Kodi kuchita yophukira kuvala mphesa

Poyamba nthawi yophukira mu nyengo yamphesa kumathera zomera.

Ogulitsa vinyo akolola zokolola, ndipo zikuwoneka kuti ntchito yonse yamunda pamtunda ukuleka.

Chomera chimayamba kupuma.

Koma, kuti mpesa wabwino upumulire, mphamvu zowonongeka kwathunthu, kuti mukhale ndi mbeu yabwino chaka chamawa, muyenera kusamalira feteleza yake lero.

Iyi ndi njira yabwino kwambiri yokwaniritsira chomeracho ndi zinthu zothandiza kwambiri.

Zambiri za m'mbuyo. Mawu ochepa ponena za mawu omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi alimi

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Pamene mphesa zimabzalidwa, ndithudi, zakudya zimayikidwa. Kotero, malowa adzakhala zaka 3-4, osakhalanso. Panthawiyi, mphesa zimapangidwa ndikuyamba kubala chipatso, kufunika kulimbikitsa chitsamba cha mphesa kumawonjezeka. Manyowa omwe amapangidwa motsatira nthawi ya kuwonjezera kwawo, ndipo kuchuluka kwa mankhwala ogwiritsidwa ntchito kumagawidwa zofunika ndi kudyetsa.

MALANGIZO - organic feteleza ndi mchere feteleza amagwiritsidwa ntchito comprehensively kamodzi mu 2-3 zaka; kapena kugwa, kapena kumayambiriro kwa kasupe.

ZOTHANDIZA - yaying'ono poyerekeza ndi waukulu feteleza Mlingo amapangidwa kuti imalimbitse thanzi mikhalidwe ya mphesa chitsamba pachaka.

Anthu okonda mphesa, malinga ndi mtundu wa feteleza, agaŵetseni kudya m'magawo awiri - mizu ndi foliar.

Ndizosangalatsa kuwerenga za feteleza mphesa m'dzinja

Mizu yophika

Kudyetsa mizu kumaphatikizapo kuyambitsa mavitamini obereka pamizu ya mphesa. Manyowa omwe amabwera pansi pa chitsamba, amathandizira kusintha kwa zozungulira za zinthu zopatsa moyo. Zotsatira sizingakupangitseni kuti mudikire, chaka chotsatira mphesa zidzakondwera ndi zokolola zawo zabwino. Tengani zakudya zamzuzi m'dzinja nthawi zambiri.

Ndikoyenera kukumbukira kuti mizu yapamwamba imatengedwera kokha ndi kuthirira mu dzenje, kuya kwake kuli kofanana ndi kuya kwakukulu, kumene mizu yayikulu ilipo. Ndiye chomeracho chimathiririzidwanso kachiwiri. Manyowa amagwiritsidwa ntchito bwino, monga momwe tafotokozera m'mawu. Ndipo oyamba kumene mu bizinesi ya mphesa ayenera kutsatira malangizo ena a wamaluwa omwe ali odziwa zambiri.

Pakuti mizu yodyetsa imagwiritsira ntchito izi mitundu ya fetelezamonga:

1. Organic.

2. Mavitrogeni.

3. Mchere.

Organic mizu kuvala

Imodzi mwa njira zabwino kwambiri zodyera mizu ndi kuyambitsa humus, manyowa kapena kompositi pansi. Njira yotereyi iyenera kuchitika kamodzi pa zaka zitatu. Humus imayikidwa m'mayenje osakanikidwe pakati pa mizere.

Mukhoza kupanga iliyonse feteleza. Vinyo ndi mphesa, ndi madontho a winemaking, ndi manyowa, ndi kompositi. Nthawi zina zinthu zakuthupi zimaphatikizidwa ndi feteleza zomwe zili ndi phosphorous kapena phosphorous ndi potaziyamu. Kuonjezera ubwino wa tomasshlak, ufa wa phosphate. Chosowa chokhacho cha kuvala kotero ndikuti manyowa ndi zipangizo zina zimayambitsa kukula kwa namsongole, zomwe zimafunikanso kuchotsedwa nthawi yake.

Kupaka zovala ndi nitrojeni feteleza

Kuphatikizapo kupanga pansi pa mizu:

1. Sulphate ya potaziyamu;

2. Ammonium nitrate;

3. Zophatikiza urea;

4. Phulusa.

Monga mizu yovala feteleza imagwiritsidwa ntchito popangidwa, yomwe ikuphatikizapo sulfate ya potaziyamu. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pa nthaka ndi kuchuluka kwa alkaline anachita.

Kuwonjezera pa ntchito yogwiritsa ntchito potaziyamu sulphate ammonium nitrate. Mitsuko yayikulu yamchere imakhala yoyera, koma nthawi zina imakhala yachikasu. Kudyetsa kotero kumapereka zotsatira zabwino.

Phulusa lili ndi potaziyamu wambiri komanso phosphorous peresenti. Ndiyiufulu, chifukwa imapezeka poyatsa zomera zosiyanasiyana, masamba, ndi zimayambira. Mphesa inadya pafupifupi 100 peresenti. Phulusa imasungidwa kutali ndi chinyezi ndi madzi.

Mtundu wina wa nayitrogeni feteleza ndi kuyamba kwa mphesa kupanga urea. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito kawirikawiri. Amachepetsa kukula kwa zomera. Ndi bwino kugwiritsa ntchito madzi a nitrojeni omwe ali ndi feteleza, ammonia, madzi ammonia ndi ena, omwe amasungidwa mu zitini za pulasitiki.

Mizu yopangira pamwamba ndi feteleza mchere

Manyowa amchere amagwiritsidwa ntchito ku nthaka yomwe imafunikira. Chiwerengero chawo chimadalira kutopa kwake. Ogwiritsira ntchito vinyo amagwiritsa ntchito ammonium sulphate, potaziyamu mchere ndi superphosphate. Amatsanulira pansi pa chitsamba, ndipo mphesa zimathiridwa pansi ndi madzi. Potaziyamu mchere imaphatikizidwanso. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito pa mitundu yonse ya nthaka. Pamodzi ndi iye, chifukwa cha zotsatira zake zabwino, potassium sulphate imatenthedwa pansi pa mizu.

Monga muzu kuvala, phulusa limatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito. Lili ndi potassium ndi phosphorous zambiri.

Nthawi

Ndipo liti kuti apange mizu kuvala mphesa? Olima munda amaumirira kupereka zopereka pasanafike mwezi wa October, monga chomeracho chiyenera kukhala ndi nthawi yokonza zinthu zonse zothandiza musanayambe chisanu.

Zovala zapamwamba za Foliar

Kuwonjezera pa mizu yokuvala, foliar kuvala kuyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa mphesa. Amachitidwa kuti lifulumizitse kucha kwa mipesa mu mphesa. Pambuyo pogwiritsa ntchito mapulogalamu a foliar, mphesa zimalekerera nyengo yozizira.

Koma, kodi kuvala kwapamwamba ndi kotani? Kodi ndi chiyani chomwe mungadyetse mphesa? Anthu ambiri amadziwa kuti mphesa zimalandira zinthu zopatsa moyo kupyolera mu mizu, koma zinthu zothandiza zimatha kubwereranso kudzera masamba. Ndi kudzera m'masamba kuti chakudya chimabwera mokwanira, ndipo chimathamanga mofulumira.

Zovala zapamwamba za Foliar - Uku kukonkha masamba a mphesa ndi zinthu zothandiza.

Mphesa imakula bwino, imakula bwino, imakondweretsa ndi zokolola zochuluka, kulekerera nyengo yozizira yosavuta. Kuphatikiza pa zakudya za foliar, ndi zofunika kuwonongera mphesa motsutsana ndi matenda monga mildew ndi oidium.

