Tomato mu wowonjezera kutentha - ndi zophweka! VIDEO

Ngati mukufuna kudzala zipatso ndi ndiwo zamasamba m'nyengo yozizira ndi nyengo yozizira, ndiye kuti njira yabwino ikanakhala ikukula mbewu zosiyanasiyana m'mabotolo.

Mu nthaka yotetezedwa ikhoza kukula pafupifupi mbewu iliyonse, mwachitsanzo, tomato.

Koma pali ziwerengero zingapo zomwe ziyenera kuphunzitsidwa bwino musanayambe kukonzekera kulima.

Mudzapeza zambiri zamakono m'nkhaniyi.

Zowonjezera kutentha zimatha kupangidwa kuchokera ku polycarbonate, galasi, kapena ngakhale ku filimu ya pulasitiki, koma nthawi zonse malo opangira mawonekedwe am'tsogolo ayenera kuyang'aniridwa ndi dzuwa kuti tomato wochuluka.

Kuti tomato akhale omasuka, muyenera kuchita bwino mpweya wabwinokupewa kupezeka kwa mpweya.

Pankhani ya makoma a polyethylene a wowonjezera kutentha, madontho amatha kutentha usiku, choncho muyenera kuyesetsa kuteteza tchire. Kuti izi zitheke, palibe gawo limodzi kapena awiri la filimuyi yomwe yatambasulidwa pazitsulo, ndipo pakati pa zigawo izi padzakhala wothandizira 2-4 masentimita wandiweyani.

Mpweya woterewu umateteza kutentha.

Mwa njira iyi yakukula tomato, pali zonse zomwe zimapindulitsa.

Makhalidwe:

  • m'nyumba mumatha kutentha kutentha (chisanu sichiwononga tomato), chinyezi, kuchuluka kwa mpweya ndi carbon dioxide;
  • Mitengo yotentha yotentha imakhala ndi zokolola zambiri kuposa anthu omwe ali kunja;
  • Zida zachilengedwe mu malo ocheperako danga bwino.

Kuipa:

  • kumanga kwa wowonjezera kutentha ndi kusamalira kumabweretsa ndalama zazikulu;
  • popanda mankhwala apadera, tizilombo tosiyanasiyana ndi matenda amalandira zofunikira makamaka za chitukuko;
  • pamene amagulitsa tomato otere mtengo wapatali.

Kukonzekera kwa kubzala zakuthupi kumayamba ndi kulima mbande. Mbewu zikhoza kugula zonse ndi kuzipezera payekha.

Ngati mwagula mbewu ndikuwona kuti ali ndi kuwala kokwanira (i.e., drageed), ndiye kuti safunikira kukonzedwa.

Mulimonsemo, mphindi 15-20 musanadzalemo, mbeu ziyenera kuikidwa mu 1% ya potassium permanganate. Pambuyo pa disinfection, nyemba ziyenera kutsukidwa bwinobwino.

Ponena za nthawi yobzala, nthawiyo idzakhala yoyenera. kuyambira February mpaka kumapeto kwa March. Kufesa kumachitika m'zinthu zamakono zotchedwa cassettes.

Kasetiyo imakhala ndi zipinda zambiri zomwe ziyenera kudzazidwa ndi dziko lapansi. Mukhoza kubzala mbewu mmunsi mwa bokosi (kutalika 5-7 cm).

Malo a mbande zamtsogolo ayenera kukhala olemera, choncho muyenera kutenga malo a sod, peat ndi humus mofanana. Kenaka, mukuyenera kusakaniza kusakaniza pang'ono ndikuwonjezera mchenga (1 kg mu chidebe cha dziko), phulusa (1 tbsp) ndi superphosphate (1 tbsp).

Kusakaniza kotsirizidwa kumatsanuliridwa mu bokosi, rammed, kupanga tizilombo tating'onong'o ting'onoting'onoting'ono, zomwe zimakhala za 1 - 1.5 masentimita. Thirani yankho la sodium humate kutentha kwa firiji.

Pambuyo pa njirayi, mukhoza kufesa mbeu, zomwe zimafunika kugona dothi losakaniza. Bokosi lomwe liri ndi mbande za m'tsogolo liyenera kuunikiridwa mokwanira, ndipo kutentha kuzungulira sikuyenera kugwa pansi pa 22 ° C. Pambuyo pa 5 mutabzala bokosi ayenera kukhala ndi zojambulazo. Chifukwa cha ichi, mbewu zidzakula mofulumira.

