Mitundu yapamwamba yopatsa chidwi yomwe yanyengerera ambiri - "Osasamala" currant yofiira

Kalasi ya wokondedwa wofiira currant Okondedwa Zakhazikitsidwa posachedwa, koma zatha kale kugwedeza mitima ya wamaluwa ambiri chifukwa chakuti, popanda zovuta zapadera, izo zimapereka zokolola zosavuta, koma zipatso zokoma kwambiri komanso zathanzi.

Fotokozani mitundu okondedwa

Tsamba lofiira "Wokondedwa". Chokwera chitsamba cha currants, chakuda kwambiri ndi mdima wandiweyani, monga ngati masamba a varnished a zipatso, amawoneka ngati woimira chitsanzo cha mitunduyo.

Akuwombera Ndiwowongoka ndi wandiweyani ndi masamba oblong, anyamata ndi ofiira-wofiirira, ndipo ma lignified ndi imvi.

Masamba zosiyanazi zikufanana ndi mapulo asanu - zazikulu zansalu, zopanda zozizwitsa ndi mano osasunthika pamphepete. Maluwa ochepa aang'ono Othandizidwa amapezeka sabata yoyamba ya Meyi ndikukhalabe mpaka pakati pa mweziwo, amawoneka ngati mafuta obiriwira achikasu.

A zipatso - wofiira ndi mikwingwirima yamdima, yofewa ndi yowutsa mudyo, yofanana ndi kukula kwake, amawoneka ngati okoma kwambiri. Nzosadabwitsa kuti iwo akulakwitsa - 4.8 mwa 5. Kuwawa kwake mwa iwo, ndithudi, kulipo.

Nthawi zambiri mabulosi amadzipiritsa 0,6-0.8 magalamu, pali mbewu zochepa pansi pa khungu lofewa. Kukhazikika pamapaziwo, osadulidwa komanso osakomoka, zipatsozo zimatha kukhala nthawi yaitali. Ndipo mukhale ndi maonekedwe okongola ngakhale ndi kayendedwe kautali.

Izi zipatso, zabwino mu kukoma, zili ngati analengedwa kupanga kupanikizana kwa iwo. Zimakhala zazikulu, makamaka kuphatikizapo mitundu ya maapulo a chilimwe: Ubwenzi wa Anthu, Yellow Sugar, Medunitsa, Orlinka, Golden Chinese, Wodabwitsa, ndi Hero wa Tsiku.

Mbiri yobereketsa ndi dera loswana

Ophunzira a Gulu Anayamba kumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 1980 ku Belarus ku Institute for Fruit Production of Republican Academy of Sciences.

Wolemba za zosiyanasiyana ndi wofalitsa wodziwika bwino, Doctor of Biological Sciences Anatoly Grigorievich Voluznev amatchedwa brainchild "Okondedwa" osati mwadzidzidzi - chomera anasanduka wokongola modabwitsa, diso silingathe kuchotsedwa ku wobiriwira mdima wobiriwira, kwambiri owazidwa ndi rubies wa zipatso.

Mitundu itatu inakhala makolo a currantyi - Cherry, Wodabwitsa ndi Dutch Red. Onsewa adapatsa "mwana" wawo makhalidwe abwino kwambiri.

Cherry - zokolola zazikulu ndi kuwonetsa zipatso, zodabwitsa - zazikulu ndi zokoma zipatso, ndi Dutch red - hardiness yozizira ndi kulandira matenda ambiri.

Mu 1991, Un-fair anaphatikizidwa mu Register Register of Zosiyanasiyana ku Belarus, ndipo mu 2006 izo analoledwa kuti azikhala ku Russia.

Red currant mitundu monga Jam, Natali, Andreichenko amakula bwino m'madera awa. Komanso mitundu yobiriwira ya currant: Gulliver, Gross, Belarusian sweet, Bagheera ndi Summer House.

Zizindikiro

Ophunzira a Gulu zimasiyana ndi zokolola zambiri. Young baka perekani pang'ono kuposa 3 makilogalamu a zipatso. Ndi okhwima, mosamala, amachotsa 10-12 makilogalamu. Kumapeto Kwambiri kumapeto kwa June - oyambirira July.

