Froberries Choyenera ndi chisamaliro

Kukonzekera nthaka kubzala strawberries

Froberries amakula pamalo amodzi kwa zaka zingapo mzere. Kukonzekera kwa nthaka kumafuna chidwi chapadera, chifukwa zokolola za zipatso zimadalira kukonzekera koyambirira.

Choyamba muyenera kusankha malo. Iyenera kukhala malo ogona, okhala ndi dzuwa. Inde, chifukwa cha kusowa kwa dzuwa kokwanira, padzakhala zokolola zoipa za strawberries. Ndipo zina zambiri, mumthunzi nthawi zambiri zimakhala zowonjezereka, matenda osiyanasiyana amatha kufalikira pa masamba ndi mizu.

Mtundu wa dothi pa webusaiti ikhoza kukhala iliyonse. Komabe, tchire la sitiroberi siidzakula kumene kuli mchenga kapena dongo. Pali zifukwa izi. Dothi la sandy liri lochepetsedwa kwambiri ndi zinthu zothandiza, ndipo mizu ya zomera imakhala yofulumira komanso yowonjezera. Nthaka ya dothi ndi yowuma kwambiri, imadutsa mpweya wabwino, yomwe imawonjezera mizu ndi mpweya ndipo imavutika ndi chinyezi. Zomera zimasiya kukula. Pofuna kuti nthaka ikhale yabwino, m'pofunika kugwiritsa ntchito fetereza - humus, yomwe imalola kuti nthaka ikhale yosasuka.

Ayenera kulabadira acidity ya nthaka. Ngati nthaka yayamba, m'pofunikanso kulima: gwiritsani ntchito feteleza, ndi nthaka, ndi mafuta ambiri, onjezerani feteleza ndi mchere.

Posankha malo a munda wa strawberries, muyenera kuganizira mlingo wamadzi apansi, kodi pali malo pomwe madzi amatha kupuma. Pochepetsa izi, ndikofunikira kupanga ngalande, koma kuti dziko lapansi lisakhale louma kapena lonyowa.

Muyeneranso kukumbukira kuti strawberries sitingabzalidwe kawiri pamalo amodzi. Iwo samamulimbikitsa iye kumuika kumene tomato, mbatata, kabichi anali atakula kale. Zidzakhala zomasuka pambuyo pa anyezi, adyo, kaloti, maungu, nandolo.

Choncho, sitepe yotsatira ndiyo kukonzekera nthaka kuti ikhale mbande. Ndikofunika kuti musamalire namsongole ndi namsongole omwe amakula pamunda wanu. Makamaka muyenera kuchotsa nthula, bango, udzu wa tirigu (amachotsa zinthu zonse zothandiza padziko lapansi ndi zomera). Kuti muchite izi, chemba chiwembu chonsecho, ndipo chotsani udzu wonse ndi mizu. Mukhozanso kukhazikitsa pansi pa strawberries, muzikhala ndi herbicide, mwachitsanzo, kuzungulira, nyanjayi. Mu masabata awiri maudzu ayenera kutha.

Komanso timakonza nthaka: timagwiritsa ntchito feteleza (gypsum, laimu). Malowa akukankhidwa ndipo amalembedwa momwe angathere. Ndipotu, dothi lomasuka limathandiza kuti maluwa asinthidwe mwamsanga m'malo atsopano komanso kukula kwawo.

Gawo lofunika ndi kukonzekera kubzala strawberries. Mwachitsanzo, mizera imodzi kapena matepi awiri.

Kuti mzerewo ukhale ndi timadzi timadzi timadzi timene timayendetsa bwino, zingwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pamapeto onse ndipo chingwecho chimatambasula.

Tsopano inu mukhoza kuyamba kubzala sitiroberi mbande.

Strawberry kubzala malamulo

Kodi njira zogwirira ntchito ndi ziti?

Strawberry mbande amabzalidwa pansi m'njira zingapo. Wamaluwa amagwiritsa ntchito mzere umodzi ndi mzere wawiri.

