Kulimbana ndi matenda a mphesa: mankhwala ndi kupewa

Mitundu ya zipatso za mphesa ndi zokoma, choncho yesetsani kulima mbewuyi pafupi ndi nyumba zawo kapena pa nyumba zachilimwe.

Komabe, nthawi zonse sikuti aliyense amakwaniritsa zotsatira zabwino pa viticulture. Ndipotu, kuphatikizapo kuchuluka kwa mitundu ya mphesa, palinso matenda ambiri, komanso tizirombo zomwe zingathe kuvulaza mpesa.

Komabe, ngati tilingalira kuti mwina matendawa akuwonongeka ndi mphesa kapena amawona maonekedwe awo m'nthaŵi, mukhoza kuthana nawo bwinobwino.

Ndi makamaka matenda a minda yamphesa, ife tikukupatsani inu pansipa.

Oidium: momwe mungaphunzirire ndi kuthana ndi matendawa

Kodi muyenera kudziwa chiyani za oidium?

Nthendayi imatchedwa "powdery mildew," chifukwa chimodzi mwa mawonetseredwe ake imatulutsa fumbi pamasamba a mphesa. Ndili ndi matenda a fungaleni, afika kumalo athu otseguka kuchokera ku North America continent. Ndizoopsa chifukwa zimakhudza mpesa ndi mbewu. Mlingo ndi maonekedwe a zilondazi zimadalira mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mphesa.

Zisonyezo zakunja za kugonjetsedwa kwa chitsamba chamtundu oidium

Pogonjetsedwa ndi chitsamba champhesa ndi matendawa, mphukira zambiri zidzasintha, ndipo masamba pamphukira otere adzasungunuka. Masamba amadziwika kwambiri ndi mthunzi woyera. Poyamba nthawi yokolola, fumbi ili lidzawonekera pamtunda wonse wa masamba omwe akukhudzidwa, inflorescences ndi masango. Zokhudza oidium inflorescences ndi zipatso zomwe zakhazikitsidwa kale zimafa ndi zowuma.

Ndikofunika kudziwa kuti nthawi yopangira ma odium yomwe imatha kugunda mphesa imatha masabata awiri. Mvula yofunda ndi yozizira imathandiza kwambiri kubereka ndi kufalitsa kwake. Ngakhale pa kutentha pamwamba pa 5ºC, bowa iyi imayamba kumera.

Choyenera kuchita kuti chitsamba sichimenyedwa ndi mame

Ngakhale njira zosavuta za agrotechnical zimathandiza kulimbana ndi oidium. Makamaka, mame amawopsya mpweya watsopano, umachulukira pang'onopang'ono pamene akupatulira chitsamba.

Choncho, mphukira za mpesa zimalimbikitsidwa kuti zizimangirira ndi kuchotsa kunja, kuchotsani ana opeza ndi kuteteza namsongole kuti asapitilire nthaka yozungulira chitsamba.

Komanso, mphesa zimalimbikitsa kupopera mankhwala, zomwe ziyenera kuchitika katatu pa nyengo: pamene mphukira imakula pamtunda mpaka mamita masentimita 20-20, isanayambe maluwa komanso nthawi yomwe nandolo imaonekera pamagulu.

Njira zochizira mphesa kuchokera ku oidium

Kuti mankhwala ndi kupewa matendawa akulimbikitsidwa kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala apadera. Zina mwa izo, zothandiza ndi zowonjezereka ndi "Strobe", "Thanos", "Topaz", "Horus". Masamba okhudzidwa ndi matenda, mphukira ndi Masango akulimbikitsidwa kuti achotsedwe ndi kuwotchedwa. Izi zidzathandiza kuchepetsa kufala kwa matendawa.

Nthanga yachinyengo kapena mchere - matenda owopsa kwambiri m'minda ya mpesa

Kodi matendawa ndi otani?

Mwamwayi, koma mildew sizowopsa kwambiri, koma ndi matenda omwe amachititsa maluwa. Mofanana ndi mame enieni a ufa, nkhungu imatha kugunda kwambiri chitsamba chonse. Inde, kuti mlingo wa kuwonongeka kwa matendawa si nthawizonse ofanana.

Mitengo ya mphesa ndi nyengo zimakhala ndi ntchito yaikulu: Matendawa amafalikira pa nthawi ya mvula yambiri komanso kutentha kwa mpweya.

Kodi mungazindikire bwanji mphesa pamphesa?

Mildew amawonekera ngati kuzungulira, ngati mafuta, mawanga omwe amawonekera pa masamba akukula a mphesa. Pamakhala chinyezi chambiri, ufa wonyezimira umawoneka pansi pa nsalu pansi pa malo - powdery powdery deposits. Pakapita nthawi, mawanga a tsamba lomwe amakhudzidwa ndi mabala otere amayamba kufa: tsamba limakhala la chikasu, ndipo malo a "kutentha" amakhala ndi hue wofiira.

Zomwezo masamba akugwa. Koma kuwonongeka kwa masamba sikungopereŵere, koma kungatumizedwe ku inflorescences, pamtunda umene nthawi zambiri masamba amawonekera. Minofu yomwe imakhudzidwa imamwalira pakapita nthawi, kusokoneza chakudya chofunikira kwambiri kwa zipatso.

Mildew ingakhudze gulu lonselo, kuliphimba ndi ufa woyera ndi kuchititsa zipatso kuti ziume. Matendawa ndi owopsa kwambiri chifukwa chakuti popanda kupopera mwapadera ndi pansi pa zinthu zabwino, nthawi imodzi yochepa amatha kupanga kachiwiri mpaka nthawi 16.

Malangizo a kupewa matenda a mphesa chitsamba mildew

Kuti mildew musakhudze mphesa zanu, ndikofunikira kuti muwasamalire bwino ndikusankha mitundu yovuta kutsutsa.

Kuti mpesa ukhale wolimba ndi wolimba, umasowa nthawi zonse. manyowaAmatha kudyetsa nthaka ndi potaziyamu ndi phosphorous. Ndikofunika kuti nthawi zonse muzitha kudula nthaka pafupi ndi thunthu ndikuchotsa ana onse opeza kuchokera ku mpesa.

Koma bwino mildew prevention adzakhala mankhwala okhwima ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya fungicides. Mankhwala opatsirana amachititsa nthawi imodzimodzimodzi ngati kupopera mbewu kwa mame enieni.

Chithandizo cha chitsamba cha mphesa chokhudzidwa ndi mildew

Pofuna kupewa matendawa kuti asafalikire ndikuchotseratu zochitika zake, ndi bwino kuchotsa ndi kuwotcha malo okhudzidwa ndi chitsamba cha mphesa. Komanso, pofuna kubzala mphesa, ndi bwino kusankha malo omwe chitsamba chikhoza kulandira kutentha kwa dzuwa ndi kuwala, ngakhale nyengo yoipa kwambiri.

Muziyesetsa kulimbana ndi mildew Mungagwiritse ntchito mankhwalawa:

  • "Antrakol"
  • Chisakanizo cha "Bordeaux madzi"
  • "Kuproskat"
  • "Ridomil"
  • "Strobe"
  • "Chloroxide zamkuwa"

Ndizosangalatsa kuwerenga za mitundu yabwino ya pinki mphesa.

Momwe mungathandizire mphesa kukana "wakuda malo"?

Zosiyana za matendawa

Nthenda ina yoopsa kwambiri ya fungalande ya chitsamba champhesa. Pofotokoza izo, maina otchedwa Fomopsis kapena kuti imfa ya mphukira nthawi zambiri amagwiritsidwa ntchito. Kawirikawiri amapezeka pa minda yamphesa yomwe imakula m'madera mkulu chinyezi. Amasonyeza malo wakuda makamaka pazitsamba zonse zazitsamba ndi pamphesa wolimba.

Zizindikiro za kuwonetseredwa kwa wakuda malo mumunda wamphesa

Chotupa chimayambira paziwonetsero za chitsamba cha mphesa. Kawirikawiri, malo amtundu uwu amakhudza 6-7 okha internodes, ngakhale pali zoopsa ku chitsamba chonse mpaka thunthu. Pambuyo pakutha ndipo pamatentha pamwamba pa 10ºС, mawanga wakuda amapezeka pamadera okhudzidwa - matupi a bowa kapena pycnidia.

Ngati matendawa amalowa mkatikati mwa nkhuni, malo a zilondazo ndi ovunda ndipo amatha kufa kwa gawo lonse la mpesa.

Mawanga akuda anayamba kuchitika kuyambira June, kugunda mphukira zapachaka ndi madontho odabwitsa, zojambula mu mtundu wakuda wakuda.

Pamene mphukira ikukula, mfundo izi zimafalikira ndi kutambasula, zomwe zimachititsa kuti mpesa uswe. Nthawi zina, kuwonongeka kwa malo akuda kumakhudza masamba ndi masamba a masango. Masamba okhudzidwa ayamba kukhala ofiira ndi otembenukira chikasu pamaso pa nyundo.

Zitetezo zothandizira kupewa chiwonongeko chakuda

Ndikofunika kudziwa kuti matendawa amakhudzidwa ndi matendawa nthawi zambiri chifukwa cha kuwonongeka kwa chitsamba. Choncho, posakonzera mwamsanga kapena mosasamala kuchotsa mphukira, malo ovulazidwa amakhala osatetezeka.

Kuphatikiza ndi nyengo yovuta, pali zonse zomwe zimayambitsa matenda a mphesa ndi malo wakuda. Choncho, kudulira sikuyenera kuonedwa kuti ndiwongwiroNdikoyenera kutchula njirayi ndi udindo wofunikira ndikukwaniritsa mfundo zochepetsedwa.

Pofuna kupewa malo oda kwambiri ndizoyenera mankhwalawa omwe akulimbikitsidwa kuchipatala ndi kupewa matendawa.

Kodi mungagonjetse bwanji malo akuda m'munda wake wamphesa?

Njira zamakono zothana ndi mawonetseredwe a matendawa sizinapereke zotsatira zabwino. Ndikofunika kwambiri kuchotsa bowa palokha, yomwe nthawi yamadzinja itatha kudula munda wamphesa amachizidwa ndi kukonzekera mkuwa.

Zonse zowonongeka madera a mpesa amadulidwa kwathunthu.

Kupopera mbewu motsutsana ndi malo wakuda kumachitika kumayambiriro kwa kasupe, ndi maonekedwe a woyamba 2-3 masamba pa chitsamba. Pakuti kupopera mbewu ngati fungicides n'koyenera kwambiri. Pambuyo pake, ndiyeso pafupifupi katatu kutsanulira chitsamba ndi zokonzekera, kuphatikiza mankhwala ndi kupopera mbewu kuchokera ku oidium ndi mildew.

Kuopsa kwa malo akuda ndikuti Matendawa amawoneka kuti ndi aakulu kwa minda yamphesa. Choncho, ngati zawonekera kale pamtunda, zidzatenga zaka zopitirira chaka chimodzi kuti zimenyane nawo. Komabe, ngati mupanga khama lokwanira ndikuchita mankhwala ochiritsira, mukhoza kusintha kwambiri chitsamba.

Kuwonongeka kofiira: momwe mungagwirire ndi tizirombo ta mpesa?

Kodi chidziwitso cha tizilomboti ndi chiyani?

Ngati nkhungu za nkhungu zatha kugunda mphesa yanu - zidzasokoneza nyengo yonse, makamaka ngati zinthu zakunja zikuthandizira izi. Mitengo yonse yachitsamba ndi nkhuni zonse za pachaka zimatha kupha matendawa.

Mwachikhazikitso Zogula za cuttings za katemera kuchokera ku chitsamba chokhudzidwa siziloledwa, chifukwa kudula imvi kumafikira. Choncho, chitsamba chokhacho chidzagwedezeka kale ndi matendawa, ndipo pakakhala izi zidzakhala zovuta kwambiri kulimbana ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda.

Kodi mungasiyanitse bwanji kuvunda kwa imvi pa mphesa?

Kubwerera kumapeto kwa nyengo, oziziritsa ndi ozizira, tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa timangoyang'ana maso ndi mphukira.

Ngati m'tsogolo mlengalenga kuzungulira chitsamba cha mphesa chimawombera, ndipo pali mvula yambiri mu mlengalenga, imvi yamaluwa imatha ngakhale kumagulu. Pa nthawi yomweyi, ngati mutakhudza gulu lomwe lakhudzidwa, ilo lidzasamba.

Choncho matendawa amawononga mbewuzo. ngati nyengo yowuma, zipatso zochepa zokha zomwe zimadodometsa patapita nthawi zimadabwa. Ngati imvi yovunda inagunda inflorescences - mu nyengo youma imangomwalira ndi kuuma, kupeza mtundu wofiira.

Matendawa angayambitse zipatso ndi zipatso za mphesa.

Kuteteza nkhungu yakuda: Ndi zinthu ziti zofunika kuzichita?

  • Kawirikawiri, kupewa mvi imakhala yofanana ndi ya oidium kapena mildew. Kukonzekera komweku kumagwiritsidwa ntchito ndipo nthawi zonse kumayambitsa mankhwala opatsirana matendawa sikuwonekera.
  • Kuti musayese kuoneka ngati imvi yokha, m'pofunika kukumbukira kuti matendawa amakhudza makamaka malo omwe amadula komanso malo omwe afooka. Choncho, muyenera kumvetsera tsatanetsatane wachitsamba ndikutsatira bwino malo oterowo.
  • Gulu la mphesa limakhala lopweteka kwambiri ngati liri lopangidwa ndi unilaterally ndi feteleza a nitrogen.
  • Ndiyeneranso kudziŵa kuti ngakhale mutha kuwonongeka kasupe ndikukantha mphesa zanu, ndiye kuti kuyambira kwa nyengo yozizira sikudzafalikira.

