Mmene mungamere tomato mu hydroponics

Hydroponics ndi teknoloji imene zomera zimakula popanda kugwiritsa ntchito dothi. Zakudya zabwino za mizu zimapezeka kumalo opangira. Zikhoza kukhala mpweya wamkuntho, madzi ozizira kwambiri, komanso zowonongeka (zotentha, zinyontho komanso zapweya). Pogwiritsa ntchito njirayi nthawi zambiri amafunika kuthirira mowa wothirira mobwerezabwereza pogwiritsa ntchito njira yothetsera mchere wamchere, yomwe imadalira zofunikira za zomera. Lero tikambirana za momwe tingamere tomato hydroponically.

Kukula tomato hydroponically

Tomato ndi mbewu yochepetsetsa yomwe anthu ambiri amakonda komanso amakonda kuwona patebulo lawo pachaka. Zomera zodzikulira zimadziwika kuti ndi tastier komanso zathanzi. Koma sikuti aliyense ali ndi chiwembu cha chinthu chotero, ndipo ngakhale abambo okondwa sangathe kukolola nthawi iliyonse. Chifukwa cha hydroponics, izi zakhala zenizeni kwa wowonjezera kutentha ndi nyumba. Kukula tomato pa chomera cha hydroponic ndi nkhani, ngakhale kuti si yosavuta, komabe zokondweretsa komanso ngakhale katswiri wa hydroponist akhoza.

Mukudziwa? Mawu akuti "hydroponics" anapangidwa ndi Dr. William F. Gerick. Iye akuonzedwanso kuti ndiye woyambitsa makina a hydroponics amasiku ano, omwe adasintha njira iyi yakukula zomera kuchokera ku labotori kupita ku mafakitale.
Mu tomato, mizu imangoganizira chabe, yomwe ndi khalidwe labwino la kulima. Kawirikawiri, pamene mukukula tomato mu njira ya hydroponic pang'onopang'ono, pakhomo, akuyenera kugwiritsa ntchito njira yomwe idakhazikitsidwa mu zaka za m'ma 60 zapitazo. Kwa izo, gawo lotsuka ndi lopangidwa ndi jekeseni limagwiritsidwa ntchito (wophwanyika mwala ndi miyala ya kachigawo kakang'ono ka 3-8 mm, slag, moss, mchenga wochuluka, kukulitsa dongo, ubweya wa mchere, chikopa cha kokonati). Amadzaza ndi miphika yaing'ono (10-12 masentimita), yomwe imayikidwa m'mitsuko ikuluikulu yodzaza ndi njira yapadera ya hydroponics (yomwe ingakonzedwe ndi manja anu kapena kugula ngati mankhwala). Kutentha kwa masiku a dzuwa kuyenera kusungidwa pa 22 ... + 24̊ С, pamtambo - + 19 ... + 20̊ С, usiku - osati pansi + 16 ... + 17̊ С. Kwa nthawi ya fruiting ikuwonjezeka ndi 4 С, osiyanasiyana + 18 ... + 20̊ C.

Ndikofunikira! Pamene kutentha kumadutsa ku 15̊ С, mizu imasungidwa, zomwe zimapangitsa kuchepa kwa kukula ndi kuchepa kwa zokolola. Ndipo ngati mpweya ukuwombera pamwamba + 32̊ С, ndiye mungu umakhala wosabala ndipo maluwa adzagwa.
Kukula kwa mizu ya tomato kuyenera kulamulidwa. Kwa izi, miphika yaying'ono iyenera kuchotsedwa nthawi ndi nthawi. Pamene mizu ya chomera imadutsa mu dzenje pansi, kuchepetsa kuchuluka kwa njira yothetsera hydroponic system mpaka momwe mpweya wa 4-8 masentimita umapangidwira. Njira iyi imakhudza kukula kwa mbali ya mlengalenga ya chomera ndi mizu yake. Njira yothetsera madzi ndizofunikira kwambiri pa kukula osati tomato, komanso mbewu zina, mwa njira ya hydroponics. Mukhoza kuchigulitsa pa sitolo yapadera, kapena kukonzekera nokha, chifukwa ndi zophweka kupeza yankho la hydroponics. Mukhoza kugwiritsa ntchito zosiyanasiyana feteleza feteleza, kuwonjezera pazofunika. Acidity ayenera kukhala pakati pa 6.0-6.3 pH.

