Phwetekere "Kate": kufotokoza, zokolola, zida za kubzala ndi kusamalira

Mitundu ya phwetekere "Katya" mwangwiro unadziwonetsera wokha pakati pa oyambirira kukhwima mitundu ya phwetekere.

Ndi makhalidwe ake abwino, monga kukaniza matenda ndi nyengo yovuta, tomato zosiyanasiyana "Katya" yathandiza kuti anthu ambiri azikhala m'nyengo ya chilimwe.

Ngakhalenso wamaluwa osangalatsa amatha kubzala phwetekere, chifukwa safuna kusamalidwa. Pa nthawi yomweyi, "Kate" amadziwika bwino ndi zokolola zabwino komanso kukoma kwake, ndipo zomwe zinachitikira kulima zidzangosiya zokondweretsa zokhazokha.

Tomato a mitundu yosiyanasiyana ndi abwino kumwa mowa, amatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito kupanga juisi, phwetekere ndi kusunga.

Zosiyanasiyana "Kate" ndi wosakanizidwa, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti zimaphatikizapo makhalidwe abwino a mitundu yosiyanasiyana. Tiyeni tiwone maonekedwe ake akulu ndikupeza chifukwa chake ndi otchuka pakati pa olima wamaluwa komanso azamaluwa.

Mukudziwa? Zosiyanasiyana "Katya" zidalidwa ndi obereketsa kumayambiriro kwa zaka za 2000.

Phwetekere "katya": zipatso ndi mitundu

Pofuna kukambirana za phwetekere "Kate", zomwe ndizofotokozera za mitundu yosiyana siyana, ziyenera kuyambira ndikuti ndi wosakanizidwa wa F1. F ndi ana (ochokera ku Italy), 1 ndi nambala ya chibadwidwe. Izi zikutanthauza kuti "Kate" - wosakanizidwa wa m'badwo woyamba.

Kuyambira nthawi yofesa mbewu mpaka pamene zipatso zakupsa ndi zokometsera zimaonekera, zimatengera masiku 75 mpaka 80, choncho tomato izi zimatengedwa kuti zakucha kucha. Zingakhale zowonjezereka mu wowonjezera kutentha komanso kunja.

"Kate" amalekerera bwino mvula yamkuntho ndi chilala, komanso amatsutsa kwambiri matenda oteteza matenda a phyto monga zowola kwambiri, kachilombo ka fodya, mazira ochedwa ndi Alternaria. Matimati "Katya" umakhala ndi chitsamba chokhala ndi masentimita 60, omwe amadziwika ndi masamba ake.

Ponena za zokolola za phwetekere, ziyenera kutchulidwa kuti mutakula mukakhala ndi malo otseguka, 8-10 makilogalamu a mbeu akhoza kukolola kuchokera kumtunda umodzi wa mbande. Mu malo otentha, imodzi yokhala ndi mbande imabweretsa makilogalamu 15.

Zipatso zamalonda zikuwerengera 80-94% ya zokolola zonse. Izi zosiyanasiyana tomato amadziwika ndi mapangidwe osavuta inflorescences ndi kukhalapo kwa ziwalo pa mapesi.

Ndikofunikira! Kawirikawiri inflorescence imapanga pamwamba pa tsamba lachisanu, ndipo paburashi iliyonse ya 8-9 tomato amamangidwa.

Ubwino ndi kuipa kwa phwetekere "Katya"

Zina mwa ubwino wa phwetekere "Kate" ndi zotsatirazi zotsatirazi:

  • kukula;
  • kudzichepetsa;
  • chokolola chachikulu;
  • matenda;
  • zabwino kukoma ndi zofunika makhalidwe a tomato;
  • kupukutira yunifolomu ya tomato, yomwe imathandiza kwambiri kukolola;
  • zabwino transportability wa tomato ndi kukana mechanical kuwonongeka.
Main drawback mitundu "Kate" - nthambi zodula. Ndicho chifukwa chake chomera chikusowa chithandizo china (mukhoza kumanga chitsamba ku phulusa laling'ono).

Nthawi zina palinso zomera zomwe zimagonjetsedwa ndi fomoz komanso zithunzi za phwetekere.

Mafuta a fomuzi (fomoz) ndi 5% potaziyamu permanganate yankho (phwetekere mosaic) amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochizira matendawa.

Mbali za kukula mbande mitundu "Katya"

Mitundu ya tomato "Katya" ikulimbikitsidwa kuti ikhale wamkulu pogwiritsa ntchito njira ya mmera, ndipo pambuyo poti chitukuko chitheke, ndi bwino kusankha zomera. Saplings 15-20 masentimita pamwamba amabzalidwa panja.

Ndi bwino kutsika panthawi yomwe chimakhala chozizira ndi chisanu. Kumbukirani kuti mtunda wa pakati pa mabowo suyenera kukhala osachepera 45 masentimita, ndipo mabowo ayenera kukhala akuya mokwanira kuti mbewuyo ikhale yabwino.

Ndikofunikira! Pofuna kukolola msanga, ngakhale mwezi wa March, mbewu ziyenera kufesedwa m'mitsuko yodzala ndi gawo lapansi.

Zosowa za nthaka

Pofuna kukolola tomato, muyenera kutsatira zofunikira za nthaka. Choncho, pakufunika kukolola bwino nthaka ya mchenga kapena loamy yopuma bwino.

Kuti mudziwe mtundu wa nthaka pa chiwembucho ndikwanira kuti mutenge pang'ono padziko lapansi ndi kuthirira madzi ndi dzanja lanu. Pambuyo pake, pikani ku malo osaphatikizapo mtanda ndi kuupukusa pakati pa manja anu kuti akhale mtundu wa "soseji" wolemera ndi pensulo.

Tsopano yesetsani kutchinga "soseji" iyi mu mphete - ngati iphwanyidwa m'malo amtundu, ndiye kuti nthakayo ndi ya mtundu wa loam. Ngati mpheteyo imatuluka ngakhale popanda ming'alu - dziko lapansi ndi dongo.

Mitengo iyi ndi yoyenera kukula mitundu "Katya", koma aliyense wa iwo amafunikanso fetereza yabwino, yomwe:

  • Aliyense zaka 3-4 m'pofunika kuwonjezera ufa wa dolomite kapena laimu wowawasa nthaka (250-600 magalamu a zinthu zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pajomba lililonse).
  • Mu lolemera dongo nthaka iliyonse ya m², onjezerani 1.5-2 zidebe zowola (1-2 zaka) manyowa kapena kompositi. Mukhozanso kugwiritsa ntchito chidebe chimodzi cha mchenga wa mtsinje, chomwe chinkagwedezeka mu urea yankho (yokonzedwa peresenti ya 150 magalamu pa 10 malita a madzi).

Nthawi yobzala mbewu

Sungani nthawi yofesa mbewu za phwetekere sivuta. Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya tomato "Katya" ndi yakucha kucha, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti pafupi masiku 100 amachoka pa nyengo yokula mpaka zipatso zoyamba zikuwoneka.

Kuti mutenge phwetekere yoyamba pa saladi pa July 20, muyenera kubzala mbewu masiku 100 musanafike tsiku lino. Onjezerani izi masiku 7-10 pa kuwombera, kuphatikizapo masiku 3-5 kuti musinthe zowonjezera mbande kunthaka. Malingana ndi izi, kubzala mbewu ziyenera kuchitika kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa April.

Ndondomeko yokonzekera mbewu ndi kubzala mbewu

Malongosoledwe a phwetekere "Kate", komanso makhalidwe awo, akuphatikizapo mfundo yofunikira monga kukonzekera mbewu kupita kwawo komweku.

Makamaka, tikulimbikitsidwa kuti tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tisanabzalidwe m'njira yosavuta komanso yovomerezeka: Lembani mbeuyi ndi potsimikiza pinkiyamu ya potassium permanganate (1 gramu ya potassium permanganate imayeretsedwa mu 100 milliliters ya madzi owiritsa) ndi kuwasiya kwa mphindi 15 mpaka 20. Kusokoneza kotere kumathandiza kuteteza mbewu ku matenda osiyanasiyana a bakiteriya.

Komanso, musanafese, mungathe kulemberanso zokolola m'madzi otungunuka. Kukonzekera, tenga thumba la pulasitiki lolimba ndikulidzaza ndi madzi 3/4. Sungani madzi ochulukirapo opitirira theka la madzi asungunuka. Pamodzi ndi madzi ophatikizidwa, zosawonongeka zoipa zidzachotsedwanso. Pambuyo pa kutaya madzi oundana, mumalandira madzi othandizira, omwe, mkati mwa masiku awiri, amatha kuyambitsa mbewu zowonongeka.

Kulima pamalo otseguka kungatheke pogwiritsa ntchito njira zosiyanasiyana ndi ndondomeko. Chosayembekezereka n'chakuti ngakhale oyamba kumene amatha kubzala tomato, zomwe zimakhala zosavuta kugwiritsa ntchito chiwembu chodzala: 70x30 masentimita ndi mapangidwe 2-3 mapesi, kubzala osalimba ndi chiwembu ndi 3-4 zomera pa m².

Mmene mungasamalire mbande "Kati"

Tomato "Kate" ndi kufotokoza za chisamaliro chawo, mwinamwake, chiyenera kuyambika ndi zida za mbeu. Miphika yotereyi iyenera kukhala ndi mabowo apadera kuti akane madzi ochulukirapo. Ngati palibe, mbewuyo idzakhala ndi matenda monga Blackleg.

Oyenera kufesa mbande gawo lina lililonse lofesa mbeu kapena kompositi kuchokera ku chisakanizo cha peat ndi mchenga, mutengedwera mofanana. Sitiyenera kubzala nyemba za tomato mofanana, pamene mumakhala wochepa kwambiri.

Chinthu chopangidwa ndi gawo lapansi chiyenera kuyamwa bwino musanafese. Nkhumba zokha zimayenera kuvutikira, chifukwa zimathandiza kuti thupi lizizimira komanso limakula kwambiri. Pofuna kutenthetsa njere, onetsetsani kusintha kwa kayendedwe ka kutentha: kutenthetsa maola 48 kutentha pafupifupi +30 ° C, ndiyeno maola 72 ndi kutentha kwa +50 ° C. Pambuyo pofesa ndi mpaka mphukira yoyamba ikuwoneka, sungani kutentha kosapitirira +23 ° C.

Pambuyo pakuwonekera mphukira zoyambirira, chotsani filimuyi kuchokera muzitsulo za mbeu, ndipo kuti musatuluke mbande zofooka kwambiri kuti zisawonongeke kwambiri, chitani njirayi madzulo. Imwani nyembazo ndi mtsinje wabwino kwambiri ndipo kumbukirani kuti zomera siziyenera kuzungulira madzi.

Kujambula mbande pamalo otseguka

Sankhani kukolola ndikumanga mphukira zazing'ono kuchokera mu thanki ndikufesa mbewu mu chidebe chachikulu chodzaza ndi nthaka. Kuswana ndi ndondomeko yoyenera yomwe imalimbitsa mizu ya mbande zazing'ono. Kawirikawiri pickling ya mbande ikuchitika masiku 20 pambuyo mphukira yoyamba. Choncho, pooneka ngati timapepala timene timayambira, amatha kukhala mosatekeseka, koma pafupi ora limodzi lisanayambe, kuthirani bwino zomera. Sungani mosamala zomwe zili mu chombo chodzala pa tebulo, gwiritsani ntchito ndondomeko yothamanga ndipo mugawane bwino ndi zomera.

Gwirani nyemba kumbuyo kwa ziphuphuzo ndipo pang'onopang'ono muzigawani mizu, kuonetsetsa kuti panthawiyi sichikutsalira popanda malo. Bzalani zomera mmagawo osiyana kapena maselo. Pangani mabowo kotero kuti mbande ikhale yoyenera mwa iwo.

Pambuyo pake, phulani nthaka ndikutsanulira. Ngati mbande ndi yaing'ono kapena yofooka kwambiri, ndiye bwino kuti musamamwe madzi ndi zitsamba, koma kuti muwaike poto ndi madzi, ndi kutsanulira mbali yomwe ili pamwambapa pogwiritsa ntchito botolo.

Maganizo odzala mbande mitundu "Katya" pansi

Tomato ndi chomera kwambiri, ndipo "Kate" ndi phwetekere kwambiri, kucha msanga, choncho nthawi yobzala mbeu mmalo otseguka zimadalira zochitika za m'mlengalenga ndi nyengo ya kutentha.

Ndiko kuti, nthaka ikangoyamba pang'ono, ndipo usiku udzu watha, mbewu zimatha kubzalidwa bwinobwino mu nthaka. Nthawi zambiri kawirikawiri ndi yabwino kwa izi, koma nthawi yabwino ndi theka lachiwiri la mwezi wa May kapena theka la June.

Mukudziwa? Tomato amakula bwino usiku

Njira zamakono

Musanayambe kubzala tomato, muyenera kupanga mabowo kukula kwa mbande ndikuwasamalitsa mosamala (pafupifupi lita imodzi pa chitsime chilichonse). Komanso, onetsetsani kuti mbeu sizinafota, chifukwa ngakhale zomera zowonongeka sizingayambe kudwala, zimadwala ndikukula pang'onopang'ono.

Monga tanenera kale, "Kate" ndi tomato oyambirira, choncho pofotokozera mitundu yosiyanasiyana komanso njira yobzala, nkofunika kutchula kuti mbewu ziyenera kubzalidwa mozama kwambiri kuposa momwe zinakulira mu chidebe.

Zomwe anakumana nazo wamaluwa amalimbikitsa kuchotsa masamba angapo m'munsi mwa zomera ndikukulitsa mbande momwe zingathere panthawi yodzala. Mmerawo ukhoza kuikidwa m'manda mpaka theka la tsinde, ndikuwongolera kumpoto mpaka kumadzulo.

Samalani mosamala mizu ya mbande ndi kuigwedeza motero kuti mapeto a mizu ayendetsedwe molunjika pansi pa dzenje.

Mbewu zitabzalidwa, zitsani zomera, ndipo pang'onopang'ono muziwaza dzenje lomwelo pamwamba pa dothi louma.

Kodi kusamalira tomato mitundu "Katya"

Kufotokozera zomwe zimachitika pa phwetekere "Kate". Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti kubzala kwake ndi gawo loyamba pa njira yopambana, ndipo lachiwiri limaperekanso chisamaliro cha mbeu. Mitundu yosiyanasiyana imeneyi imakhala ikukwera pamwamba, kuthirira nthawi zonse ndi kumasula nthaka, komanso kuyambanso kuvala pamwamba. Kukonzekera bwino kwa chitsamba komanso nthawi yoyamwitsa tizilombo ndi matenda ndizofunikira kwambiri.

Nthaka pakati pa mizera iyenera kudutsa nthawi zonse, ndi nthawi yabwino - iliyonse masiku khumi ndi awiri, koma katatu nthawi ya chilimwe. Yesetsani kupewa mapangidwe otayika pamene mutsegula. Ngati munda wanu uli ndi dothi lolemera, ndiye kuti kumasula kwakukulu kumachitika masiku khumi ndi awiri oyambirira mutatha kuika.

Choyamba chokwera ayenera kumaliza masiku 9-11 mutabzala. Sungani tomato musanagwiritse ntchito, popeza hilling ndi nthaka yonyowa idzafulumizitsa mapangidwe a mizu yatsopano. Nthawi yachiwiri ndondomekoyi ikuchitika pambuyo pa masiku 16-20 atatha.

Kuthirira ndi kudyetsa

Monga tazitchula kale, tomato "Katya" ndi ultra-oyambirira mitundu, kutanthauza kuti amafunika oyambirira komanso nthawi yake kuthirira. Choncho kuthirira mabowo, 0.7-0.9 malita a madzi pa chofunika chofunika. Nthawi yabwino yowonjezera madzi ndi madzulo pamene dzuwa siliwala. Onetsetsani kuti mumwa madzi tomato nthawi ya maluwa oyambirira ndi achiwiri, komanso musanayambe kutulutsa nthaka komanso mutapanga feteleza.

Kudyetsa koyamba kumachitika 10-12 masiku mutabzala, omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito chisakanizo cha organic ndi mineral feteleza. Choncho, mu chidebe cha lita khumi cha mullein njira (gawo limodzi mullein kapena slurry ndi madzi ena 8-9) onjezerani magalamu 20 a superphosphate.

Chidebe chimodzi cha njira yothirira zakudyayi imakuthandizani kukonza mbeu 10 panthawi imodzi. Chakudya chachiwiri ndi chachitatu (ndi nthawi ya masabata awiri) chimapangidwa ndi feteleza wouma kapena pansi pamtunda. Kwa 1 mamita a malowa muyenera kupanga magalamu 20 a superphosphate, 10 magalamu a ammonium nitrate ndi 15 magalamu a potaziyamu mchere.

