Yabwino nsonga pa kubzala mphesa mu yophukira ndi masika

Chikhalidwe chotere monga mphesa chikukula mochuluka m'madera apadera.

Amateurs amayamba kukula patebulo ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana kuti apange vinyo wokhazikika pakhomo pawokha.

Koma lero sitidzakambirana za mitundu yosiyanasiyana yomwe tingasankhe, koma momwe tingabzalitse mphesa pacholinga chathu popanda thandizo.

Nyengo yafika - tikufulumira kubzala mphesa

Zabwino ndi zoipa za kubzala mbande za mphesa kumapeto

Mu kasupe, mbewu zonse zimabzalidwa, ngakhale kuti nthawi ya autumn nthawi zambiri imakonda kwambiri kulima. Pofuna kukupatsani ufulu woti musankhe ngati mukufuna kubzala mphesa kumapeto kwa nyengo, tidzasanthula mwatsatanetsatane zonse zabwino ndi zovuta za kubzala.

Ubwino kubzala mbande za mphesa kumapeto kwa nyengo:

  • Chofunika kwambiri ndi chakuti chitsamba chodzala mu kasupe kwa nyengo yonse isanafike kugwa kudzakhala ndi nthawi yokhala bwino pamalo atsopano, zidzakula ndipo zidzakhala zosavuta kuti apulumuke m'nyengo yozizira yoyamba. Choncho, sikofunika kudera nkhaŵa za sapling ndi kubwezera malo ake m'nyengo yozizira.
  • Kukonzekera kubzala mphesa kuyenera kukonzedweratu. Choncho, zidzakhala zabwino ngati mukukumba ndi kuthira nthaka m'dzinja, komanso kukonzekera dzenje. Choncho, n'zotheka kuwonjezereka kwambiri kuti nthaka ikhale ndi chonde, zomwe zidzakhudza moyo wa mphesa.
  • Mitengo ya mphesa zambiri pambuyo pa chaka chimodzi cha zomera monga mawonekedwe amatha kubereka kwa chaka chachiwiri. Makamaka, ngati mumabzala mitundu yamitundu ya mphesa "Kizil" kumapeto kwa chaka, m'dzinja la chaka chotsatira mudzalandira zipatso zabwino kwambiri. Mukamabzala m'dzinja, chitsamba chidzabala zipatso chaka chimodzi.
  • Zimakhala zosavuta kuganiza kumapeto kwa nyengo yoyenera kubzala, chifukwa kugwa kwakukulu kwa chisanu kumatha kutsika mosayembekezereka, kuwononga mbewu zokhazokha zokha kapena kudula nthaka ndikuzikhala zosayenera kubzala.

Ndikoyenera kudziwa kuti ndizomwe zimakhazikika kumapeto kwa kasupe zomwe nthawi zambiri zimasankhidwa ndi anthu ambiri oyambirira kumwa vinyo. Zimakhala zosavuta kusamalira sapling ndipo zimapereka chitsimikizo chokwanira cha kupulumuka kwake. Komabe, ali ndi mbali zina zomwe zingakupangitseni kusintha chisankho chanu chodzala kasupe:

  • Kawirikawiri kumapeto kwa nyengo, nyemba zimasowa chinyezi, choncho zimayenera kuthiriridwa nthawi zambiri komanso mochuluka. Komanso, chokhacho chimabzala chimatulutsa chinyezi bwino, koma popanda icho chikhoza kuuma.
  • Sipile yokha ingapange zina. Komanso, m'nyengo ya masika, nthaka iyenera kuti ikhale bwino kukumba ndi mulched (wakale sawdust, humus kapena moss).
  • Kuyambira mofulumira kapena kubzala mochedwa kumatha kuwononga maluwa, kumayambitsa kugonjetsa matenda ake.
  • Chosankha bwino cha mbande chimaperekedwa pa msika pa kugwa, kotero kumapeto kwa nyengo simungapeze zofuna zosiyanasiyana kapena muzitha kuyamwa mazira kapena zouma.

Pamene ndendende kuti muyambe kubzala mphesa nthawi yamasika?

Ndithudi masiku ena oti mubzala mbande za mphesa kumapeto kwa masika. Pambuyo pake, ayenera kubzalidwa pamtunda wotentha kwambiri - osachepera 15ºС. Pa nthawi yomweyi, nthaka iyeneranso kutenthedwa mokwanira - osachepera 10 ºС. Muzochitika zotero, mungathe kuonetsetsa kuti chiyambi cha kukula kwa mbande.

Choncho, nthawi yoyendetsa nthaka ingachedweke kuyambira kumapeto kwa March mpaka sabata yoyamba ya May, kapena mpaka mmawa wa June m'madera ena. Chilichonse chidzadalira mtundu wa sapling womwe mumakolola kuti mubzalidwe.