Mukudziwa? Machitidwe a Hydroponic akhoza kugawidwa mu mitundu iwiri yambiri: "Yogwira ntchito" (ayenera kuyendetsedwa pogwiritsa ntchito mapampu) ndi "Passive" (kapena wick, popanda mphamvu yamagetsi).

Kusankhidwa kwa mitundu yolima

Choyamba, ndikofunika kudziwa mtundu wa tomato womwe mukufuna kukula. Ngakhale, mwachidziwikire, mitundu yonse ya tomato ndi yabwino kwa kulima kwa hydroponic, koma iwe udzakhala wokolola kwambiri posankha mitundu yapadera ya wowonjezera kutentha. Zimalimbikitsanso kusankha tomato oyambirira.

  • Gavrosh. Sakusowa garter ndi pasynkovanii. Mndandanda umagonjetsedwa ndi fitoftor. Mitengo ya zipatso, yokoma, imafika 50 g Kuyambira kumera mpaka fruiting mu hydroponics imatenga masiku 45-60.
  • Bwenzi F1. Mitundu yambiri yobala zipatso (3.5-4 makilogalamu pa mbeu). Nthawi zambiri zimakhudzidwa ndi mavairasi ndi matenda. Kuyambira kumera mpaka fruiting kumatenga masiku 55-70.
  • Alaska. Ali ndi nthawi yomweyo yobala monga zosiyana siyana. Kukula popanda kupanga chitsamba. Zokolola ndi 3-3.5 makilogalamu pa mbewu.
  • Bon Apeti. Katundu zosiyanasiyana tomato. Akusowa garter. Zipatso ndi zazikulu - 80-100 magalamu. Kulima kuli kolemera - makilogalamu 5 kuchokera ku chitsamba. Zosiyanasiyana zolimbana ndi mavairasi ndi matenda.
Komanso kunyumba kwa hydroponics, akatswiri amalimbikitsa tomato kuchokera ku Ambiance (wofiira), Blitz, Geronimo, Match, Quest, Tradiro (wofiira), mitundu ya Trust.

Chimene muyenera kukula tomato hydroponically

Kwa hydroponics, m'pofunika kupeza miphika ya zomera, zomwe tatchulidwa kale (zochepa zamkati ndi zamkati zazikulu). Mu matanki apakati ndiyenera kuika ndondomeko ya mlingo wa madzi. Mufunikanso gawo lapansi losankhidwa mwanzeru. Popeza mchere wochuluka wa mankhwala a phwetekere wa hydroponic umayesedwa ndi mphamvu yake yoyendetsera magetsi, udzafunikira chizindikiro choyendetsa magetsi.

Ndikofunikira! Njira yothetsera zakudya imayenera kukhala ndi 1.5-3.0 mS (ma unit of conductivity). Chizindikiro ichi chiyenera kuyang'aniridwa tsiku ndi tsiku. Patapita kanthawi, msinkhu wa ndondomeko udzayamba kugwa, ndipo pamene umapitirira kuposa zizolowezi zovomerezeka, yankho lidzaloledwa kapena zinthu zonse zofunika ziwonjezeredwa. Yankho liyenera kusinthidwa 1 nthawi mu masabata 3-4.
Ngati mukufuna kudziwa momwe mungakonzekeretse njira yothetsera hydroponic, kotero kuti njirayi ili ndi phindu la zakudya zokhudzana ndi nthaka, ndiye tikuwona kufunika kolondola pakukonzekera malemba. Magalamu onse a mchere amafunika kugwiritsidwa ntchito. Kusakaniza kosakonzeka bwino kungawononge kwambiri komanso kuwononga zomera. Komanso onani kuti pazigawo zosiyana za phwetekere, maphikidwe a hydroponic njira adzasiyana pang'ono. Monga momwe tikuonera, ndikofunika kugula njira yothetsera, kapena zonse zomwe zimapangidwira.