Pambuyo pa masamba awiri akukula pa mphukira (izi zidzachitika pa tsiku la 7 mpaka 10), kuthamanga kukuyenera kupangidwa.

Kudumphira ndi kusuntha mbande mumatumba akuluakulu.

Mbewu iliyonse iyenera kuchotsedwa mosamala m'bokosi, pamene sikoyenera kugwedeza nthaka ku mizu.

Mbande zikhoza kusungidwa mabokosi osapitirira masiku makumi asanu ndi limodzi, kutalika kwa mphukira pa mphindi imeneyo kudzakhala pafupifupi masentimita 30. Kutambasula kumakhala kwa mbande, ndiko kuti, mphukira ndi yaitali koma woonda kwambiri.

Pofuna kupewa izi, muyenera kusintha nthawi zonse mmera kuti mbali iliyonse ya mmera imulandire dzuwa. Musanadzalemo, mbande zikhoza kuumitsidwa, ndiko kuti, kumanzere, mwachitsanzo, pa khonde lomwe lili ndi mawindo otseguka. Ndondomekoyi ikhoza kuchitika pafupi masiku khumi musanafike.

Pali mitundu yambiri ya tomato, koma si onse omwe angapereke zokolola zabwino pamkhalidwe wa wowonjezera kutentha. Koma pakati pa mitundu yonse, pali mitundu yomwe ili zipatso zabwino kwambiri. Mwachitsanzo:

  • Sungani "Mphepo yamkuntho F1"

    Mitundu imeneyi ndi yosakanizidwa, imakula mofulumira. Fruiting imayamba masiku 90 kuchokera pamene mbande yawuka. Tomato ndi kuzungulira, ndi yosalala pamwamba ndi yunifolomu mitundu. Kulemera kwa chipatso chimodzi kumatha kufika 90 g.

  • Zosiyanasiyana "Blagovest F1"

    Mitundu yoyamba kucha, wosakanizidwa. Zipatso ndizozungulira, zolemera 100 - 110 g.

  • Sungani "Mkuntho F1"

    Wosakanizidwa amakula msanga (pambuyo pa masiku 90 mpaka 95). Zipatso ndizozungulira, zolemera kufika 90 g.

  • Sakani "Samara F1"

    Zosakanikirana, zosiyanasiyana zoyambirira. Zipatso mu masiku 85 mpaka 90 mutatha kumera. Zipatso zili ndi zokoma, zozungulira, zolemera mpaka 80 g

  • Zosiyanasiyana "Zozizwitsa za Padziko Lapansi"

    Zokwera kwambiri zololera. Zipatso zimawoneka bwino, zooneka ngati za mtima, zolemera kwambiri (kulemera kufika 400-500 g).

Kukonzekera kwa dothi:

Musanabzala tomato mu wowonjezera kutentha, muyenera kutsegula chipindacho, kuchotsani 10 mpaka 12 cm pa nthaka, ndipo malo ena onse ayenera kupatsidwa mankhwala otentha a mkuwa sulphate (1 sl.lozhka 10 malita a madzi).

Zimaletsedwa kubzala mbande mu wowonjezera kutentha kwa zaka ziwiri motsatira, ngati zitsamba zatsopano zidzatengedwa ndi matenda akale.

Ambiri oyenera tomato loamy ndi dothi la mchenga. Musanabzala, nthaka ikusowa feteleza, choncho, pa 1 sq.m. 3 ndowa za peat, utuchi ndi humus osakaniza (chiwerengero 1: 1: 1) ziyenera kuwonjezedwa ku dzikolo. Kuwonjezera pa feteleza zokhala ndi feteleza, mchere umathandizidwanso. M'pofunika kupanga superphosphate (supuni 3), potassium sulphate (supuni 1), potassium magnesia (supuni 1), sodium nitrate (1 tsp) ndi phulusa (1 - 2 makapu).

Mwa zina, tomato sakonda "oyandikana nawo" kwambiri, kotero muyenera kugawa chipinda chino ndi magawo a mafilimu, omwe angapange mtundu wina wa zomera.