Kuchiza kwa mpesa kuchokera ku matenda

Kuti matendawa asafalikire ku chitsamba, ndikofunikira Chotsani mbali zokhudzana ndi mphesa. Komanso, pakali pano, kupopera mbewu ndi kukonzekera kwakukulu kudzakhala kovomerezeka. Ngakhalenso mankhwalawa sagwiritsa ntchito matendawa, sichidzapitirizabe nyengoyi.

Zomwe zimayambitsa matendawa: zizindikiro za kugonjetsedwa kwa chitsamba cha mphesa ndi kulamulira matenda

Zizindikiro za matendawa: Kodi ndizovuta kwa mphesa?

Nthenda yotchedwa Anthracnose, komanso pafupifupi matenda onse a fungalomu, nthawi zambiri ili ndi dera lalikulu kwambiri. Zikuwonekera ponse pa masamba ndi mphukira za mpesa, ndi pa inflorescences, ndipo kenako pa zipatso.

Matendawa amapezeka padziko lonse lapansi, makamaka yabwino chifukwa ndi nyengo yozizira, monga ku Gombe la Black Sea ndi kum'mwera kwa Ukraine.

Chinthu choipa kwambiri cha matendawa ndicho luso lotha msinkhu ndi kupitiriza zaka zisanu. Kotero, ngakhale popanda mawonetseredwe akunja, mphesa zingakhudzidwe ndi matenda a anthracnose. Ndikoyenera kudziwa kuti nthawi imodzi yomwe ikukula nyengo bowa la matendawa ukhoza kubala mibadwo 30 ya spores.

Matendawa ndi owopsa kwambiri chifukwa chokhazikika pamtunda, koma nthawi yomweyo nyengo imapereka mvula.

Mbali za maonekedwe a mphesa anthracnose

Masamba omwe amakhudzidwa ndi matendawa amadziwika ndi kukhalapo kwa mawanga ofiira ndi mtundu wakuda wakuda malire. Chifukwa cha chikhalidwe ichi cha mawonetseredwe, matendawa amatchedwa diso la mbalame.

Zitsulo zimatha ngakhale kuphatikiza. Mofanana ndi oidium, madontho amenewa amachititsa kuti minofu ife. Mphukira imakhudzanso chidendene cha mthunzi wa pinki kapena wofiirira.zomwe zimawoneka ngati maenje ovutika maganizo.

Pamphepete mwa mphutsi amakhalanso ndi mdima wakuda. Mitengo ya nkhuni yomwe imakhudzidwa nthawi, zilonda zimapanga mpesa. Mbalame zambiri zimatha kusweka, ndipo kenako - zowuma. Mofananamo amachitapo kanthu podula mphesa ndi mapesi a masamba ndi masamba a mphesa.

Ma inflorescences pambuyo pa ululu ndi matendawa akufotokozedwa kukhala bulauni, owuma. Zipatso zimakhudzidwanso ndi kupsinjika maganizo kofiira mawanga, ndi kuvomerezedwa malire a mtundu wakuda. Matendawa amatha kuletsa mbewuzo ndikuvulaza chitsamba.

Kodi mungagwiritse ntchito chiyani popewera mphesa za anthracnose?

Matendawa amapezeka mvula yamkuntho. Choncho, nyengo ikakhala ikugwa, mpesa uyenera kupatsidwa mankhwala.

Ndibwino kugwiritsa ntchito fungicides omwe amafunika kutsukidwa ndi chitsamba kawiri musanayambe kuphulika, ndipo kamodzi kokha, panthawi ya mphesa.

Ndibwino kuti musankhe mphesa zomwe zimapangitsa kuti anthracnose ayambe kukana.

Chithandizo cha chitsamba cha mphesa chokhudzidwa ndi matenda a anthracnose

Kuchiza matendawa ndi kovuta, ngakhale kupambana kungapezeke. Pokonzekera kuchiza chitsamba, izi zikugwiritsidwa ntchito:

  • "Antrakol"
  • "Acrobat"
  • Chisakanizo cha "Bordeaux madzi"
  • "Kuprosat"
  • "Ridomil"
  • Thanos
  • "Horus"

Ndikofunika kuzindikira kuti chithandizocho chimachitika monga kukhudzana (chithandizo choyamba m'chaka, kukonzekera mkuwa kumagwiritsidwa ntchito) ndi njira (zonse zomwe zikutsatira).