Chofunika kwambiri ndicho kufotokoza kwachangu. Tomato amafunikira kuwala kochuluka. Kunyumba, fulorosenti kapena nyali za ultraviolet ndizoyenera. Kumayambiriro kwa nyengo yokula, zomera zimafunikira maola 20 a kuwala kwakukulu, komanso pa nthawi ya fruiting - mpaka maola 17. Zomwe zili zofunika pa phwetekere ya hydroponics zimaphatikizansopo dongosolo lokha. Zikhoza kukhala ndi njira yothira zakudya, kuthirira madzi okwanira kapena kusefukira kwa nthawi.

Mukudziwa? Posachedwa, makampani atsopano a hydroponic akupezeka omwe akukula mofulumira. Amagwiritsidwanso ntchito mkati, kukongoletsa maonekedwe ndi miyala. Choncho zomera zimangokongoletsera, koma zimagwiranso ntchito monga kutsekemera, zimatenga carbon dioxide ndi kuyeretsa mpweya.

Phwetekere ya hydroponic ikukula sayansi

Kukula tomato hydroponically kunyumba muyenera kutsatira malamulo ena. Ndipo ndiyetu kuyambira kufesa mbewu za mbande.

Kodi kukula mbande

Lembani nyembazo mu njira ya 1% ya potaziyamu permanganate kwa mphindi 15-20 tisanayambe kufesa. Ndiye tsambani bwino. Agronomists ambiri amavomereza kugwiritsa ntchito phokoso lapadera la kubzala mbewu za osankhidwa osiyanasiyana. Pambuyo pa sabata, nkhumba zimayikidwa pambali kuti zikhazikitse zimayambira ndi mizu. Pambuyo pake masiku asanu ndi awiri, tomato amaikidwa muzipinda zapadera ndipo kotero kukula kwa milungu itatu. Kenaka ana amatsuka bwino ndipo amafalikira pa poto, asanatsukidwe ndi madzi. Kenaka, mbandezi zimaphatikizidwa mu dongosolo la hydroponic, kumamatira ku nthawi (mu chiwerengero cha 0.9-1.2 mamita aliyense mmera).

Zomera zosamalira, momwe mungapezere zipatso zambiri za tomato

Monga tanena kale, yankho ndilofunika kwambiri pakukula zomera mu njira ya hydroponic. Popanda izo, amafa. Zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito, zimawotcha ku mizu, ndi zofooka-ku zokolola zochepa. Choncho, muwerenge mosamala kuchuluka kwa feteleza mchere kwa hydroponics ya tomato.

Pamene zomera zimakula mpaka masentimita 20, zimayenera kumangirizidwa. Izi zimagwiranso ntchito ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana, popeza popanda dothi zomera zimachotsedwa. Kuti apangidwe ndi kucha zipatso, tomato maluwa ayenera mungu wochokera (mukhoza kugwiritsa ntchito burashi). Onetsetsani nyengo yozizira ndi yofewa yomwe tafotokozedwa pamwambapa ndipo muperekeko zokolola zochuluka.

Ubwino ndi kuipa kwa njira ya hydroponic yakukula tomato

Thandizo la Hydroponics la tomato liri ndi angapo ubwino:

  • Kukhazikitsa malo, madzi ndi fetereza.
  • Zakudya zimayimbidwa kwathunthu, osati kufalikira m'nthaka.
  • Kukula kwazomera kumapita mofulumira poyerekeza ndi omwe akukula mwachizolowezi.
  • Kupititsa patsogolo kayendedwe ka kukula.
  • Kuchepetsa ndalama zothandizira (simukuthirira, musamenyane ndi namsongole, musadye).
  • Kupititsa patsogolo zokolola ndi khalidwe la zipatso.
Zokhudzana ndi zofooka, ndalama zoyamba za zipangizo ndi zipangizo zilipamwamba kwambiri ndipo muyenera kudziwa bwino chiphunzitso cha hydroponics.

Takufotokozerani zamtengo wapatali za phwetekere hydroponics, momwe mungadziwire zosiyanasiyana, zipangizo, zothetsera phwetekere hydroponics, kukula mbande. Iwo amauza za ubwino ndi kupweteka kwa njirayi, ndipo ngati kuli koyenera pangozi, kuyesa chinthu chatsopano mu kulima tomato - chisankho ndi chanu. Tikukufunirani zokhazokha zokha.