Imodzi mwa ubwino wofunika kwambiri wa zosiyanasiyanazi ndi kudzikonda (60%). Izi zikutanthauza kuti popanga mazira ambiri, sichifunika pollination, ndipo sichidalira nyengo ndi zouluka za tizilombo - nthawi zonse zokolola zambiri komanso zotsimikizika.

Frost kukana Wokondedwa ndi wotero kuti nthawi zina zimakhala zovuta kwambiri m'katikati mwa Russia popanda kutayika chifukwa chachisanu popanda kuwonongeka.

Berry wokondedwa zili ndi shuga 6 mpaka 12%, zakudya zambiri za organic, tannins ndi pectin, vitamini C - 30.2 mg / 100 g, salt kwambiri ndi carotene. Maonekedwewa akusonyeza kukoma kokoma kokoma. Mavitamini atsopanowa amathandiza kwambiri mchere, koma ndi oyenera kupanikizana, ndipo safunikira shuga wambiri kuti aphe.

Mukhoza kupeza madzi okoma ndi amachiritso kuchokera ku zipatso za Wokondedwa, omwe ali ndi kuyeretsa - sikungowonjezera matumbo, komanso kuthandizanso kuchotsa uric acid.

Ndipo komabe wofiira currant madzi ndi wabwino kwambiri diaphoretic, ndi kuzizira izo zimathandiza palibe choipa kuposa uchi kapena rasipiberi kupanikizana.

Chithunzi





Kubzala ndi kusamalira

  1. Nthaka Kalasi Wokondedwa amakula bwino pa nthaka ya acid acid loamy yomwe imatulutsa bwino kwambiri ndi zakudya. Kutseka (50-60 masentimita) pansi pamadzi kupita ku tchire n'kopweteka, panthawiyi currants ayenera kubzalidwa pa phiri laling'ono.
  2. Kuwunika. Amakonda kuwala, amatha kubzala m'malo otseguka - adzapambana kumeneko.
  3. Oyandikana nawo Wophimba wofiira "abwenzi" ndi gooseberries, ndi "nsanje" za msuwani wake - wakuda currants. Anthu ena oyandikana nawo munda samamuvutitsa. Mizu ya wokondeka imakhala yozama kuposa ya zomera zouma, koma imapambana kuposa mitengo - kotero palibe mpikisano.
  4. Kukonzekera kukwera. Kudzala mitengo yofiira currants ikufunika kumayambiriro kwa autumn.

    Maola awiri musanabzala, mmera uyenera kuikidwa m'madzi, makamaka kupindulitsa "Kornevinom" - ndiye chomera chochepa mwamsanga chimapanga mizu yatsopano.

    Zouma kapena zowonongeka mizu kuchokera mmera ziyenera kuchotsedwa nthawi yomweyo.

    Gombe la Wokondedwa limafuna mozama masentimita 60 ndi kukula kwa 50 × 50 cm. Kufiira kofiira ndi nthawi yaitali, ziyenera kukula m'malo ano kwa zaka 20, ndiyeno 25.

    Choncho, organic ndi feteleza feteleza ziyenera kuikidwa m'menje: zidutswa kapena zidutswa zadothi ziyenera kutsanuliridwa pansi, kenako zophimbidwa ndi dziko lapansi, zofufuzidwa, ndipo zinawonjezera paundi ya choko kapena dolomite kuchokera pamwamba.

    Ngati palibe choko, phulusa lopangidwa kuchokera ku chitofu ndilo bwino - lita imodzi ya phulusa ndi yokwanira. Pamafunikanso kupanga supuni imodzi ya feteleza yomwe ili ndi potaziyamu, koma popanda chlorine.

    Mpunga wofiira sumalekerera kukhalapo kwa klorini. Posankha feteleza, perekani potassium sulphate. Musadwale dothi limene limakula - ndilofunika kugwira ntchito mopitirira malire, ndipo chomeracho chidzadwala chlorosis.

    Mu bukhu lodzaza заполн, onjezerani kompositi ndikugwirizanitsa zigawo zonse potsanulira madzi pa iwo.

