Kuphunzira kubzala mphesa mu kugwa kwa cuttings

Mphesa ndi chikhalidwe chapadera, chomwe chimadyetsedwa osati mwatsopano, koma chimagwiritsidwanso ntchito kwambiri pokonzekera mchere, saladi, compotes, juisi komanso, mitundu yonse ya vinyo.

Pali mitundu yambiri ya chikhalidwe. Iwo amasiyana ndi kukoma, mtundu wa zipatso ndi kuchuluka kwa ntchito.

Kulawa, mphesa zimagawanika kukhala wamba, solanaceous, nutmeg ndi isabel.

Mabulosi a mphesa ali olemera kwambiri mu organic acid, B mavitamini ndi mchere. Chikhalidwe chimenechi ndiwothandiza kwambiri. Zimathandiza kuchiza matenda a impso, matenda a mtima, komanso mphumu.

Berry amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri mu cosmetology. Ndipo madzi a mphesa amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochiza migraine, kuti apititse patsogolo chitetezo chokwanira komanso kupewa kutopa kwanthawi yaitali.

Kwa mphesa yokongoletsedwa munda kapena bwalo la nyumba, nkofunikira kudziwa zina mwa zinsinsi za kulima kwake. Njira yobzala ndi yofunika kwa mbewu zambiri, ndipo izi zikugwiranso ntchito kwa mphesa.

Mbali za kusankha kwa cuttings

Kuti zipatso za mphesa zisangalale ndikukolola zipatso ndi mthunzi wokongola wa mpesa wobiriwira kwa zaka zambiri, m'pofunika kudziwa mtundu wa mbeu zomwe mumakonda kwambiri komanso zomwe zili zoyenera kuti mukule m'deralo.

Anamera mphesa kuchokera ku mbewu ndi vegetatively. Kuchokera kumbewu, zomera zatsopano zimakula pokhapokha ndi obereketsa panthawi yobzalitsa mitundu yatsopano, ndipo kufalitsa kwa zomera ndi koyenera kwa ife.

Pali zambiri njira za zomera chikhalidwe cha mphesa:

  1. chodzala cuttings
  2. nthambi ya ndodo
  3. njira yothandizira

Pa kufalitsa kwa zamasamba, chilengedwe chonse cha chitsamba cha mayi chimasungidwa mmera. Njirayi imachokera pazokhazikitsidwa bwino za chikhalidwe ichi.

Mbali imeneyi ndizosiyana ndi mbali zonse za mpesa: mizu, ndi zimayambira, ndi petioles wa masamba, ndi miyendo ya inflorescences ndi zipatso. Chifukwa cha ichi, mphesa anabwezeretsedwa mwangwiro, amachiza mabala ndi masamba atatha kuwonongeka ndi chisanu cha chisanu.

Koma kukula kwa chitsamba chatsopano ndi kotheka kuchokera ku gawo la mpesa wa mphesa yomwe ili ndi mphukira. Kwa ichi mphukira zimadula, pambuyo pake kudulidwa (phesi) kumabzalidwa, kukonzekera kubwerera.

Pali njira zingapo zodula kudula mphesa. Ndipo ngati mutagwiritsa ntchito ena mwa iwo, ndiye kuti padzakhala tsinde labwino kumapeto kwa chilimwe.

Chofunika kwambiri ndi chakuti pamene mukukolola phesi, m'pofunikira kusankha mosamala mpesa, womwe uyenera kukhala wokongola, wokwana 1-1.2 mamita m'litali, ndi 6-10 mm mwake. Poyang'ana, chiŵerengero cha chiwerengero chonse cha thunthu mpaka pachimake, choyenera kudulidwa, ayenera kukhala osachepera awiri. Komabe, ayenera kupunthwa akamawerama. Izi zimachitika chifukwa cha kuphulika kwa nkhuni.

