Zokwanira kwambiri komanso zodzichepetsa - nkhuku Poltava Clay

Nkhuku zagawanika kukhala zosiyana ndi zimzake zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi anthu. Chiberekero ndi mtundu wapangidwe wa zinyama.

Choncho, nkhuku iliyonse imakhala ndi mikhalidwe yapadera yomwe imakhuza zofunikira zapakhomo. Mitundu ya Yaytsenoskie imabzalidwa kuti ipeze mazira, mbalame zamtundu wa nyama zimanyamula mazira ochepa, koma zimakhala ndi misa yochititsa chidwi, komanso zimadya nyama ndi mazira.

Ansembe a nkhumba za Poltava anatumikiridwa ziwonetsero zoonekera mumzinda wa Poltava kale mu 1895ndipo kuyambira nthawi ya 1928 mpaka 1929. Nkhuku za Poltava zinapeza kupanga mazira osapitirira nthawi imeneyo: mazira 100 peresenti.

Komabe, chitukuko cha nkhuku pa mafakitale chinachititsa kuti kuchepa kwa chiwerengero ndi zokolola za nkhuku zinyama.

Choncho, pofuna kuteteza mtundu wamtunduwu, nkhuku za m'deralo zinabweretsedwa kumadera a Karlovsky ndi Mirgorod m'chigawo cha Poltava kupita ku famu ya Borka, yomwe idayambanso kuchita zofuna zawo. Ndipo kale chaka cha 1953, akatswiri a sayansi ya zamoyo atenga mitundu itatu ya mtundu uwu ndi mtundu wa mafunde awo: dongo, wakuda ndi zozulist.

Chiyambi ndi mitundu

Poltava wakuda poyamba ankakhala ku Lubensky chigawo cha Poltava dera.

Komabe, mpaka lero, oimira a mtundu uwu wapita kale, koma asayansi akugwira ntchito yatsopano.

Poltava zozulistaya (cuckoo) mitundu ya nkhuku, yomwe inkawonekera pafupi nthawi yomweyi, idakonzedwanso kuti ilibe.

Pakalipano, mu minda ya nkhuku kuti mupitirize kupezeka kwa anthu okhala ndi chakudya, kokha Nyongolotsi ya dongo ya Poltava. Nkhuku iyi ndi gulu la nkhuku za m'nkhalango ya Ukraine.

Zikuwoneka kuti nkhuku izi zimayambira m'zaka za m'ma XIX. ku Romensky m'chigawo cha Poltava. Anagwidwa ndi kudutsa nkhuku za Aboriginal zomwe zinatumizidwa kumapeto kwa zaka za XIX ndi zoyambirira za XX. Mitundu ya nkhuku, monga fawn orpingtons, new hampshire, wyandot ndi ena.

Kuyambira theka lakumapeto kwa zaka zapitazi, asayansi anachita ntchito yopitiliza kukonza nkhuku zadongo, koma atagwa chifukwa cha kuchepa kwa chiwerengero, kuchepa kwa chiwerengero cha anthu ndi kutayika kwa chikhalidwe chamtengo wapatali, chomwe sichitha kuwononga chikhalidwe cha mtundu uno.

Mu 2007, mwa dongosolo la Ministry of Agrarian Policy, nkhumba za Poltava zadothi zinalembedwera ngati dzira ndi mtundu wa nyama.

Tsatanetsatane wamabambo Poltava Clay

Nkhuku zowomba zimakhala ndi chivundikiro cha nthenga chikasu ndi chakuda chakuda ndi mtundu wakuda wa mapeto a mikwingwirima ndi nthenga za mchira.

Mutu wamkati wapakati womwe umakhala wofiira pamphuno, kuwala kofiira, kofiira pamapeto, maso achikasu kapena lalanje, wofiira ndi mtundu woyera wa lobe, wakuda khosi, thupi lofiira ndi mapiko olumikizika kwambiri thupi, lotseguka kutsogolo kwa chifuwa .

