Kodi kukula nkhaka pawindo m'nyengo yozizira

Nkhaka pawindo pa nthawi yozizira - izi sizinthano, koma zenizeni, zomwe zimakonzedweratu kunyumba ndi olima amaluwa. Koma izi ndi zotheka mukamagwiritsa ntchito nkhaka zamtengo wapatali zowonjezera m'nyengo yozizira m'nyumba komanso kutsatira malamulo onse oti muwasamalire.

Mitundu ya nkhaka pawindo

Chifukwa cha ntchito yaikulu ya obereketsa lero, mlimi aliyense akhoza kugula mbewu za nkhaka, zomwe zimatha kukula ndi kubala chipatso ngakhale mkati. Kwa chiwerengero cha nkhaka zoterozo kukula pazenera m'nyengo yozizira, zikuphatikizapo:

  • nkhaka "Kulimbika" - zosiyanasiyana zomwe zimasiyana ndi nthawi yofulumira (nthawi yochepa kwambiri yakucha pamene ikukula mu wowonjezera kutentha ndi masiku 36), bwino fruiting ndi masamba akulu (mpaka 15 cm kutalika ndi 3 masentimita);
  • Nkhaka zosiyanasiyana "Shchedryk" imatuluka mkati mwa masiku makumi asanu ndi awiri (45) kuchokera pa nthawi yofesa mbewu, kuchokera ku 5 mpaka 8 amadyera amapangidwa pa mfundo iliyonse ya chitsamba chake, iliyonse yomwe ili ndi 12 cm yaitali; mutakula m'nyumba, chitsamba chilichonse chimapanga 20 masamba;
  • various "Khutorok" amatanthauza kuphulika mwamsanga kwambiri, popeza zipatso zoyamba kuchokera kwa izo zikhoza kusonkhanitsidwa masiku 30 kuchokera nthawi yofesa; Zelentsy amadziwika ndi kutalika kwa masentimita 10 ndi kukhalapo kwa minga yakuda, komanso kukoma kwake;
  • nkhaka mitundu "Hrustik" Nyani mochedwa - masiku makumi asanu mutatha kufesa, koma ngakhale mutakula pawindo ndi chitsamba chimodzi mukhoza kusonkhanitsa mpaka 40, koma mukafesa zosiyana siyana, kumbukirani kuti ndizolimba, choncho zidzasowa malo ambiri;
  • kalasi "Masha" Komanso oyambirira - woyamba amadyera akhoza kukolola 35-40 patapita masiku kufesa; The shrub ya chomera amapanga kwambiri wakuda, pa mphukira 5-7 amadyera pafupifupi 11 masentimita m'litali amapangidwa;
  • nkhaka "Kutchuka" Kuwonjezera pa zozizwitsa komanso zabwino kwambiri, zimakhala zautali 8-10 masentimita ndipo zimasiyana mosiyana nthawi yakucha zipatso, chifukwa fruiting imatha mwezi umodzi.
Ndikofunikira! Pofesa pazenera sill, mungasankhe ena oyambirira kucha mitundu ya nkhaka, ganizirani kokha kuti ayenera kukhala parthenocarpic. Ndi za kuthekera kubereka chipatso popanda pollination ndi pollination.

Mphamvu yakukula nkhaka kunyumba

Nkhaka zimakhala bwino mukakula mu miphika ndi mabokosi akuluakulu omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito pofesa mbande. Lingalirani kokha mfundo yakuti payenera kukhala dzenje mabokosi kuti atulutse chinyezi.

Pofesa mbewu mabokosi, kumbukirani kuti pasankhanira 5 nkhaka zisawonongeke pamtunda wa masentimita 70. Bokosi liyenera kukhala lokwanira, chifukwa chomera ichi chili ndi mizu yolimba. Izi zimapangitsa kuti chodzala chikhale chokwanira, komanso kupulumutsa mphukira zazing'ono kutambasula.

Kuti kukula kwa nkhaka pawindo, phokoso la mphika likhale pafupifupi 4 malita pa mbeu. Pokonzekera mabokosi ndi miphika, chonde onani kuti kuya kwake kuyenera kokwanira kutaya mpweya wosanjikiza pansi. Popeza kuchuluka kwamakono kwa nkhaka kumatha kufika masentimita atatu, mphamvu siyeneranso kukhala yaying'ono kwambiri.

Nthaka chifukwa chokula nkhaka

Kukula bwino kwa nkhaka kungapezeke pokhapokha atabzalidwa osasunthika komanso nthaka yabwino. Pachifukwa ichi, mutha kugula gawo lapansi la dothi m'ditolo la maluwa (nthaka yonse kapena yokonzedweratu yokhala ndi zomera za dzungu iyenera kukhala yobzala nkhaka).

Ngati pali mwayi, ndiye bwino kukonzekera nthaka kusakaniza kwa nkhaka mosiyana, kusakaniza ndi zofanana:

  • nthaka;
  • nthaka kuchokera m'nkhalango;
  • humus;
  • mchenga (bwino coarse, ndiye nthaka idzakhala yovuta kwambiri ndipo zingakhale bwino kudutsa chinyezi);
  • mtengo;
  • sawdust (ndi zofunika kuti ali nayo nthawi perepret ndi kukhala wakuda).
Musanafese mbewu, nkofunika kuti muiikiritse mavitamini pamtunda wokonzedwa bwino, yomwe imayikidwa maminiti 20 mu uvuni asanafike mpaka 200˚С. Chifukwa cha ichi, m'nthaka sipadzakhalanso tizilombo toyambitsa matenda kapena mabakiteriya omwe angathe kuchititsa matenda osiyanasiyana a nkhaka.
Ndikofunikira! Musanafese mbewu, dothi liyenera kuikidwa m'mabokosi ndi miphika masiku angapo isanayambe kubzala. Chifukwa cha ichi, adzatha kuweramitsa, ndipo mbewu zitatha kufesa sizidzapita mozama ndipo mbande zidzawoneka mofulumira.

Kukonzekera nkhaka mbewu

Ambiri nkhaka mitundu ingabzalidwe youma mwachindunji pansi. Komabe, pakali pano, mbande zoyamba zidzawoneka kwa masiku pafupifupi 2-3, ndipo mbewu zokha zidzakulitsidwa, kuti athe kukhala pansi.

Popeza panyumba mulibe malo ochulukirapo mbande, zimalimbikitsidwa kuti zimbe nyemba zoyamba, zomwe zingatheke motere:

  1. Lembani mbewu mufooka yothetsera potaziyamu permanganate kwa mphindi 30, ndiye tsutsani ndi madzi ofunda.
  2. Timaponyera mbewu kwa maola ena awiri m'madzi ndi kutentha kosaposa +35 35С.
  3. Tili ndi mbewu zotentha, timazikulunga m'chiguduli choviikidwa m'madzi ndi kuvala utuchi. Mu mawonekedwe awa, ayenera kuikidwa pamalo omwe boma lakutentha limasungidwa ku +30 ˚С.
  4. Pambuyo masiku 1-2, mphukira zimawoneka. Pofika, adzakhala okonzeka nthawi yomweyo, chifukwa simungalole kutalika kwa msana kukulirakulira kuposa 1 mm. Ndikofunika kuumitsa asanadzalemo.
Mukudziwa? Pofuna kuwonjezera kukana kwa nkhaka tchire kuzizira, zimathetsedwa mu mawonekedwe a mbewu. Pachifukwachi, mbewuzo zimayambidwa m'madzi ofunda, kenako zimakhala zotupa, zitakulungidwa mu nsalu ndikuyika mu firiji (makamaka pansi pa firiji palokha) kwa masiku 1-2. Pambuyo pake, amatha kubzalidwa, ndipo mbande zimatulutsa ngakhale pazenera pa kutentha kwa +17 ˚C.

Kufesa Mbewu za Nkhaka

Kufesa mbewu kungatheke panthawi zosiyanasiyana, koma ndi bwino kuchita izi pang'onopang'ono, kuti masamba atsopano azizemba m'nyumba. Miyeso yofesa imadalira kufulumira kwa kukula kwa nkhaka pawindo.