Mfundo ya kubzala mzere umodzi ndi yakuti mtunda wa pakati pa nthitiyo ndi 60-70 masentimita, ndipo udzu wa mbande umabzalidwa wina ndi mzake pafupi 15-20 masentimita. Kudyetsa mzere umodzi kumagwiritsidwa ntchito pamene tchire timabzala pansi mumasika kapena m'dzinja. Inde, m'chaka choyamba, munda wa strawberries umabala zipatso, koma umapanga masharubu omwe amadzaza malo omasuka m'mizere.

Kudyetsa mzere wawiri ndi kotheka kwambiri, ndibwino kuti nyengo ikhale yotentha, chifukwa momwe zingatheke mbande zimabzalidwa pamalo amodzi, ndipo mukhoza kudya zipatso pafupifupi chaka chomwe iwo abzalidwa. Mtunda pakati pa nthitiyo ndi masentimita 70, pakati pa mizere 30 masentimita, ndipo mbande zabzala 15-20 masentimita pambali.

Njira ina yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi kubzala mbande m'mabedi. Ndizabwino kumadera kumene kuli madzi. Malo a mabedi amachokera kum'mwera mpaka kumpoto, mizere iwiri ya mbande imabzalidwa pamphepete, ndipo pakati pa njira (pafupifupi 30 cm m'lifupi) sikhala chopanda kanthu.

Amaluwa ambiri amagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga tchire sitiroberi. Izi zimachitika pofuna kuchotsa mbande zonse m'chaka, chomwe sichinafalikire chaka choyamba. Pambuyo pa tchire wodwalayo mutatulutsidwa kunja, padzakhala malo oti kukula kwa zomera zina zikhale bwino.

Chinthu chachikulu ndicho kukhala pa nthawi

Mawu omveka akuti kubzala strawberries salipo. Ikhoza kubzalidwa masika ndi autumn, komanso m'chilimwe. Koma muyenera kuganizira maonekedwe a nyengo yapadera.

Spring. Pa nthawi ino ya chaka, mbande zimalimbikitsidwa kuti zibzalidwe mofulumira, ndikuyamba ntchito kumunda, kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa April. Chinthu chachikulu sichiphonya mphindi ino. Ngati mitengo ya sitiroberi ikabzalidwa patapita nthawi, mu May, ndiye kuti msinkhu wa chitukuko chawo chidzakhala pang'onopang'ono. Nthawi yobwera sizingatheke. Mu kasupe, mbande zimabzalidwa nthawi yomweyo pamalo otseguka.

Chilimwe. Ndi njira yoyenera yobzala strawberries, ndizotheka kusankha zipatso m'chaka. Ndi bwino kulima iyo ikagwa mvula kapena nyengo yamvula, choncho zidzakhala zosavuta kuti ayambe. Madzi okwanira akulimbikitsidwa, ndiye ndikofunikira kuti muzitha kuyendetsa nthaka, mwachitsanzo, kumasula izo kuti asamawoneke ngati kutumphuka pamtunda.

Kutha Ndi nthawi yabwino kwambiri yopangira mbande. Izi ndizopangidwa bwino kuyambira pa August 20 mpaka September 15, koma nthawi yake imakhala yovomerezeka, zimadalira nyengo yomwe ikukhazikitsidwa. Koma ndi zofunika kuti nthawi isanayambe chisanu.

Mosasamala nyengoyi, musanadzalemo strawberries, nkofunika kukonzekera mbande: kuyendetsa mizu kuchokera ku tizilombo tosiyanasiyana (pogwiritsa ntchito yankho la vitriol buluu). Mwachindunji, musanadzalemo tchire, mizu ikuwongoka. Amakhala pamalo owongoka, motalikiratu - akudulidwa.

Ndizosangalatsa kuwerenga za chisamaliro ndi kubzala kwa black currant

Kodi ndi njira iti yokula?

Kawirikawiri, strawberries amakula m'njira ziwiri: mu malo otsekemera ndi pa nthaka yotseguka. Njira zonsezi zimakhala ndi ubwino ndi zovuta.