Osati ambiri amadziwa koma Mbewu za mphesa zingapezeke ndi mitundu iwiri: vegetative ndi kale olimba. Kusiyanitsa ndiko kuti koyamba kasupe kokha kunabzalidwa pansi ndipo inali ndi nthawi yokha.

Mitengo yotereyi imagulitsidwa m'zitsulo zing'onozing'ono ndi nthaka. Komanso, ayenera kukhala ndi mphukira yoyamba ndi masamba. Mbeu izi zimabzalidwa m'nthaka kuchokera pa May 20 mpaka June 15, chifukwa mudeyala mbeuyi idabzalidwa kale kuposa Feb.

Pansi pa nyemba zolimba, nkofunika kumvetsetsa chitsamba cha mphesa, chomwe chabzala kale mu nthaka yotseguka ndikukumbidwa kunja kwa dzinja. Izi zikutanthauza kuti ali ndi mizu yabwino komanso impso zake.

Ndi bwino kubzala mbewu yotereyi kuyambira pakati pa mwezi wa April mpaka pakati pa mwezi wa May., ngakhale kuti ndi bwino kuganizira za nyengo kunja.

Timayamba kukonzekera dzenje kuti tipange

Kukonzekera dzenje la mphesa ndi nthawi yochuluka komanso yochuluka. Ndipotu sizowonjezereka kuti muzikumba, komanso kuti muzisamba bwino. Kukula kwa dzenje kuyenera kukhala pafupifupi 0.8x0.8x0.8, kotero kuti pali malo okwanira osati mizu yokha, komanso feteleza kwa chaka chotsatira anayi.

Mukakumba dzenje, pamwamba ndi pansi pansi pazitsulo ziyenera kugawidwa mu milandu yosiyana. Chomera chapamwamba chimatengedwa kuti ndi chonde kwambiri, choncho amafunika kugona masentimita 10 kale omwe anakumba mabowo.

Pambuyo pa nthaka yachonde mu dzenje iyenera kuwonjezeredwa:

  • Pafupi ndowa zisanu za manyowa abwino.
  • 0,5 kilogalamu ya nayitroammofoski, kapena fetereza ina yomwe imakhala nayitrogeni.
  • Pang'ono ndi pang'ono phosphorous.
  • 0,5 kilogalamu ya nkhuni phulusa.

Kuwonjezera apo, keke yonseyi ili ndi gawo lina la masentimita 10 la nthaka yabwino ndipo imasakanizidwa bwino. Mitengo yokhala ndi mphesa yokhayo yokha yomwe imapangidwa ndi fetelezayi imakhala yopanda phindu, koma ndi nthawi yeniyeni ya mphesa panthawi ya fruiting yomwe mizu yake imafika kumera.

Pamwamba pa feteleza akadakalipo nthaka. Kusiya pamwamba pa dzenje ndikofunika masentimita 20 okha.

Kukonzekera kwa mbande za mphesa kubzala

Mwamsanga mutangogula kuti muyambe kubzala mbewu sizothandiza. Mbewu yolimba iyenera kuikidwa m'madzi kwa masiku angapo, kuti ikhale yodzaza ndi chinyezi chitayika m'nyengo yozizira. Ndibwino kuti uwonjezere uchi mu madzi kuti ukhale ndi rooting. Mmalo mwa uchi, mungagwiritse ntchito zina, zowonjezera zamakono.

Mizu yothandizira imayenera kufupikitsidwa ndi pafupifupi masentimita imodzi. Mwiniwake mmera ayenera kufupikitsidwa mpaka 2-3 masamba. Izi ndizofunika kuti m'nyengo yozizira, chitsamba sichitha kwambiri ndipo zingakhale zosavuta kuziphimba m'nyengo yozizira. Kale m'chaka chachiwiri kudzakhala kotheka kuti mukhale ndi zambiri.

Mbali za kubzala mbewu za mphesa m'chaka

Popeza mwakonzeratu dzenje, ndendende pakati pake muyenera kupuma osachepera 40 centimita. Ndikofunika kuti uwonetsetse kuti nthaka ikukhazikika, zomwe zingapewe pokonzekera dzenje kugwa.

Ngati munakumba m'masika, kuwonjezeka kumachitika ndi masentimita 35 okha, chifukwa chazomwe zilipo, mmerawo umatsika paokha. Pansi pa chisokonezo ichi, phokoso limapangidwa pomwe mphesa zimabzalidwa. Ndikofunika kwambiri kutumiza njirayi kuti zithandizidwe m'tsogolomu zimakhala pampso.

Mutatha kuyika manda, imakhala ndi chinyezi chambiri. Choncho, kuthirira ndi kugwiritsa ntchito pafupifupi 40 malita a madzi.

Kuti sapling ikhale bwino bwino komanso yosataya madzi mpaka itadzazaza ndi nthaka (ndikoti, mpaka ifike pamalo atsopano), iyenera kuphimbidwa.

Mphesa yosweka akhoza kuphimba ndi nthaka yachonde, mulch ndi mchengakupanga phiri lapadera. Kuti mchenga usawonongeke, uyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi chinachake cholemera. Pambuyo masiku 10-15, sapling ikhoza kutulutsidwa kale kuchoka ku "ukapolo", popeza ali kale nthawi yoluntha.

Ngati munabzala mmera, simungathe kugona ndi mchenga, popeza n'zotheka kuvulaza msipu wobiriwira. Izo zinalimbikitsidwa kuphimba ndi chophweka bokosilo ndi dzenje lapadera kwambiri pamwamba pa mmera. Nyumbayi siyeneranso kusunga masabata awiri.

Chofunika kwambiri chodzala mphesa m'dzinja: kuyankha mafunso otchuka kwambiri ndi kupereka malangizo

Kodi chabwino kapena choipa chodzala mphesa mu kugwa?

Monga kumayambiriro kwa chaka, autumn imakhalanso ndi ubwino ndi zovuta kubzala mphesa. Kuti phindu Kudyetsa kwadzukulu kuyenera kuphatikizapo:

  • Tanena kale kuti ndi njira yosavuta kugwa posankha mphesa zabwino, popeza maubwino onse ndi msika wapadera akungokula mbewu.
  • M'nyengo yophukira, chinyezi cha dziko lapansi chimakhala chokwera kwambiri kuposa m'chaka. Choncho, mu ulimi wambiri wothirira, mphesa za mphesa sizingatheke - pokhapokha mutabzala.
  • Pokhala bwino posungira nyengo yozizira (komanso kum'mwera popanda malo ogona), nthaka sumazira mpaka mizu, choncho nyengo yopanda nyengo imakhala ndi nthawi yozoloŵera malo atsopano ndipo kasupe imayamba kukula mizu yatsopano.
  • Poyamba kutentha kwa kasupe, nyemba zomwe zimabzalidwa mu kugwa ziyamba kukula kwambiri kuposa zomwe zinabzalidwa m'chaka.

Komabe, mulimonsemo, muyenera kumvetsera ndi kukumbukira zotsatirazi zofookaomwe amaphatikizapo kubzala mphesa m'dzinja:

  • Kudyetsa mbande ndizosavuta kuti tipulumuke m'nyengo yozizira. Nthawi zambiri zimachitika kuti ngakhale ndi pogona zabwino mbande zoterezi zimafalikira, ndipo mu April muyenera kuzitsatira ndi wina.
  • Komanso, kamera kakang'ono komanso kosasunthika kamatha kuwononga makoswe, kuchuluka kwa chisanu ndi mphepo zamphamvu.

Pamene nthawi yomweyo kugwa kuyamba kuyamba kubzala mphesa?

Kudyetsa kwa mphesa kwa mphesa kungathenso kuchitika nthawi yayitali. Mukhoza kuyamba kuyambira masabata oyambirira a mwezi wa October. Kuchokera nthawi imeneyi, mbande za mphesa zimayenera bwino kuziyika pamalo atsopano. Koma makamaka, njirayi ndi yotheka kuchita mpaka nthawi yomwe dziko lapansi silizizira.

Kodi pali kusiyana kulikonse pokonzekera dzenje lodzala mphesa mu kugwa?

Kawirikawiri, palibe kusiyana. Kutalika ndi m'katikati mwa dzenje ndi chimodzimodzi ndi kubwerera kumapeto. Komabe, kuti mu nyengo yotentha sapling isakhale ndi nthawi yosinthira ndipo sinayambe kuphulika mwadzidzidzi kuchokera ku kuchulukitsa kwa feteleza, ndi bwino kupanga mzere wambiri pakati pa feteleza ndi mizu ya mphesa yokha.

Ndipotu, ntchito yaikulu yomwe kubzala kwadzinja ndikutetezera mbeu mpaka nyengo yachisanu. chifukwa, mosiyana ndi chipinda chapansi pa nyumba, mmera mdzikoli ukhoza kusunga chinyezi chochulukirapo ndipo sipadzakhala zocheperapo kuti zidzalowa nyengo yokula.

Koma pokonzekera dzenje mu kugwa pazomwe pansi nthawi zambiri amachita kayendedwe ka ngalande, kugona pansi pa zidutswa, masentimita asanu akuda. Mwala wophwanyika uli ndi mapepala ndipo chitoliro chaikidwa pambali pake, momwe zingatheke kudyetsa mphesa mtsogolomu.

Kodi mungakonzekere bwanji mphesa yamphesa kuti mubzalidwe?