Ndikofunikira! Onetsetsani kuti muyang'ane msinkhu wa chinyezi, zomwe zingakuthandizeni kupeĊµa kudula nthaka ndi kuteteza zomera kuti zisabwerere zipatso ndi zowola.

Kukumba chomera

Masking - Njira zoyenera, zomwe zimaphatikizapo kuchotsa mphukira zochuluka kuchokera ku zomera. Ngati simukuletsa kukula kwa tsinde, kudula mphukira zake zowonjezera, mbewuyo idzadya zakudya zonse pa kukula kwa mbeu, osati pa kukula kwa zipatso.

Ndibwino kuti muzitha kukanikiza m'mawa, kuti chomera chikhoza kuchiritsa mabala onse usiku. Choyamba, zotsikazo zimachotsedwa, zomwe zimadulidwa ndi lumo kapena mpeni. Kuzipeza izo ndi zophweka, chifukwa ndi mphukira yowonjezera yomwe imakula kuchokera ku sinus ya masamba.

Kuti mukule chitsamba cha phwetekere pa tsinde limodzi, muyenera kuchotsa ana onse opeza. Mukamapanga mapesi awiri ndikofunikira kusiya mphukira yaikulu komanso yowonjezereka kwambiri.

Sitikulimbikitsidwa kuti mukhale ndi zoposa zitatu mu chitsamba chimodzi.

Komanso, musalole mphukira yowonjezereka ikuwonjezeka kwambiri. Yang'anani chomera kuti chiwonongeke bwino apo kamodzi pa sabata.

Kusamalira dothi

Kusamalira dothi kumaphatikizapo kuchotsa udzu nthawi ndi nthawi. Zonsezi zimathandiza kukula kwa mizu, kukulitsa kukula, kulimbitsa mbewu ndi zokolola zambiri.

Mitundu yabwino ya mulch wa tomato mitundu "Katya" ndi:

  • kusakaniza kwachitsulo chosakaniza;
  • tsamba la humus;
  • udzu;
  • kompositi
Zinthu izi zimachokera ku chilengedwe, kusunga chinyezi bwino, ndikudyetsa chomeracho ndi zinthu zothandiza. Kawirikawiri, kuyesa mulching sikufuna chidziwitso ndi luso lapadera. Zokwanira kugwiritsa ntchito mulingo wosanjikiza wa mulch panthaka, ndipo chikhalidwe chidzakuchitirani zina zonse.

Tomato ayenera kutetezedwa ku namsongole nthawi zonse, kuyambira nthawi yobzala. Musalole namsongole kukula.

Pofuna kupewa izi, nthawi zonse muzimasuka kumasula, komanso kuchotsani namsongole.

Mukudziwa? Pakalipano, pali mitundu ya 10,000 ya tomato, yomwe yaing'ono imakhala yosachepera 2 masentimita awiri, pomwe yaikulu kwambiri imakhala pafupifupi 1.5 makilogalamu.

Kukolola mitundu ya phwetekere "Katya"

Phwetekere "Kate" ndi zokolola zake - chifukwa cha kunyada kwa munda aliyense, chifukwa izi zosiyanasiyana zimabweretsa zambiri zowutsa mudyo tomato.

Nthawi yokolola imadalira zomwe mungagwiritse ntchito tomato:

  • Kukonzekera saladi ndi mbale zina, zisonkhanitsani zipatso zokhwima. Zingathe kudziwika ndi khalidwe la mtundu woterewu wokongola komanso wofiira.
  • Kuteteza zipatso zabwino za pinki ndi chikasu.
  • Kwa nthawi yaitali yosungirako, ndi bwino kusankha tomato mu zomwe zimatchedwa "nyamakazi yakucha", pamene mtundu wobiriwira wa chipatso umasintha mtundu wobiriwira, pafupifupi woyera.

Komabe, kumbukirani kuti mbeu yonse ya tomato iyenera kukololedwa mpweya usanafike mpaka 13 ° S. Apo ayi, chipatso chidzasanduka chakuda ndikukhala chosayenera kwa anthu.

"Kate" ndi tomato zosiyanasiyana, zomwe zingamere osati osati ndi olima wamaluwa okhaokha, komanso poyambitsa wamaluwa, ndipo kukoma kwa zipatso zake zokoma ndi zokometsera sizingasokoneze ngakhale pickiest gourmet.