Kusankha mipesa yocheka cuttings, musaiwale kuti izi zimakhudza kupulumuka kwa ndondomekoyi, ndi kupeza chitsamba chabwino chifukwa cha izi. Kuwonjezera apo, dulani mpesa ayenera kukonzedwa bwino kuti mubzalidwe.

Kukonzekera kuchepetsa kubzala

Pa kuyendayenda kwa chikhalidwe chilichonse kumatenga mavitamini okha. Lamuloli likugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa mphesa.

Kudulidwa kwa muzu mu kudula bwino kudzakhala koyera nthawi zonse, ndipo chaka chimodzi chowonjezera chidzakhala chobiriwira. Maso a cuttings sayenera kutsanulira pamene akulimbikitsidwa. Kudya msuzi watsopano sikuloledwa.

Ngati phesi la mphesa silikonzekera molondola, likhoza kufa. Kuwombera kumafa ngati pangakhale kusowa kokwanira kwa mpweya ndi zotsatira zake zowola, komanso chifukwa cha kusowa kwa chinyezi ndi kuyanika.

Mpesa umadulidwa mu cuttings kuti makulidwe awo asachepera kukula kwa chala chaching'ono - izi ndi pafupi 7 mm, ndipo kutalika kumaphatikiza ndi 30-40 masentimita. Payenera kukhala ndi masamba atatu kapena anayi pa chogwiritsira ntchito. Kudula sikuyenera kudula motalika kwambiri, chifukwa izi zidzasokoneza ntchito yotsatira. Dulani mapesi osakhala kwa nthawi yaitali mumlengalenga komanso pamalo otentha.

Mphesa za mphesa kudula mpeni waukulu kapena lumo. Zodula zimapangidwira kuti gawo lochepa la kagawo liri pafupi ndi diso, lili pansi, ndipo chapamwamba liri 2-3 cm pamwambapa. Pambuyo pake, zowonjezera zakonzedwezi zimayikidwa kwa masiku angapo kuti zilowerere m'madzi abwino kutentha.

Kenaka kagawo kakang'ono, kamene kali pamwamba, kamathiridwa mu parafini yosungunuka kwa masekondi angapo, ndipo kumapeto kwa kudula kumaikidwa mu njira yothetsera kukula kwa maola 24. Pambuyo pochita njira zonsezi, kudula kungabzalidwe mu dzenje lokonzekera.

Cuttings mu autumn ingasiyidwe ngakhale mpaka masika. Pachifukwa ichi, amangiriridwa m'magulu ndipo amasungidwa pansi, kapena amatsika mumtsinje, pomwe akuphimba ndi udzu. Mabwato oterewa amapitirirabe mpaka masika.

Ndi nthaka iti yomwe ili yoyenera kubzala

Mphesa yamphesa ikhoza kukula pamtunda uliwonse. Koma, ngati mukufuna kukolola bwino, komanso mu mtundu wina wa madzi ndi wort wa chomera ichi, ndiye muyenera kuyang'anitsitsa nthaka ndikukonzekera bwino kuti mubzala.

Muyenera kudziwa zimenezo Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya chikhalidwe ichi imakonda nthaka yosiyana. Mwachitsanzo, ngati pali tebulo zosiyanasiyana, m'pofunikira kusankha malo kumunsi kwa phiri, kumene nthaka yambiri imakhala ndi humus, ndipo madzi apansi ali pamtunda wa mamita atatu.

Mphesa imakula bwino pa miyala ndi mdima wambiri, womwe umatulutsa kuwala kwa dzuwa. Zikudziwika kuti m'munda wamphesa madzi amamangidwa ndi mawonekedwe aulere, ndipo pazigawo zosiyana zamasamba, chiŵerengero ichi chimasintha.

M'nthaka yomwe yazembedwa, mizu ya mbewu siimakula, ndipo nthawi zina imafa chifukwa cha kusowa kwa mpweya mu nthaka. Chifukwa chake, malo omwe shrub imakula mu chikhalidwe ichi nthawi zambiri imamasulidwa ndipo imawongolera.