Musanabzala mbande panja, poyamba, iyenera kukhala yokonzeka. Nthaka imamasulidwa ndipo imagwirizanitsidwa kuti apeze mpweya wabwino. Ndiye mumasowa kuthirira, ndipo pambuyo pake, mutsikira.

Strawberries, obzalidwa mu greenhouses, pansi pa filimuyi, amafesedwa kale kuposa omwe amakula pansi. Njira iyi ndi yoyenera kwa mitundu yoyambirira. Msonkhanowu amasonkhanitsidwa mu April. Amafunika kuwamasula, kumasula nthaka, kuthirira madzi otentha. Onetsetsani kuti mukufunikira thermometer kuti muzitha kutentha. Pa kutentha pamwamba pa 25 ° C, filimuyo imachotsedwa tsiku. M'dzinja strawberries ali ndi udzu kapena masamba a mitengo. Feteleza imagwiritsidwa ntchito: peat kapena kompositi.

Kuwonjezera pamenepo, strawberries akukulabe m'mizere yozungulira. Njira iyi ikufanana ndi masitepe, tiers. Ndi zabwino kwa madera ang'onoang'ono. Zida zamtengo wapatali zofanana ndi piramidi, kuika mtunda wa masentimita 10 kuchokera pamzake. Kwa kudzazidwa kwawo ntchito peat osakaniza, humus, sod land. Pa chisanu, chidebecho chichotsedwanso ndi agrofibre, masamba, peat. Pamene chisanu, strawberries ali ndi chipale chofewa.

Pamene mukukula strawberries pansi pa agrofibre, mukhoza kukolola m'masabata angapo. Agrofibre amasunga kutentha, amateteza ku mphepo ndi chisanu.

Komanso, strawberries amameretsanso mabokosi apulasitiki. Nthaka yokonzedweratu imatsanuliridwa mu thumba, ndipo mbande zimabzalidwa m'mabowo. Kenako amangirizidwa kumalo osanjikiza.

Kusamalira strawberries bwino

Kuthirira strawberries

Kuthirira strawberries kumadalira molingana ndi zomwe nyengo imatiuza ife. Nthawi zambiri ulimi wothirira umatsimikiziridwa ndi nthaka youma. Nthawi yabwino yothirira ndikumayambiriro. Masamba ndi owuma madzulo. Palibe maluwa, komabe zomera zimathiriridwa. Kuthirira kumakhala ngati mvula yaing'ono, mothandizidwa ndi phulusa.

Kutentha, tizilombo timapereka madzi okwanira kamodzi pa masiku asanu ndi awiri, madzi amatsanulira kuchuluka kwa malita 10 mpaka 25 pa lalikulu mita. Ndi maonekedwe a chipatso, kumwa madzi mobwerezabwereza kwafupika. Madzi ogwiritsa ntchito kuthirira ndi ofunda, kutentha ndi madigiri pafupifupi 20. Kuthirira madzi ozizira kungakhudze kukula kwa mbande.

Pamene yoyamba maluwa ikuwonekera, madzi amatsanulira pansi, kupeĊµa kukhudzana ndi tchire. Madzi samatsanulira pa zipatso, chifukwa akhoza kuyamba kuvunda.

Timawononga namsongole

Udzu wamsongo ukufunika kuyamba pomwe usanabzala mbande. Koma pali namsongole omwe amapitiriza kutseka zomera, kutenga chinyezi, zakudya. Tiyenera kumalira nthawi zonse nthawi yonse ya kucha, ndi pambuyo pake. Izi ziyenera kuchitika pa nthawi ya 8. Kuzama kwa kumasula ndi pafupifupi masentimita 10. Ndi bwino kupeza mizu ya namsongole ndikuchotsa kunja.

M'madera akulu obzalidwa ndi strawberries, herbicides amagwiritsidwa ntchito kuchotsa udzu ndi namsongole. Iwo akulimbikitsidwa kuti awazitsire iwo masiku 14 chisanachitike.

Njira inanso yolimbirana ndi kubzala buckwheat, imapangitsa nthaka kukhala yochuluka ndipo imathandiza kuthetsa namsongole. Kenaka amafesa chinachake cha nyengo yozizira, ndipo chaka chotsatira amamera strawberries.

Kulimbana ndi tizirombo

Strawberries alibe tizirombo tambiri, koma amafunika kuchipatala mwamsanga. Mitengo yodulidwa isanayambe kuoneka maluwa kapena pambuyo pokolola zipatso.

Zirombo zazikuluzi zikuphatikizapo:

  1. Sungani chonchi. Masambawa ndi odabwitsa, amakhala achikasu, ndipo zipatso zake ndizochepa. Karbofosom yapangidwa mutatha kukolola.
  2. Nematodes. Amakhala m'mamasamba, amawombera maluwawo. Masambawo amakhala amdima kwambiri, sitiroberi samakula. Zitsamba zofooka zimachoka.
  3. Tizilombo tina tizilombo timaphatikizapo kachilomboka ka sitiroberi, tizilombo toyera, whitefly. Chotsani izo ndi karbofos, aktar.
  4. Nkhono ndi slugs. Zimakhudza kwambiri zipatso.
  5. Pofuna kupewa nyerere, dulani nthaka ndi soda.

Kudyetsa tizilombo kuyenera kuyamba pa kugwa, ndi mankhwala ndi kuteteza thupi. Njira yabwino ndikulumikiza filimu ya padziko lapansi, kuchotseratu namsongole. Ndikofunika kuti nthawi yake yithetsani masamba owuma, kuyang'anitsitsa nthaka chinyezi.

Matenda a strawberries ndi mankhwala ake

Matenda aakulu a sitiroberi ndi awa:

  1. Grey kuvunda. Mawanga a Brown ndi imvi pachimake amakhudza kwambiri masamba, masamba, zipatso. Mankhwalawa ndi: kukolola zipatso nthawi, kuthetsa namsongole, kuwononga zowononga zomera zonse. Kutayidwa ndi Azocene.
  2. Pamene vuto lochedwa limapangitsa kuchepetsa kukula, masamba ofiira amaoneka, mbande zimatha kufa. Pofuna kulimbana muyenera kudyetsa nthaka, ndipo pamene zizindikiro zoyamba zikuwonekera, nthawi yomweyo chotsani ma strawberries.
  3. Mame amatha kufalikira mlengalenga. Mmerawu umadzazidwa ndi imvi pachimake, ndipo nkhungu imawoneka pa zipatso. Pofuna kuchotsa powdery mildew, ndikofunika, pamaso pa maluwa asanatuluke, kutsanulira ndi soda phulusa.
  4. Malo amtundu wa Brown amachititsa mbale zowonongeka, zomwe zimaoneka ngati mabala a bulauni pamwamba pa tsamba.

Konzekerani nyengo yozizira

Kukonzekera munda wa strawberries m'nyengo yozizira yomwe mukufunikira:

  1. Kukhalitsa ndi kuyamwa ndi chinthu choyamba kuchita. Kupaka strawberries mu kugwa sikulimbikitsidwa, momwe mungathe kuwonongera mizu, ndipo iwo sadzakhala nayo nthawi yobwezeretsa chisanu chisanafike. Pa chifukwa chomwechi, sichilangizidwa kuti uchotse udzu, koma m'malo mwake muzisiye mpaka masika.
  2. Dulani ma strawberries mwamphamvu m'nyengo yozizira m'magawo angapo. Mungagwiritse ntchito zipangizo zachitsamba: masamba, udzu, masamba a rasipiberi owuma, ndiye pamene matalala atagwa, amaika chisanu. Ndi zipangizo zopangira, agrofibre kapena agrotex ndi yabwino. Amakhala ndi chinyezi chabwino komanso kutentha.
  3. Strawberries ayenera kukonzekera wintering nthawi yaitali yoyamba frosts ayambe.