okwera: pamalo okwezeka, m'kuunika ndi mpweya.
  2. Ndikofunika kudzala pamodzi ndi achibale 3-4kusiyana ndi kukula mtunda wa mamita 2 kuchokera mzake.
  3. Kuphatikiza ndi kusankha mitundu yabwino, payenera kusankhidwa mbande yokhala ndi mizu yabwino.
  4. Ndikofunikira kupanga korona pafupi ndi mtengo, poganizira kuti, mwachitsanzo, Toys, imabala zipatso pamphukira pachaka.
  5. Mbewuyi imakonda mapulasi a loamy, dothi lowala kutali ndi madzi, ngakhale kuyamwa kwa madzi otungunuka kumakhala kovulaza zomera.
  6. Kwa nthaka oxidation pansi pa chitumbuwa cha cherry kamodzi pa zaka zitatu zilizonse akung'amba:
    • nthaka yamchenga -300-500gr. pamita mita imodzi;
    • loams - 600-800 gr;
    • sod-podzolic - 300-800.
  7. Kudula mitengo ya Crown kumachitika kuti:
    • mipangidwe;
    • kupukuta;
    • malo abwino (kuchotsa nthambi zakuwonongeka kapena zakuwonongeka).
  8. Pamphepete mwa nyengo yozizira ndi kasupe kuteteza thunthu kuti lisatenthe ndi dzuwa - izo, monga nthambi za chigoba, zili zoyera kapena zikulumikizidwa mu zigawo ziwiri za pepala loyera.
  9. Zambiri feteleza zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pansi pa nyengo yozizira ndi kompositi wosanjikiza (mpaka 10 masentimita) ndipo imagwidwa ndi peat.
  10. Kuthirira mitengo yamtengo wa chitumbuwa sikuyenera kukhala wochuluka ndipo kumachitika kudzera mu mizere ya mphete pamtunda wa theka la mita kuchokera pa thunthu. Pa nthawi Mpaka 15 malita a madzi amathiridwa mumtsinje ndi udzu wouma wa prutrivayut kuchokera ku msangamsanga wake. Pa nyengoyi, malingana ndi msinkhu, 4-9 zidebe zimatsanulira pansi pa mtengo uliwonse, poyang'ana mbali zofunikira za chitukuko cha zomera:
    • pachimake;
    • kucha kwa ovary;
    • kumapeto kwa zokolola;
    • musanachoke chomera m'nyengo yozizira.
  11. Kuti mutenge mpweya wabwino, nthaka imamasulidwa ndi kuponyedwa ndi mafoloko.
  12. Kuchiza ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ("Mustang", "Cifox", "Inta-Vir") - kupewa kupewa maluwa. Nkhumba zimatetezedwa ku makoswe pakugwedeza ndi denga lamtundu wamtundu wodula kapena wamtambo.
  13. Pa mdima mawanga, masamba owuma ndi impso imfa amatsimikiza Matenda akulu a chitumbuwa:
    • imvi zowola;
    • chiwonetsero;
    • chithandizo;
    • monilioz;
    • mankhwala a chingamu.
Nkofunikira: Njira ya 5-7% ya ferrous sulphate si mankhwala okha a matenda a fungal, komanso kuwonjezeka kwa nthambi zatsopano ndi masamba.

Zipatso ntchito

Makampani operekera zovala amachepetsa kwambiri mavuto a wamaluwa, osokonezeka ndi vuto la kukonzanso zochuluka. Koma kukonzekera kwa compotes, juices, zopangidwa ndi ma liqueurs zokhazikika zimagwiritsabe ntchito.

Kuyambira ku chitumbuwa-zipatso za chitumbuwa zingakonzedwe:

  • mvula yozizira mofulumira kwa kudzaza pie ndi dumplings, zokuphika zophika;
  • msuzi wa chitumbuwa wa nyama mbale;
  • zouma zouma saladi ndi compotes;
  • marinated cherries monga Kuwonjezera pa nyama mbale;
  • kupanikizana kwa chitumbuwa kapena popanda miyala;
  • fumbi;
  • kupanikizana;
  • chithunzi;
  • chitumbuwa sherbet;
  • chosawilitsidwa yamatcheri popanda shuga.

Momwemonso, nyengo yokadula zipatso zothandiza zimatha kufikira nthawi yokolola.

Ubwino wa yamatcheri yamatcheri monga akuluakulu apamwamba amapanga "Toyu" makamaka kufunika kolima m'munda, chifukwa aliyense wokondwera adzakondwera ndi zipatso zazikulu, zamakono, komanso ngakhale zokolola za mitengo.

Zipatso izi sizimayendetsa kayendetsedwe ka katundu, zasungidwa bwino mu mawonekedwe osinthika ndipo zimatha kupatsa aliyense chisangalalo cha chilimwe m'nyengo yozizira.

Pakati pa mitundu yonse ayenera kunyalanyaza zaka zofanana, Volochaevka ndi Lighthouse.

Penyani kanema yomwe mungayang'ane mtundu wa chitumbuwa Toyu: