Timabzala chitumbuwa chokoma mu kugwa: malangizo othandiza

Kubzala mtengo uliwonse wamaluwa uli ndi makhalidwe ake omwe. Cholinga chathu ndi kukudziwitsani ndi malamulo oyambirira a kubzala mtengo wamtengo wa chitumbuwa mu kugwa.

Ndipotu, ndikofunika kugula ndi kudzala mtengo m'munda wanu, komanso kusankha malo abwino ndi nthaka, kukonzekera dzenje komanso chitumbuwa chodzala. Timagwiritsa ntchito malangizo othandizira kusankha mbeu ndi kusamalira mutabzala.

Kukonzekera kubzala chitumbuwa: malamulo oyambirira ndi malangizo othandiza

Musanayambe kubzala pulasitiki, muyenera kuchita zofunikira zambiri. Pambuyo pake, zidzadalira pokonzekera kubzala kwadzinja ngati mtengo wololera udzakula pamalo anu, kapena chomera chosamvetsetseka chofanana ndi chitumbuwa chokoma.

Malangizo osankha mtundu woyenera wa nthaka

Kukula kwakukulu kwa chitumbuwa chokoma kungapezeke pochidzala mu nthaka yachonde ndi kayendedwe kabwino ka madzi. Komanso, Nthaka iyenera kumasulidwa nthawi zonse komanso mwachiwawa. Izi zikhoza kuchitidwa, ngati mutabzala sapling mu loam kapena mu nthaka yamchenga.

Mitengo imeneyi imayenerera bwino kwambiri chifukwa yamadzi abwino ndi mpweya wabwino. Kuonjezerapo, feteleza yogwiritsidwa ntchito ku nthaka yoteroyo idzafika msanga pamtengo wa mtengo ndikuthandizira kukula kwake.

Dothi lachinyontho ndi mchenga silibwino kwa zipatso zamatcheri.. Sitikulimbikitsidwa kuti tizitsatila mtengo uwu m'mapiri. Komanso, muyenera kulingalira za kuya komwe madzi apansi aikidwa pansi. Ngati ali pafupi kwambiri - chitumbuwa sichidzazuka ndi kufa.

Njira yabwino Kuya ndi 1.5 mamita. Mukakhala kuti madzi akukwera mmwamba, mukhoza kukumba ngalande yapadera yomwe imatha kusonkhanitsa madzi.

Komabe, mukakhala kuti palibe nthaka yabwino pa tsamba lanu, simuyenera kusiya kwanthawizonse lingaliro kuti likule munda wamaluwa a chitumbuwa. Pali zidule zingapo chifukwa cha zaka 1-2 mungathe kukonza nthaka yabwino yobzala nyemba yamatcheri. Werengani nkhaniyi pansipa.

Kodi mungakonzekere bwanji dothi lodzala yamatcheri?

Mosasamala mtundu wa nthaka, kukonzekera izo kubzala yamatcheri ziyenera kuchitidwa msanga. Asanayambe kudyetsa masabata 2-3 mumasowa zambiri kukumba zonse zako, zomwe mwaganiza kuti mubzala chitumbuwa chokoma.

Pansi pa kukumba ndikofunikira kupanga feteleza zosiyanasiyana zomwe zimapangitsa dothi kukhala lachonde kwambiri. Pa m2m2 tikulimbikitsidwa kubweretsa makilogalamu khumi a manyowa kapena kompositi.

Pankhani ya feteleza zamchere, sizothandiza kuti munthu akhale wowolowa manja, 180 magalamu a superphosphate ndi 100 magalamu a fetashi feteleza ayenera kuchitika kumalo omwewo. Koma zothandiza kwambiri gwiritsani ntchito feteleza feteleza okoma yamatcheri ndi yamatcheripogwiritsa ntchito magalamu 200 a feteleza pa 1 m2.

Ngati acidity ya nthaka ndi yapamwamba kwambiri, tikulimbikitsidwa kuimitsa ndi mandimu. Kwa dothi la mchenga, mlingo wa feteleza pa 1m2 sayenera kukhala oposa makilogalamu 0.4-0.5, komanso nthaka yolemera - makilogalamu 0.6-0.8 pamalo omwewo.

Olima munda akulangizidwa kuti asamawononge nthawi yowonjezera ndi feteleza mchere kunthaka, monga momwe angayankhire ndikupereka zotsatira.

Tsopano tiyang'ana chochita dothi kapena nthaka yamchenga. Kuwonjezera pa feteleza pamwambapa, ziyenera kukhala kwambiri Sakanizani bwino ndi mtundu wosiyana ndi nthaka.

Timapanga mchenga wambiri wa dothi ndi dothi, ndi dongo kumchenga. Koma izi ziyenera kuchitika zaka zingapo musanadzalemo yamatcheri, nthawi zonse feteleza nthaka pambuyo pake. Mungayesetse kubzala mbewu zapachaka kuti mudziwe kubereka kwawo.

Komanso zosangalatsa kuwerenga nsonga pa chisamaliro ndi kubzala kwa chitumbuwa

Kukonzekera dzenje lodzala

Kukonzekera kwa dzenje kuyenera kuchitidwa masabata ena awiri isanayambe nthawi yodzalidwa bwino yamatcheri okoma. Iye kuya ziyenera kukhala osachepera 60 centimita. Izi ndi zofunika kuti muthe kutsanulira feteleza pansi.

Uli wonse wa dzenje ukhoza kukhala kuchokera masentimita 60 mpaka mita imodzi. Ndibwino kwambiri kukumba dzenje laling'ono, ndikuponya dothi lakumtunda kumbali imodzi ndi pansi pamtunda. Mtengo umathamangitsidwa pansi pa dzenje, zomwe zimakhala ngati chithandizo cha chitumbuwa chokoma ndipo sichilola kuti chizigwetsedwe ndi mphepo kapena kulemera kwa kusungunuka kasupe chisanu.

Chomanga, chomwe chiri chochuluka kwambiri, chimasakanizidwa ndi feteleza. Mwachindunji pakufika Manyowa a azitrogeni sangagwiritsidwe ntchito. (urea) kapena laimu. Zidzakhudza kwambiri njira ya engraftment ya chitumbuwa chokoma, kuvulaza ndi kuwotcha mizu yake.

Ndi bwino kugwiritsa ntchito humus (2-3 ndowa) kapena osati wowawasa peat. Ndiponso chikoka chabwino pa kukula kwa chitumbuwa chokoma kale kompositi. Pakati pa mchere feteleza ndi bwino kuthirira nthaka pogwiritsa ntchito magalamu 200 a superphosphate. Ndi bwino kubweretsa sulfuric potassium (osati magalamu 60) ndi phulusa (pafupifupi 0,5 kilogram).

Choncho, kusakaniza uku kumatsanulira pansi pa dzenje ngati mawonekedwe. Lembani bwino ndi kuwaza malo osasangalatsa. Izi ziyenera kuchitidwa panthawi imodzimodziyo pokonzekera dzenje, kuti nthaka pamodzi ndi feteleza ikhale ndi nthawi yabwino yofesa.

Kodi mungasankhe bwanji sapling yabwino?

Ngati mungathe kulima yamatcheri pogwiritsa ntchito mbande zochokera ku mafupa, ndiye kuti chitumbuwa ndi chovuta kwambiri. Chowonadi ndi chakuti mtengo wa chitumbuwa womwe umakula kuchokera ku fupa sungakhale wosiyana kwambiri ndipo ukhoza kukupweteketsani ndi mbewu zake (ngakhale, nthawi zina, zingakondwere). Pambuyo pake, ndi chifukwa cha kusankha kwa mbande yamatcheri okoma osiyanasiyana omwe obereketsa amapanga mitundu yatsopano.

Choncho, kusankha sapling poyamba samalirani ake thunthu. Pazimenezi ziyenera kukhala zooneka bwino malo akuphatikizapo scion. Ndi mtengo uwu umene udzakhala wosiyanasiyana. Komanso, mitengo yotereyi inayamba kale kulowa mu fruiting.

Zabwino kwambiri ngati pa mtengo wosankhidwa nthambi zambiri. Kuchokera kwa iwo kudzakhala kotheka kupanga mpando wokongola ndi wokongola. Koma, ndikofunika kumvetsera mkhalidwe ndi kupezeka kwa wophunzira wamkulu.

Ngati siilipo, mtengowo umakula bwino komanso umatuluka kunja, ndipo ukhozanso kuphulika m'magulu angapo chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa fruiting. Choncho, otsogolera ayenera kukhala yekha ndipo ali bwino. Ngati izo zathyoledwa. Kenaka atatha kupasuka kwa mtengo adzakhala ndi mpikisano wambiri. Ndikofunika kuti muwachotsere mwa kusankha mmodzi yekha - woposa komanso wamphamvu.

Zakudya zamatcheri zokoma zimatha kuikidwa bwino pazaka chimodzi ndi ziwiri. Chinthu chachikulu ndi chakuti mizu ya mbewu siuma, yowonongeka, koma imakula bwino komanso yamphamvu. Poyendetsa, mizu yonse ya chitumbuwa chokoma imakulungidwa mu nkhono yamvula ndipo yophimbidwa mu mafuta.

Malangizo ofunikira: ngati pali masamba omwe mumagulapo, ndi bwino kuwadula. Apo ayi iwo adzawotaya madziwo.

Kukonzekera kwa lokoma yamatcheri sapling chifukwa chodzala

Kubzala sapling mu kugwa kuli ndi makhalidwe ake, chifukwa mutabzala mtengo uyenera kudutsa nyengo yovuta kwambiri. Zimalimbikitsa musanadzalemo kachiwiri kuyang'anitsitsa mizu ya yamatcheri okoma.

Ngati ali nawo mapeto oswekaiwo akulimbikitsidwa kudula. Ndiponso, mizu yonse yomwe simunayende mu dzenje lomwe anakumbidwa ndi inu imadulidwa. Mitsitsi yayikulu imatha kuzizira m'nyengo yozizira, kotero kulibe mphamvu yaikulu kuchokera pamenepo.

Ngati panthawi yoyesa mutayang'ana mizu youma, ikani nyemba pa 10 koloko m'madzi. Ngakhale mizu idyetsedwa bwino, ndi bwino kuti iwaike m'madzi kwa maola awiri oyambirira kuti muwadzoze bwino. Koma n'zosatheka kusunga yamatcheri m'madzi nthawi zonse, monga mizu ingakhale yonyowa kwambiri ndipo imavunda popanda oxygen yochuluka.

Malangizo obzala mtengo wokoma wa chitumbuwa mu kugwa

Kubzala yamatcheri mu kugwa ndi njira yowopsa kwambiri. Pambuyo pake, pali ngozi yoti mtengo udzaundana m'nyengo yozizira. Choncho, kumadera ambiri kumpoto, alimi amalangiza kuti asafetse chitumbuwa chokoma mu kugwa, koma kuti aponyedwe m'munda mpaka masika. Kuti muchite izi, muyenera kukumba dzenje lakuya lomwe mbande imakhala pambali ya 45º.

Ngati mwapeza mitengo yambiri, tizimangiriza palimodzi ndikuzigwetsa. Pamwamba ayenera kuyang'ana kum'mwera. Mphukira imayenera kuphimbidwa ndi nthaka bwino, kuwaza ngakhale chidutswa chaching'ono.

Pamayambiriro a chisanu, nthambi zimagoneka pakati pa mchenga. Mosamala kwambiri nthambi ziyenera kuphimbidwa ndi chisanuNdi iye yemwe adzawapulumutse iwo kuti asatenge. Pofuna kuteteza mbande kuti ziwonongeke ndi dzuwa, mukhoza kuziphimba ndi plywood.

Kudyetsa kwadzinja: ubwino ndi mavuto

Mitengo yonse ya zipatso Zingabzalidwe m'chaka ndi m'dzinja. Ubwino wodzala yamatcheri mu kugwa ndikuti nthawi iyi, msika ukhoza kusankha nambala yambiri ya mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mtengo wokongola uwu. Potero, simusankha zokhazokha zokha, koma musankhenso zabwino kuchokera ku zitsanzo zomwe zimaperekedwa.

Kudyetsa kwina kwa yamatcheri kumalimbikitsidwa kwambiri pakati ndi nyengo zakumwera. Pa gawo la kumpoto kwa madera ambiri, palinso mpata waukulu kuti mapulawo adzafota kapena kuwononga pang'ono mtengo, zomwe zingapangitse kuti zikhale zosatheka kuzibwezeretsanso masika.

Migwirizano yobzala yamatcheri mu kugwa idzadalira nyengo. Kawirikawiri imachitika masabata angapo isanayambe nthawi zonse chisanu. Kotero ngakhale ngati chisanu chagwa, ndipo dothi silinayambe, koma mutha kulima yamatcheri okoma.

Choncho, nthaka yomwe ili pafupi ndi mtengo wobzalidwa ikadali ndi nthawi yofesa bwino, koma sapling yomweyo siidzakhala nayo nthawi yoti ikhale ndi kukula, kukhalabe ndi "kugona" m'nyengo yozizira.

Komabe, m'madera akumidzi ya Middle Volga, poganizira za nyengo za dera lino, Chomera chokonzekera bwino chikuchitika bwino mu theka loyamba la autumn. Nthawi yochokera pa 20 Septemba mpaka 20 Oktoba ndi yabwino, koma osati monga kale komanso pasanathe.

Kuzama ndi luso lamakono la kubzala nkhuni za chitumbuwa chokoma mu kugwa

Kutsika mmera mu dzenje sizowona. Ndikofunika kuti mizu yake ikhale yopitirira pamwamba pa nthaka. Ngati mutakweza mbeuyi ndi masentimita asanu ndi awiri mpaka asanu ndi awiri, ndiye kuti idzamira pamalo abwino pomwe ndikukhazikitsa nthaka.

Mizu ya mtengo iyenera kukhala bwino pamwamba pa phulusa, yomwe tidatsanulira mu dzenje kale. Pang'onopang'ono mutadzaza dzenje ndi nthaka yosanjikira yomwe tatsika m'dzenjemo, muyenera kugwedeza mmera pang'ono kuti ma vosi onse pakati pa mizu adziwe bwino. Pamene chodzala yamatcheri akhoza pakati pa dzenje la burrow pitani chidebe cha madzi limodzi mmenemo, ndipo atatha kuika mandawo pokhapokha.

Pakadutsa kalembedwe kotheratu ka dzenje, nthaka yozungulira mtengo imaponderezedwa ndi kuthirira. Kuti madzi akhale abwino, muyenera kuzungulira thunthu kukumba dzenje 5 masentimita mozamandipo dziko lapansi amaziyika mozungulira ngati mawonekedwe. Momwemonso, madzi onse omwe timatsanulira adzagawidwa mofanana mu dzenje ndikukhazikika ku mizu ya chitumbuwa.

Popeza kuti madzi komanso njira zachilengedwe zidzathetsa nthaka, dzenje lingadzawoneke pozungulira thunthu ndi nthawi. Ndibwino kuti tipeze nthaka, yofanana ndi nthaka yonse.

Kusamalira mtengo wa chitumbuwa mutabzala

Kuwonjezera kuthirira, dothi lozungulira thunthu liyenera kukhala ndi peat kapena humus, ndiko kuti, kuti mulch. Ndi izi tidzatha kusunga chinyezi m'nthaka kwa nthawi yayitali, yomwe ndi yofunikira makamaka pamene kubzala chitumbuwa cha autumn. Ndi chinyezi ichi chomwe chingateteze mtengo ku zotsatira za chisanu ndi kuzizira madzi kuchokera ku nthambi za mmera.

Popeza mitundu yambiri ya chitumbuwa yamakono ndi yokwanira kugonjetsedwa ndi otsika kutentha, iwo ayenera kukonzekera bwino kwa chiyambi cha chisanu. Choyamba, mwamsanga pamene chisanu chimayandikira, thunthu anangobzala mitengo ya mtengo Manga nsalu. Komabe, popeza nyengo ya kumwera kumadera otentha akhoza kukhala ofunda kwambiri, m'pofunika kuyang'anira nthawi zonse mkhalidwe wa mtengo, kuti usalole kuti ziwoneke bwino.

Kuwonjezera apo, a chisanu choyenera kukulunga pansi pa thunthundikuwotha moto. M'nyengo yozizira, mtengo ukhoza kuwononga makoswe osiyanasiyana. Kuti muteteze motsutsana nawo, mungathe kufalitsa ziphe zosiyanasiyana pamtengo. Komanso, mtengo wa mtengo pamwamba pa burlap ukhoza kukhala ndi nthambi za spruce.

Malamulo a kuthirira Cherry

Tsabola yamtengo wapatali imadalira chinyezi, ngakhale kuti kukhalapo kwake kwakukulu m'nthaka kungasokoneze kwambiri kukula ndi kukula kwa mtengo. Choncho, kuthirira sikuyenera kukhala kokhazikika, komanso kuganizira nyengo ndi nthaka. Madzi sayenera kuwonjezeredwa kamodzi pamwezi. pansi pa chikhalidwe, komanso pakagwa chilala - ngakhale kamodzi pa sabata.

Ndi bwino kumwa madzi a chitumbuwa mu dzenje omwe anakumbidwa kuzungulira thunthu. Mwachidziwikire, kukula kwa mtengowo, sikutheka kugwiritsa ntchito dzenje limene tinakumba pamene lifika, liyenera kukhala lopitirira mpaka kufika pa mita imodzi.

Pafupifupi ndowa 2-3 amagwiritsidwa ntchito pa mtengo wachinyamata, pafupifupi ndowa 6 ziyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa akuluakulu akuluakulu komanso amatcheri okoma.

Kodi kudyetsa yamatcheri?

Tsabola yotsekemera sichisowa nthawi zonse. Ndibwino kuti mukuwerenga zovala zapamwamba monga mawonekedwe a puszomwe zimayambitsidwa mwa kuthirira mobwerezabwereza kuposa kamodzi pa zaka 2-3. Koma pofuna kulimbitsa kukula kwa mtengo ndikuika zipatso zazikulu, nkofunikanso kugwiritsa ntchito mineral feteleza.

Makamaka, mitundu yonse ndi mlingo wa feteleza omwe timagwiritsa ntchito imagwiritsidwa ntchito pokonzekera nthaka kubzala mbewu. Ndibwino kuti muyambe kupanga zovala zoterezi kwa chaka chachitatu, mutabzala chokoma m'malo osatha. Inde, isanayambe nyengoyi, kuchuluka kwa feteleza komwe kunkagwiritsidwa ntchito ku nthaka nthawi yobzala kudzakhala kokwanira.

Komabe, m'chaka chachiwiri, m'chaka, muyenera dulani nthaka kuzungulira thunthu ndi urea. Nayitrogeni imakhudza kwambiri kukula kwa mtengo.