Ngati zosiyana ndi kukucha koyambirira, zikhoza kufesedwa masiku makumi awiri. Komabe, kumbukirani kuti kuyambira nthawi ya November mpaka February, madengu a nkhaka sadzasowa kuwala kwachilengedwe, popeza masiku omwe ali miyeziyi ndi ofooka, ndipo dzuwa siliwonekera nthawi zambiri.

Mukamabzala mbewu zowonongeka, ayenera kumizidwa m'nthaka mozama kuposa 1.5 masentimita, ndipo ayenera kukhala wothira. Mpaka nkhaka zikuoneka pamwamba pa nthaka, zitsulozi ziyenera kusungidwa pansi pa filimuyi komanso kutentha kutsika kuposa 25 ° C.

Pamene mphukira yoyamba ikuwoneka pamwamba, firimuyo iyenera kuchotsedwa ndipo bokosi lomwe liri ndiwowonjezeretsanso pawindo, momwe kutentha kumakhala kozizira - pafupifupi +20 С.

Pofesa mbewu za nkhaka palinso chinthu china. Amaluwa ambiri amawafesa kuti akhale mbande m'miphika yaing'ono, kuti adutsepo mbande m'zitsulo zazikulu.

Njirayi imavomerezedwa, koma panthawi yopatsira mbeu zing'onozing'ono zimapweteka. Pofuna kupewa izi, panthawi yopatsa bwino ndi bwino kutsegula nthaka kuchokera ku chikho, pamodzi ndi mbande. Pachifukwa ichi, mizu ndi masamba a zomerawo zidzakhalabe zolimba.

Timapanga zikhalidwe zokhala nkhaka kunyumba

Kuti nkhaka pawindo liwonetsere kukula bwino, ziyenera kuikidwa kumbali yakum'mwera, chifukwa chomera ichi sichitha kutentha, komanso kuwala. Ngakhalenso bwino, ngati muli ndi khonde lotentha kumbali ya kumwera kwa nyumba, kumene kuwala kumachokera kumbali zitatu panthawi imodzi.

Muzochitika zotere, nkhaka zitsamba zidzakula mwamphamvu, ndipo masamba awo adzakhala ndi mdima wandiweyani, monga mabedi.

Kuunikira

Kwa nkhaka ali ndi kuwala kokwanira, iwo nthawizonse amaunikiridwa. Kuti muchite izi, mungagwiritse ntchito magetsi apadera, kapena nyali zozizwitsa (sizimayenera kuti zisinthidwe tsiku lonse, tingowerengani nthawi yomwe atsegulira kuti tsiku lokonzeka la nkhaka lifike mpaka maola 15-16 pa tsiku). Poonjezera zotsatira za nyali, mukhoza kuyika zowonetsera kuwala pafupi ndi nkhaka - galasi kapena zojambulazo. Musaiwale zakumangiriza tchire, zomwe zimalola aliyense kuthamanga kuti apeze kuwala kwake.

Kutentha

Pa nthawi ya kutentha kwa nkhaka zikukula, kuyambira nthawi yomwe amaoneka ngati mphukira zoyambirira, zomera zimayenera kusungidwa kutentha kwa +20 ° C. Ngati kutentha mu nyumbayi kulipamwamba, ndiye nkhaka iyenera kuperekedwa nthawi zonse kuthirira ndi kupopera mbewu mankhwalawa kuti chinyezi kuchokera ku tchire sichimasanduka kwambiri.

Ndikofunikira! Pamene mukukula nkhaka pawindo, ganizirani kuti bokosi limodzi ndi zomera ndi mizu yawo ikhoza kuzizira kuchokera kuzizira zenera. Pankhaniyi, nkhaka ingayambe kuuma kapena kuleka kukula. Pofuna kupewa tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, timalimbikitsidwa kuika mapulasitiki odzola pansi pa miphika ndi mabokosi a nkhaka.

Kusamalira nkhaka kunyumba

Nkhaka pawindo, mukukula ndi kusamalira akufunira zosachepera pamene iwo abzalidwa lotseguka pansi. Ndikofunikira kukonza kukula kwa tchire m'njira yoti iwo asatambasule, ndipo kuthawa kwawo kulibe kokwanira.