Miyendo ndi yachikasu kapena yachikasu ya sing'anga yaitali, yosiyana wina ndi mzake, yosadulidwa, tibia yowonongeka. Mchira wopangidwawo umapanga mawonekedwe obisika ndi thunthu.

Amuna amatha kudziwika ndi mapiko a chikasu wonyezimira, nthenga zagolidi pamutu, phokoso lokhala ngati duwa kapena la masamba ndi mano asanu okhazikika, mphete zazikulu zofiira ndi mdima wandiweyani ndi kositsam ndi mchira.

Makhalidwe ndi zikhalidwe za kulima

Chokolola cha nkhuku ndi 80-83%.

Chifukwa cha chidziwitso chodziwika bwino chokhazikika, nthawi yomwe dzira loyamba liyikidwa ndilo masiku 140-150. Mitengo yambiri ndi pafupifupi 3.2 makilogalamu, nkhuku - 2.1 makilogalamu. Mazira amafika ku 160 - 217 (!) Mazira pachaka, ndipo pakalipano olakwira ojambula amawonetsera mazira okwana 290 mazira pachaka.

Kulemera kwa dzira limodzi kumasiyana mkati kuyambira 55 mpaka 58 g. Chipolopolocho ndi bulauni chifukwa mbalame za mtundu uwu ndizo zonyamulira za jini lagolide, zomwe zimapanganso mtundu wa nthenga. Kafukufuku wa mazira a nkhukuzi, yomwe inachitikira mu 1982, anawonetsa mapuloteni abwino kwambiri komanso ochititsa chidwi kwambiri.

Zokolola za nyama zimafikira 52%, mafupa - 10.7%; nyama ili ndi kukoma kokoma ndi juiciness chifukwa cha zigawo zochepa za mafuta pakati pa mitsempha ya minofu.

Nkhuku za mtundu uwu zimakhala ndi mphamvu zambiri.

Kubwerera mu 1970 V.P. Stolyarenko ndi ogwira nawo ntchito anawona kuti mazira a Poltava nkhuku ndi ofanana kwambiri ndi kachirombo ka Sarcoma poyerekeza ndi mazira a mitundu ina yolima, ndipo kukana kwa neoplasm kunali kochuluka kuposa kanayi kuposa mitundu ina, nthawi.

Mbalame zimakhala zosasamala, zosavuta kusinthasintha, zimakhala ndi khalidwe labwino, koma nkhuku zimawopa kuzizira. Idyani monga chakudya chilichonse, ndi chakudya chophatikizana. Zimasinthidwa kuti zisamalidwe pansi komanso kuti zikhale m'magulu okonzeka a mitundu yosiyanasiyana, kuphatikizapo zofufuzira zamadzimadzi.

Pali zifukwa zambiri zomwe zimaperekedwa pofuna kukonza nkhuku zoyenera. Kwa kunja kubereka mu nkhuku coop, abwino ndi anthu. malo pabedi la udzu, mitengo yamatabwa kapena peat wouma, zomwe ziyenera kusinthidwa kuti zisagwiritsidwe ntchito kwa tizilombo toyambitsa matenda mmenemo.

Zokonda ziyenera kuperekedwa kwa omaliza, monga peat imatenga chinyezi kuchokera ku nkhuku mapazi, zomwe zimalepheretsa kufalikira kwa chimfine, komanso zimathandizanso kuswa mazira.

Mukamabereka m'makina apadera, malita sakufunika, koma pansi mu khola ndi bwino kupanga makina, kotero kuti chimbudzi chimalowa mumatope ndipo sichimayambitsa mbalame. Ndi bwino kusunga chiwongolero ndi kuwala kwake kuti mbalame zisasambe mmenemo. Pofuna Kutentha, nyali 3-4 ziyenera kuikidwa mu khola.

Mbalame zimafuna kuyenda. Komabe, pakabereka popanda kuswana, m'pofunika kukumbukira kuti nkhuku ziyenera kudya, kuphatikizapo mbewu ndi udzu, komanso miyala yokhala ndi chris.