Sapling ayenera kuyang'aniridwa bwino kwambiri, ndi kudula pang'ono mizu yake. Kudulira mwamphamvu sikofunikira, kuti asawononge mizu. Zidzatha kuchotsa 1-2 masentimita. Chiwerengero cha masamba pa tsinde la mmera chiyenera kukhala pafupifupi zisanu, kudulira kukhale maso 3-4.

Musanayambe kubzala, mphesa yamphesa, komanso m'chaka, imamizidwa m'madzi kwa masiku 2-3. Ikani madzi, mungagwiritse ntchito mwapadera "wokamba nkhani" (kuchepetsedwa ndi madzi, dongo ndi manyowa). Komabe, kugwiritsira ntchito kulimbikitsa kwa rooting mu nkhaniyi sikuli koyenera. Chokhacho kuti sapling isachedwe mwamsanga chinyezi chake. zotsutsana.

Kodi ndi zinthu ziti zomwe zimabzala pa kugwa?

Palibe kusiyana kwakukulu kuchokera momwe mphesa zimabzalidwa masika. Ndikofunika koyenera kuganizira za kuchepa kwa nthaka, popeza dzenje linakonzedwa nthawi yomweyo musanadzalemo, ndipo nthaka inalibe nthawi yokhazikika. Kuyika chidendene pamtunda, sapling ndi bwino kuika pang'onopang'ono. Kuzidzaza ndi nthaka mpaka pakati, dothi liyenera kusamalidwa bwino ndi manja anu ndi kutsanulira 10 malita a madzi m'dzenje. Pambuyo pake, muyenera kupitiliza kukwirira sapling ndipo potsiriza Thirani 30 malita a chinyezi.

Mutabzala, nthaka yozungulira nyemba imayendetsedwa. Ndondomekoyi idzapatsanso nthawi yambiri kuti asunge chinyezi m'nthaka.

Momwe mungagwiritsire ntchito moyenera komanso chifukwa chake pogona pokhala mmera wobzalidwa mu kugwa?

Kuphimba mphesa yamphesa ndikofunikira kotero kuti iwonongeke ndi chisanu ndi tizirombo zosiyanasiyana. Ndizothandiza kwambiri kuti mudzazidzaze ndi nthaka motero kuti masentimita 25-30 ndi apamwamba kwambiri kusiyana ndi masamba apamwamba a mmera.

Koma musaiwale kusamala ndipo yesani kusokoneza mmera. Kotero, pamene tikufika pafupi ndi izo ndikofunika kuyendetsa chiwerengero cholimba ndi pamwamba pa mmera ndi cola kuti muikepo dzira losavuta la bokosi pansi pa madzi. Khosi la nkhono za dzira mwachibadwa limadulidwa ndipo limatsamira pa msomali ndipo silingagwe pa mmera wokha.

Komanso, nyumba yonseyi imadzazidwa ndi dziko lonse lapansi, ikukwera pamwamba pa billet ndi masentimita 30. Pamwamba pa phiri mukhoza kukhala ndi nthambi zouma. Pambuyo pa nsagwada yoyamba, pulasitiki imatsegulidwa.

Zimakhalanso zosangalatsa kuti muwerenge za kumtengowo mu kugwa

General malamulo ndi zochitika za kubzala mphesa

Kodi nthaka yamphesa yabwino imakhala ndi mizu ndi kubereka zipatso?

Mphesa amakonda dziko lachonde, choncho liyenera kubzalidwa mu nthaka yakuda kapena dothi lopsa. ndizofunikira ganizirani mlingo wa madzi apansi. Zikakhala kuti dera lanu likukwera mamita 1.5 mamita, muyenera kutsikira madzi omwe akukhala m'dera lanu.

Musanayambe ndi kubzala mphesa, nthaka imakhala pansi pa nthunzi yakuda kuti mbande ikhale ndi michere yochuluka kwambiri. Komanso, nthawi zonse imayenera kuthiriridwa ndi kudyetsedwa ndi feteleza mchere. Manyowa adzayenda mpaka mizu ya mpesa kupyolera mu mulching.

Ndi chiwembu chotani chosankha chodzala mipesa?

Mukamabzala mphesa m'munda ndi bwino kuchita Pita pakati pa mizere ya mamita 2-2.5. Mtunda wa pakati pa tchire umadalira mwachindunji mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mphesa ndi kubereka kwa nthaka: nthaka ndi bwino kwambiri chitsamba, ndizomwe zimatengera kutali.

Choncho, chifukwa cha mitundu yamphamvu, muyenera kukhala ndi mamita 2, kuti mukhale ochepa-1.5. Ngati mphesa zimabzalidwa pafupi ndi nyumba, ndiye kuti ndi bwino kuchoka pakhoma pafupifupi mamita 0.7.