Mapangidwe ndi garter nkhaka baka

Funso lakuti, "Kodi mungapange bwanji nkhaka pawindo lawindo?" Ndizofunika kwambiri, chifukwa zimadalira mphamvu ya mbewu. Izi ziyenera kumveka kuti ngakhale ndi mazira ambiri pa tchire, ndi kukula kwakukulu kwa mphukira ndi kuunikira kosavuta, iwo akhoza kutha kwathunthu osapatsa zipatso.

Pa chifukwa ichi, nkofunika kumanga nkhaka, kupereka mphukira uliwonse mwayi wokhala pambali payekha.

Pachifukwa ichi, chithandizo cha nkhaka pawindo ndi chinthu chothandiza, popeza si nthawizonse yabwino kupanga galasi ndi nsalu, ndipo sizosangalatsa.

Kuwonjezera pamenepo, ndi kofunika kuti mudziwe nokha ngati mungasunge nkhaka pawindo. Ndipotu, njirayi ikukuthandizani kuti mupeze zokolola zabwino. Ndikofunika kutsitsa nkhaka shrub pamene masamba 4-5 akuwonekera, chifukwa kukula kwa mphukira yaikulu idzaima, koma mbaliyo idzayamba, yomwe mbali yaikulu ya mbewuyo idzapangidwe.

Mukhoza kutsinjika ndi kumbali, kuzisiya mu kuchuluka kwa zidutswa 2-3, komanso kuleka kukula pa tsamba la 10. Pofuna kudulira ndi kumangiriza, nkofunika kwambiri kuti asawononge masamba a chomera, chomwe chimapangitsa kuti pakhale zakudya zabwino. Koma ng'anjo zikhoza kuchotsedwa nthawi ndi nthawi.

Kuthirira ndi kudyetsa

Madzi nkhaka nthawi zonse, kuteteza dothi kuti liwume pamwamba pa masentimita 5, ngakhale kuli kofunikira kwambiri ku tchire Kupopera mbewu, chifukwa chinyezi mu nyumba chidzakula.

Ngati nkhaka idabzalidwa mwapadera kwa nthaka, ndiye kuti sizingatheke kuti manyowa adziwe. Patsiku lachisanu chozizira kwambiri, tchire tingakhale ndi kulowetsedwa kwa nthochi zobiriwira, koma kuchepetsa kuchepetsa kuchepa. Chiwerengero cha zovala zotere pa nthawi yonse ya zomera za nkhaka zoyambirira siziyenera kupitirira awiri.

Mukudziwa? Nkhaka zimamvera kwambiri chakudya cha foliar pogwiritsa ntchito mkaka. Komabe, ngati muwonjezerapo (1 l) 20 g sopo ndi madontho 30 a ayodini, mukhoza kupeza mankhwala abwino kwambiri okhudza matenda osiyanasiyana.

Kukolola nkhaka

Ndibwino kuti tithetse maluwa akutsekemera kuchokera ku tchire pawindo. Choyamba, kotero simungalole kukula kwakukulu kwa zipatso, ndipo kachiwiri, kufulumizitsa kukula kwa anthu obiriwira osapsa.

Ngati sanalole nkhaka kuti ikhale yoposa 10 masentimita, ndiye kuti chitsambachi chidzaphuka kachiwiri (kapena mbaliyo idzaphuka), yomwe idzapereka mbewu ina.

Ndizodabwitsa kuti mitundu yambiri ya nkhaka zoyambirira pazenera zamasamba ndi abwino osati kokha kwa zakudya zatsopano, komanso salting. Komabe, zokolola pawindo sizowolowa manja mowolowa manja kuti alole kuti mbewuzo zikhomoke muzitini.

Komabe, kusiya mpata wokula nkhaka zatsopano pakati pa nyengo yozizira kwambiri pawindo sizothandiza. Ndikofunika kwambiri kupereka zomera ndi kuwala kokwanira komanso kusaiwala za kuthirira nthawi zonse. Chifukwa cha izi, mutha kupeza mbewu zamakono pafupifupi mwezi uliwonse.