Pogwira ntchito, muyenera kusankha masiku opanda bata popanda mphepo, kuyamba ntchito m'mawa kapena madzulo. Ndibwino kuti mupitirize kudyetsa foliar m'dzinja, popeza kuti kutentha kwa dzuwa ndi mbewu kumachepa. Mpweya wokwanira wovomerezeka ndi madigiri 18-22. Pa kutentha kwapafupi kapena pamwamba pa chololedwa chomera chimakhala ndi kusowa kwa madzi, ndipo ngakhale mabatire omwe akufunikira sakhala otanganidwa.

Foliar pamwamba kuvala mphesa kumachitika m'njira zingapo: mphesa akhoza sprayed ndi okonzeka yankho la superphosphate, ammonium sulfate, chitsulo kapena potaziyamu mchere.

Yowonjezera mizu kudyetsa mphesa ndi mchere feteleza

Zotsatira zabwino zimapereka:

1. Superphosphate;

2. Phulusa;

3. potaziyamu mchere;

4. Manganese.

Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti yankho la superphosphate limakonzedwa tsiku limodzi, kenako limatonthozedwa. Komanso njira zothandizira tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ndizoyenera. Njira yabwino kwambiri ndi phulusa, lomwe limadzipukutira m'madzi. Manganese amagwiritsidwanso ntchito popanga mafelemu opatsa moyo. Masamba onse akuwazidwa ndi njira yake.

Zakudya ndi potaziyamu zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kuwonjezera mwayi wa mphesa kuti zikhale yozizira, kuzizira kuzizira, ndi zipatso zimakhala zokoma. Kupanda mchere kumakhudza mtundu wa masamba, iwo amakhala ochepa, m'mphepete mwa iwo amayamba kufa.

Momwemonso foliar feteleza

Kusakaniza masamba a mphesa amagwiritsa ntchito:

1. Mchere wambiri

2. Iron

3. Ammonium sulphate

Kuti abweretse nkhokwe zachitsulo m'kudyetsa kwa foliar, zothetsera vutoli zimagwiritsidwanso ntchito salt salinkapena chelate yachitsulo. Kuti abweretse malo osungiramo zitsulo, alimi amatha kugwiritsa ntchito chinyengo pang'ono: pansi pa mizu ya mphesa amaika misomali yonyansa, yomwe ikavunda, idzasunga chitsulo. Icho chilipo komanso chaulere.

Kupopera mbewu mphesa ammonium sulphate yankho likugwiritsidwa ntchito, zomwe zimachitika mu chiŵerengero ichi: khumi malita a madzi pa khumi magalamu a feteleza.

Zakudya zabwino za Foliar ndi feteleza zamadzimadzi

Ogulitsa vinyo amalimbikitsa kugwiritsa ntchito zinki ndi mkuwa.

Kugwiritsa ntchito bwino ndiko kugwiritsa ntchito njira zinc (sulphate kapena zincide oxide) kapena boron. Chakudya cha Foliar chimabweretsa zokolola zambiri, kumawonjezera chiwerengero cha masamba.

Mtundu wina wa feteleza wa foliar umene umathandiza mphukira za mphesa kuti zipirire kwambiri chisanu ndi kupopera mbewu ndi mankhwala. Komanso amalekerera mosavuta chilala cham'chilimwe.

Nthawi

Nthawi yabwino yodyetsa nkhuku ndikumayambiriro kwa autumn, theka la mwezi wa September, mwamsanga pamene mbeu ikololedwa. Panthawi ino nyengo idakali dzuwa, palibe kutentha kwa chilimwe, ndipo nyengo yamvula sinayambe.