Tikufika

Pakati pa dzenje lokonzekera amapanga chitunda, ndikuwongolera mizu, kukonza mmera.

Chomera chomera nthawi zonse chiyenera kusokonezeka - masamba atatu apansi pazitsamba ziyenera kubisika m'nthaka, ndi zitatu kapena zinayi zam'mwamba pamtunda.

Fukani nthaka yopanda udzu yotengedwa m'dzenje. Ngati ndi wandiweyani, yonjezerani mchenga. Sikofunika kuvomereza ndi kupondereza nthaka yozungulira nyemba, koma kuthirira kuti dziko lapansi likhoza kumamatira ku mizu n'kofunikira. Ngati mizu yayamba pa ulimi wothirira, yonjezerani kuti nthaka ndi madzi sizikutsanuliranso.

Mukamabzala tchire, muyenera kusiya pakati pa 1.5-2 mamita. Ngakhale kuti sali wokonda kwambiri, mizu imafuna malo, ndipo tchire amafunika kuwala.

Kudulira

Mukamabzala mphukira mmera kudula zokongola kwambiri.

Ndikokwanira kusiya masamba atatu kapena anayi pamwamba pa nthaka, ndiye pafupi ndi masika a nthambi zamphamvuzo zidzakula. Ndipo kuchokera ku masamba awo omwe aikidwa pansi, iwo adzapita mphukira.

Pambuyo pakudulira mitengo yozungulira, muyenera kutenthetsa ndi kutalika kwa masentimita 10-12. Mu kasupe, chitsamba chimathyoka ndipo sichidulidwa. Pakati pa chilimwe, nthambi zake zidzakula, ndipo mu kugwa, pamene mphutsi ndi chaka, zonsezi zidzafupikitsidwa ndi kotala la kutalika.

M'chaka chachiwiri cha moyo, mbande zimadulidwa kachiwiri - mphukira zitatu kapena zinayi zowonjezereka zimasankhidwa, ndipo ofooka amachotsedwa pansi, osasiyidwa.

M'tsogolomu, kudulira kumabwerezedwa chaka ndi chaka, kutsatira njira yomweyo. Pambuyo pazaka zisanu, nthambi khumi ndi zikuluzikulu zikuluzikulu ziyenera kupanga pamtunda.

Nthambi za zaka 3-5 zimabweretsa zokolola zazikulu.

Mukamapanga chitsamba, musafupikitse mapeto a nthambi. Red currant (mosiyana ndi black currant) ili ndi zipatso zambiri zamphepete pamapeto, zimapatsa zipatso zambiri. Nthambi izi zidzabala chipatso zaka 8-10, kenako nkufa. Nthambi yotsalirayi iyenera kudulidwa pamzu, yatsopano idzakula m'malo mwake.

Kupaka pamwamba

Tsamba lofiira Sichitsitsa kuti nthaka ikhale ndi chonde, koma imakonda kutulutsa feteleza kwambiri - pambuyo pake, imabala zipatso zambiri zakuda. Chimene chinabweretsedwa mu dzenje usanadzalemo chidzakhala zaka 2-3 kwa chitsamba, ndipo chiyenera kudyetsedwa. Mu March-April, Okondeka, ndi bwino "kuchitira" urea - pa chitsamba chimodzi cha 20-25 g.

Mu May, pamene currant imamasula, imathiridwa ndi yankho la mullein (madzi okwanira 1 litre pa 100 g ya manyowa). Ngati mukufuna kuonjezera zokolola mwa 20-30%, perekani chitsamba chamadzi ndi njira yothetsera boric asidi - mu chidebe cha madzi - 1.5-2 g. Mimba mwake imakhala yayikulu, ndipo zipatso zazikulu zidzamangidwa. Njirayi iyenera kuchitika madzulo tsiku louma.

Tsamba lofiira Amakonda mulching - ndiko kutetezera dothi lozungulira zinthu zomwe zimabweretsa chakudya. Monga mulch wa izo, mukhoza kutenga humus, kompositi, peat, kapena feteleza feteleza feteleza. Kutalika kwa mulch wosanjikiza ndi 10-15 cm.