M'nyengo yotentha, nthaka imaletsedwa kumasula, koma ndizovomerezeka kuti mulch.

Kusakhudza zomera ndi mphesa, pafupi ndi madzi akuya a nthaka (mozama osachepera 1.5 mamita). Pankhaniyi, nthaka, pofuna kutsegula mpweya wabwino ku mizu ya mbeu, imamasulidwa. Zabwino zokhala mphesa ndizopanda dothi lotayirira, carbonate kapena carbonate, komanso nthaka ya miyala.

Mofulumira kucha kucha zipatso amasonyeza mphesa kukula pa kuwala mtundu wachonde dothi. Ndipo kukula kwa mphukira kumawoneka wamphamvu mu tchire zomwe zimakula pa nthaka yakuda kapena nthaka yofiira.

Zabwino kwambiri chifukwa cha miyambo ya mphesa Ganizirani za kuwalazomwe zimawotha bwino. Izi zikhoza kukhala dothi la mchenga, sierozem, nthaka yofiira ndi mdima.

Ngati, ngakhale m'munda, dothi lidali lolemetsa, ndiye likukonzekera kubzala mphesa, mchenga, miyala, silt, njerwa yosweka, kapena madzi ena omwe amathira kale. Malo a saline a malowa akukonzekera kubzala mbewu za mphesa ndi ulimi wothirira wochulukira kwa nthaka m'chilimwe ndi m'dzinja, potsata madzi.

Sizowonjezereka kubzala zitsamba zatsopano pamalo obereketsa munda wakale wamphesa. Kubzala mphesa zing'onozing'ono pamalo otere kungakhale patangotha ​​zaka ziwiri kapena zitatu mutagwedeza chakale.

Musabzale mphesa m'madera osauka bwino, pakati pa mizere ya mitengo, ndi m'malo omwe nthawi zonse mumdima. Mpesa sumalekerera mitundu yonse ya mafinya omwe chimfine chimadumpha.

Yabwino kwambiri kulima mphesa madera otsetsereka a dzuwa ndi kutuluka bwino kwa mpweya, koma nthawi yomweyo imatsekedwa ndi mphepo yozizira. Ndikofunika kuika mphesa m'njira zina kuti zomera zina zisasokoneze kukula kwake, komanso musabzale mbewuyi pafupi ndi minda yomwe imayenera kuthirira mobwerezabwereza.

Kukonzekera nthaka kwa mphesa kumapangidwa ndi zotsatira zabwino mu autumn. Chochitika ichi ndi chofunika kwambiri kusiyana ndi kusankha malo oti mufike. Njira yabwino kwambiri yokonzekera nthaka ya mphesa ndi plantazh. Imeneyi ndi njira yomwe nthaka yomwe ili pamasamba imasinthidwa kwathunthu, pamene nthaka ikukonzedwanso ndi umuna.

Mphesa zimapsa ikani njira yakumwera-kumpoto. Pofika, mipando yapadera imakonzedwa, pasanapite nthawi imalembedwa ndi masentimita 80-100. Pamene mukumba zitsulo, nthaka imakhala yofalikira mosiyana.

Manyowa a mchere ndi humus ophatikizidwa ndi nthaka aikidwa pansi pa chisokonezo. Ngakhale mu dzenje kuwonjezera lalikulu mwala mwala, womwe umasakanizidwa ndi nthaka yomwe yadyetsedwa kale. Kenaka ngalandeyi imakhala yodzaza ndi nthaka ndi humus ndi ming'alu, pamene palibe wophwanyika mwala umawonjezeredwa pamwamba pamwamba pa ufa.

Pitani kukafika

Kulima mphesa za mphesa ndi ntchito yovuta kwambiri komanso yovuta, yomwe imakhudza kwambiri kukula ndi chitukuko cha mbewu yaying'ono. Kuwonjezera pa dothi lodzala ndi malo omwe lidzakula, ndikofunikira kudziwa nthawi yobzala mphesa, komanso kukumbukira zinsinsi ndi zochitika zabzala.

Mphesa anabzala mu kugwa ndi masika. Mbewu zapachaka, zomwe zimakhala zolimba, zofesedwa pakati pa kasupe (April - May), vegetative wobiriwira cuttings obzalidwa kumapeto kwa kasupe ndi kumayambiriro kwa chilimwe (May - June). M'dzinja, mphesa zimabzalidwa kuyambira mwezi wa October kufikira nyengo yoyamba yozizira.

Mukamabzala mphesa mu kugwa, iwo ayenera kukonzekera bwino nyengo yozizira. Kwa awa:

  1. Phimbani ndi botolo la pulasitiki
  2. kuthirira madzi ndi madzi (3-4 zidebe)
  3. pambuyo pake adamasulidwa kuzungulira nthaka

Asanafike chisanu, mphesa zimaphimbidwa ndi pine singano, utuchi kapena peat, ndipo zonsezi zimatuluka. Kuteteza nyembazo ndikugwiritsa ntchito malo omwe nthawi zonse amadzala, omwe amadzala ndi dzenje, kenako amapangidwa kuchokera ku nthaka 30 cm wamtunda wamitunda.

Nthanga yomwe imabzalidwa mu kugwa ili ndi luso ndi nthawi yopanga mizu. Izi zilola chaka chotsatira sapling kukhala chitsamba chabwino.

Malangizo obwera

Mphesa kwambiri sakonda chisanu ndi kuzizira. Mizu ya chomera ichi ikhoza kuundana kale kutentha kwa -5 - madigiri 7. Choncho, pamene pali kuzizira kwambiri kwa nthaka, zimalimbikitsa kuchita mozama kubzala mbewu, kapena kupanga inoculation ya mitundu yosiyanasiyana ku Arctic kapena Buytur.

Kuwonjezera pamenepo, m'madera amenewa amalangizidwa kudzala pamalo pomwe chipale chofewa chimasonkhanitsa m'nyengo yozizira kapena kumayendedwe kozizira.

Olima amaluso akulangizidwa kuti azidzala zipatso, kuonjezera mmunsi mwa mbeu 30-35 kapena 40-50 masentimita pansi, malingana ndi kutentha kwa nthaka m'chaka ndi kusungunuka kwake, ndipo, poyambitsa kudula, kudera komwe kulibe chipale chofewa m'nyengo yozizira, ndi kutentha kuli kochepa. Izi zidzateteza kutentha kofiira kwa mphesa.

Kuti apange zinthu zabwino zokhala ndi rooting, nthawi yomweyo kudula kusalowetsedwa mu dzenje, anatsanulira pa chidebe chimodzi cha madzi otentha. Kulima zomera kumatenga mizu yomwe yafikira masentimita atatu.

Kulowera

Pali mitundu yambiri yobzala cuttings:

  1. ndikuyenda movutikira
  2. akukwera vertically

Fans amagwiritsa ntchito malo otsetsereka.

Kudzala mphesa ya mphesa molingana ndi ndondomeko yotsetsereka, mizu pamasamba siidulidwe, koma kusamala kuyenera kuchitidwa kuti zitsimikizidwe kuti kutalika kwa mizuyi sikuposa 10 cm.Komwe mugwiritsa ntchito mawonekedwe obzala, mizu pamwamba pa mfundo yachiwiri yadulidwa.

Kubzala mitengo yambiri mu mzere womwewo, mtunda wa pakati pawo si ochepera 2-2.3m, ndipo pakati pa mizere - 2.5-3 mamita.

Kwawowona ndi ndege ziwiri zinkakonda kuyenda Mzere wa chitsamba ndi mabwato awo ali kumpoto ndi kumwera. Ngati kubzala mphesa kumagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi chowoneka, chowongolera, mizere ndi zothandizira zili kumbali ya kummawa ndi kumadzulo.

Ndi kubzala uku, masamba onse a mphesa amagwera dzuwa, ndipo izi ndi zofunikira kuti zitheke komanso zinyama.

Mukhozanso kubzala cuttings pokhapokha - pambali zothandizira, kapena mumzere - pothandizana. Kulumikizana pakati pa tchire kumachitika molingana ndi zikhalidwe za mitundu yosiyanasiyana kapena zosiyanasiyana, ndipo zimakhala zofanana ndi 1.5-2.5 m.

Chombo cha mphesa chimakonzedwa pogwiritsa ntchito njira zitatu:

  1. pansi pa zidutswa,
  2. kukumba maenje kukula kwake 60 × 80 masentimita,
  3. minda yolima 60-70 cm chakuya

Kutsika kwa dzenje, pa chernozem, kwa cuttings, kumapangidwa pa 60 cm, pa nthaka yosauka, mamita 1. Panthawi imodzimodziyo, kudula kumabzalidwa kuti chapamwamba mutabzala ndi 5-6 masentimita m'munsi mwa dzenje lakuya. kukula chitsamba thunthu pamwamba pa nthaka. Chitsanzo cholowera chikuonekera momveka bwino pa chithunzichi pansipa.

Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti mphutsi ya mphesa imakula mwamsanga ndipo imakula mofulumira. Choncho, kubzala mphukira za chikhalidwe chapafupi ndizosafunika.

Zimakhalanso zosangalatsa kuwerenga za kudulira mphesa mu kugwa.

Kutuluka mutatha

Pambuyo pa kutsika, nthaka ikutsanuliridwa mu dzenje iyenera kukhala yofanana ndi kuphulika, ndipo mizereyo imayenera kutsanuliridwa mochuluka ndi madzi, ndipo imadzazidwa pansi ndi nthaka. Ngati zidutswazo sizinawonongeke kale ndipo nyengo ya m'mphepete mwa nyanja imakhala yowuma, chikhadzu chokhazikika chazomera chikuchitika musanayambe mphukira, ndipo shkuku imathiriridwa mochulukira, nthawi zonse kumasula nthaka.

Komabe amafunika kuyang'anira kuonekera kwa namsongole, zomwe zimachotsedwa. Ngati nkofunikanso kupopera mankhwala ndi ofooka 1% yankho la Bordeaux mowa.

Nthaka iliyonse imatopa. Izi zimachitika ndi munda wa munda wamphesa, ngati simukuchita zowononga kuti mudye ndi kufesa nthaka. Pachifukwachi, amasintha mbewu pa malowa, komanso amapanga mpumulo wa nthaka ndikufesa ming'alu ya udzu.

Kuchokera ku dothi lakutopa kudzapulumutsa feteleza nthaka ndi kubwezeretsanso kachilombo ka chikhalidwe ndi madzi okwanira. Pankhaniyi, ndiloyenera kuti mulch, ndipo 1-2 kumasula pansi pa tchire kwa nyengoyi. Izi zimachitidwa popanda kusandutsa zigawo za dziko lapansi ndi kusuntha mulch wa organic.

Nthawi yoyamba mutabzala (2-3 zaka) ndizofunikira kwambiri kuti kukula bwino ndi kukula kwa mphesa. Pa nthawi ino, mawonekedwe a chitsamba chaching'ono. Pambuyo pa kukula kwa masentimita 5-8 m'litali, chikhalidwe chimachoka, kusiya 1-2 mphukira pa chogwirira.

Amachitanso katarovka nthawi zonse, zomwe zimaphatikizapo kuchotsedwa kwa mizu ya pamwamba. Kuchokera m'dzinja mpaka nyengo yozizira, tchire timaphimbidwa ndi zinthu zopangidwa bwino.