Zomwe zimadyetsa mphesa

Monga aliyense amadziwa, mphesa zimakula bwino, ndipo zimakula pa nthaka yachonde. Pokha ndi chisamaliro cha boma munthu angathe kuyembekezera zokolola zabwino kuchokera kwa iye. Koma pambuyo pa nyengo yokula, kuyambira pachiyambi cha mapangidwe a masamba kuti akolole, ngakhale dothi lachonde kwambiri latha. Dziko lapansi limataya katundu wake, liyenera kudyetsedwa ndi zinthu zazing'ono ndi zazikulu.

Mphesa amadyetsedwa ndi zinthu zosiyanasiyana, zomwe zili zofunika kwambiri, chifukwa zimakhala moyo, kuthandiza kukula ndikukula. Koma nthawi zosiyanasiyana, feteleza osiyana ayenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito. Mwachitsanzo, pano, nayitrogeni imayambitsidwa m'chaka ndi chilimwe, phosphorous - m'chaka.

Madzu a mphesa amafunikira vitamini wothirira, monga:

1. Mavitrogeni;

2. Phosphorous;

3. Potassium;

4. Mkuwa;

5. Boric acid.

Zimafunika mphesa nitrogen feteleza Kumapeto kwa nyengo, theka la phindu la pachaka limagwiritsidwa ntchito, m'nyengo yachilimwe - gawo lachinayi, koma mu August, feteleza okhala ndi feteleza ayenera kuimitsidwa. Chifukwa chake, masamba ndi mphukira akuyamba kukula. Wamaluwa amagwiritsa ntchito urea ndi ammonium nitrate.

Zikomo phosphorusNdibwino kuti tibweretse nthawi ya maluwa, ubwino ndi kuchuluka kwa mazira a m'mimba mwawo ndi bwino kwambiri.

Koma poyambira m'dzinja, onse odziwa bwino wamaluwa amalimbikira kupanga potashi feteleza monga kudyetsa. Mphesa imalekerera chisanu ndi kuzizira mosavuta; nyengo yotsatira imachepetsanso nthawi yakucha ya mphesa.

Kwa zipatsozo anaimba mofulumira ndipo analawa okoma kwambiri, boric asidi akuwonjezeredwa ngati kuvala pamwamba.

Kuwonjezera pa fetashi feteleza, zomera mu nyengo yophukira imadyanso mkuwa. Amapatsa mpata wokolola mphesa, zomera zimatha kulekerera kutentha. M'chilimwe, mkuwa amathandiza kuteteza mphukira ku chilala.

Musanayambe ntchito pamayambidwe a mizu ndi madiresi apamwamba, muyenera kuyang'ana chomeracho, ndipo malinga ndi chikhalidwe chake cha kunja ndi nthawi ya chaka, onjezerani zinthu zamtengo wapatali kwa mphesa.

Momwe mungapangire kudyetsa

Chabwino, ndi chiyani chomwe chingakhale chophweka kusiyana ndi kudyetsa? Poyamba, palibe chovuta, koma pali malamulo ndi zinthu zambiri zomwe ziyenera kutsatidwa. Mizu yophika analowa m'zitsimeomwe amakumba theka la mita kuchokera ku chitsamba, pafupifupi masentimita 40 chakuya. Ndi apo kuti feteleza agone, ndi kuwawaza iwo ndi wosanjikiza wa dziko lapansi.

Zovala zapamwamba sizingabweretse pamwamba pa nthaka. Chomera, pakadali pano, sichidzapatsidwa mavitamini a chonde omwe ali ofunikira kwambiri, ndipo kuyesa konse kudzakhala kopanda pake. Zotsatira zowonjezera, zovala zapamwamba zimabweretsedwa pansi pa mizu, kumene zimakhala zowonongeka. Pachifukwa ichi, mizu yapamwamba imakhala yosakwanira. Kudyetsa kusintha ndi kuyambitsa feteleza zofunika.

Ngati cholinga chanu ndikusonkhanitsa zokolola zapamwamba ndi zokolola zambiri, ndiye kudyetsa mphesa kumakhala maziko a chisamaliro cha mbeu, zomwe palibe