Mchere wamchere wa phosphate-potashi akhoza kugwiritsidwa ntchito kukumba m'dzinja, kapena nthaka imadzaza nawo m'chaka, mutatha kutulutsa. Zinthuzi sizitha kugwira ntchito, ndipo ngati mutangowabalalitsa kuzungulira chitsamba, amapita ku mizu pafupi ndi mapeto a chilimwe.

Kuthirira

Kawirikawiri madzi okwanira Okondedwa sikufunika. Koma ngati mu June, pamene zipatso zimatsanulidwa, ndi bwino kuyanika, chitsamba ayenera madzi. Zomwezo ndizochitika mu October - ngati autumn ndi youma, kutsanulira currant.

Madzi onse awiri, muyenera zambiri - 3-5 zidebe pansi pa chitsamba chilichonse. Poyamba, imangoling'onongeka pansi pazitsamba, ndikutsanulira ena onse - kotero madzi amalowa m'nthaka ndikupita ku mizu yakuya. Muyenera kuthirira madzulo.

Matenda ndi tizirombo

Ophunzira a Gulu Kulimbana ndi matenda osiyanasiyana oopsa ndi tizirombo. Sichimenyana ndi American powdery mildew (spherotek), anthracnose, Mphukira mite. Fungal matenda musati kuvulaza kwambiri currant. Koma pali adani.

  1. Galasi yamagalasi - Kupititsa patsogolo kwake kumalimbikitsidwa ndi mvula yamchenga, malo otsetsereka a tchire la currant, makamaka ngati malo osungirako zida za sedge ali pafupi.

    Bowa amakhala pa sedge - gwero la matendawa.

    Zizindikiro za kunja: m'masiku oyambirira a chilimwe, pamunsi mwa masamba, amawombera, zobiriwira m'mimba mwake, zazikulu zowomba chikasu zimapangidwa - fungal spores.

    Posakhalitsa amasintha mawonekedwe ndikukhala ngati magalasi. Masamba ndi zipatso zimagwera mofulumira, choncho zimakhala zovuta kuzindikira kachilomboka mu theka lachiwiri la chilimwe. Ndi kugonjetsedwa kwakukulu, mukhoza kutaya hafu ya mbewu.

      Zimene mungachite:

    • Kutaya Bordeaux madzi katatu (100 g wa laimu + mofanana zamkuwa sulfate pa 10 malita a madzi). Nthawi yoyamba - pakufalikira kwa masamba, chachiwiri - ndi maonekedwe a masamba, lachitatu - mwamsanga mutatha maluwa.
    • Ngati pali sedge pafupi, iyenera kugwedezeka ndi kutenthedwa kumapeto kwa nthawi yophukira kapena kumayambiriro kwa masika.
  2. Septoria - imatchedwanso malo oyera.

    Zizindikiro zakunja: kumayambiriro kwa chilimwe, masamba ali ndi strewn ndi mawanga ozungulira - bulauni ndi malire ofiira.

    Kenaka amatembenuza madontho oyera ndi akuda akuoneka pakati pa mawanga. Masamba auma ndi kutha.

    Zimene mungachite:

    • Pamaso pa maonekedwe a maluwa ndi pambuyo pokolola, chithandizo chitsambacho ndi Bordeaux osakaniza kapena biopreparations "Zircon", "Fitosporin".
    • M'dzinja kusonkhanitsa ndikuwotcha masamba odwala akugwa - tizilombo timakhala m'nyengo yozizira.

Pa matenda ofala kwambiri a mbewu zowonongeka, mukhoza kuwerenga zambiri mwazolemba pa webusaiti yathu: anthracnose, chlorosis, bacteriosis, rubella, kansa ya bakiteriya, //selo.guru/ptitsa/bolezni-p/gribkovye/parsha.html, dzimbiri .

Mitundu yamakono yofiira currant, yomwe ilipo Okondedwa, yerekezerani bwino ndi omwe akhala akudziwika kale - onse chifukwa sawopa chisanu, komanso chifukwa chotsutsana ndi tizirombo, komanso ndi kukoma kwake kwa zipatso, zomwe ziribe shuga kusiyana ndi currants zakuda.