Ndikofunikira kudyetsa mbalame m'nyengo yozizira kawiri patsiku, komanso masana kuti atumikire chakudya chofewa (mwachitsanzo, chimphona, chodzazidwa ndi madzi, masamba, nyama), madzulo - tirigu; m'chilimwe ndikwanira kudyetsa kamodzi, mbalame zina zimagwiritsa ntchito zokha pamene zikuyenda.

Zomwe zili ku Poltava nkhuku zadothi, zimakonda kwambiri chakudya kuchokera ku chimanga ndi zinyalala za chimanga. Pofuna kukula msinkhu wa tsiku limodzi, kuunika kwa maola-kwanthawi ndi koyenera kwambiri, pang'onopang'ono kuchepa kwa maola 9 pa masabata asanu ndi asanu ndi asanu ndi atatu (9) komanso mpaka mbalame ili ndi masabata 18.

Ali ndi zaka zisanu ndi ziwiri zodyera chakudya ayenera kukhala ndi calorie yapamwamba komanso mapuloteni apamwamba (20%). Izi zidzaonetsetsa kuti ntchito yoyenera yobereka ikudziwika bwino.

Mbalame za masabata asanu ndi awiri kapena kuposerapo zimadyetsedwa palimodzi zimadyetsa ndi puloteni yotsika (14%). Chifukwa cha izi, nkhuku zimakhala zolemera kwambiri ndi kutha msinkhu.

Ndikofunika kupewa kuwonjezera kulemera kwake kwa mbalame, chifukwa izi zimabweretsa kunenepa kwambiri. Ukalamba m'ma betri, onse m'makampani komanso payekha, amuna amaikidwa mu khola, ndipo patapita masiku 2-3 akazi amawabweretsera. ChiƔerengero cha kugonana pakati pa anthu ayenera kukhala 1: 8 (pali nkhuku zisanu ndi zitatu pa tambala imodzi).

Tsopano nkhuku za mtundu uwu zimangosungidwa pazipangizo zapadera kapena osonkhanitsa pofuna kusunga jini. Ku Russia, mwatsoka, ndizosatheka kupeza famu ya nkhuku yomwe imabereka. Mungagule mbalame yokha ku Ukraine kapena kuchokera kwa munthu wapadera.

Analogs

Oimirira a mitundu iyi akhoza kubwezeretsedwa ndi nkhuku za mtundu wa dzira la zokolola za mitundu yosiyanasiyana monga Leggorn yoyera ndi Russian woyera.

White leggorn Pogwiritsa ntchito dzira, ndizosiyana kwambiri ndi nkhuku zamakono.

Anthu ali odzichepetsa, chipiriro, kukula msanga kwa achinyamata. Mazira akuyamba kumayambiriro kwa miyezi 4.5-5. Mazira a nkhuku amafika mazira 300 pa chaka. Kulemera kwa mazira 55-58 g

Chizungu cha Russia komanso wodzichepetsa ku zinthu zakunja. Kuwotcha kwa mazira m'chaka choyamba kumafika mazira 200-230 ndi dzira lalikulu la 55-56 g.

M'zaka zotsatirazi, chiwerengero cha mazira adayikidwa ndifupika ndi 10-20%, koma kulemera kwa dzira payekha kumakula kufika 60 g. Nkhuku zimayamba kuyala mazira kwa miyezi isanu.

Sikuti aliyense amadziwa malamulo a momwe angasamalire orchid kunyumba. Chidziwitso chimenechi chingathandize kupewa zosavuta.

Choncho, kwa zaka pafupifupi makumi asanu zapitazi za kupanga miyala ya Poltava, chifukwa cha zofuna zapadera zochokera ku mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya anthu ndi zochepa zachuma, mbalameyo inasandulika kukhala mtundu wa dzira, kukoma kwa nyama, mphamvu ndi kukana matenda osiyanasiyana.

Zotsatira zabwino zokhudzana ndi zosankha zimatha kokha m'minda yayikulu kapena minda ya nkhuku ndi kutenga nawo mbali kwa asayansi.