Kulowera:

Mabedi a tomato ayenera kukonzekera pasadakhale, ayenera kukhala 25 - 30 cm mu msinkhu ndi 60 - 90 masentimita m'lifupi. Kwa ma pasitala mukhoza kuchoka pafupifupi 60 - 70 masentimita. Koma dongosolo lodzala molunjika limadalira mtundu wa phwetekere ndi chikhalidwe cha chitsamba chake.

Mwachitsanzo, mu mitundu yochepa yomwe imamera msanga, 2-3 mphukira imapangidwa, choncho imayenera kubzalidwa mmizere iwiri, kuyang'ana chess, ndi madzu awiri kuti iike 35 cm pambali pa wina ndi mnzake.

Mu shtambovy tomato 1 mphukira imakula bwino, choncho, n'zotheka kudzala mbande zambiri, koma osati kwambiri. Mtunda wa pakati pa mitengo iwiri yoyandikana uyenera kukhala pafupifupi 25 - 30 cm. Mitundu yaitali imadalira malo ambiri, choncho, imafunika kubzala 60 - 70 cm.

Pitani ku kukafika kwa tomato

Ngati ndi nthawi yosunthitsa mbande pansi pa wowonjezera kutentha, ndiye choyamba muyenera kufufuza ngati mungathe kubzala tomato panthawi ino kapena kuyembekezera bwino.

Choyamba, dothi liyenera kukhala lotenthedwa bwino, komanso molondola, kutentha kwa 12-15 ° C. Ngati kutentha kwa nthaka kuli kochepa, ndiye kuti pangakhale pangozi kuti mizu ya mbande idzavunda. Kuti nthaka ikhale yotentha mofulumira, iyenera kukhala yokutidwa ndi polyethylene yakuda.

Chachiwiri, mapesi a mbande sayenera kumizidwa pansi, mwinamwake mphamvu zonse za phwetekere zamtsogolo zidzatha kupanga mapangidwe atsopano, osati kukula.

Chachitatu, m'nthaka sayenera kukhala nayitrogeni wochuluka, ndiko kuti, simungathe kupanga manyowa atsopano, zitosi za nkhuku, urea. Apo ayi, masamba adzakula, koma sipadzakhala fruiting.

Chachinayi, ndikofunika kuyang'anira zomera kuti pasakhale kuwonongeka. Tsamba lakuda kapena lakuda liyenera kuchotsedwa.

Mukamabzala mukusowa chotsani masamba a cotyledonzomwe ziri pafupi, komanso pansipa. Sankhani tsiku kuti likhale losungunuka, kapena dzukani madzulo. Zitsime ziyenera kukhala zotetezedwa ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, kutanthauza kuti, njira yothetsera yotentha ya potaziyamu permanganate imatsanuliridwa mu dzenje lililonse, ndipo musanayambe kubzala zitsime ayenera kukhala osakanizidwa.

Zimakhalanso zosangalatsa kuwerenga za mitundu yoyambirira ya maapulo.

Malangizo othandizira kusamalira phwetekere

  • Kupaka pamwamba
  • Gawo limodzi ndi theka kwa masabata awiri mutabzala, tomato ayenera kubereka kwa nthawi yoyamba. Kuvala izi kudzakhala ndi nitrophoska ndi mullein (kwa malita 10 a madzi supuni imodzi ya nitrophos, 0,5 malita a madzi mullein). Njirayi ndi yosangalatsa kwa 1 l pa chitsamba chimodzi.

    Pambuyo pa masiku khumi muyenera kuvala yachiwiri. Pakali pano tikusowa potassium sulphate ndi feteleza (kutengera 10 malita 1 tsp sulphate ndi 1 tbsp fetereza). Kuvala izi kumachitika 3 mpaka 4 pa nyengo.

  • Kuthirira
  • Kwa tomato, chinyezi chochuluka m'nthaka ndi chowononga, mwinamwake chipatso chidzakhumudwitsa iwe ndi mawonekedwe ake ndi kukoma kwake. Choncho, ndikofunikira kuthirira tchire ndi nthawi ya masiku asanu ndi asanu ndi limodzi.

    Masiku 10 oyambirira a tomato, nawonso, si abwino kuthirira, chifukwa nthawi imeneyo zomera sizinayambe mizu m'deralo latsopano. Kutentha kwa madzi n'kofunikanso - 20-22 ° C.

    Madzi abwino kwambiri asanayambe maluwa ndi 4 - 5 malita a madzi pa 1 sq. M.

    Pamene tchire chimasamba, ndiye kuti madzi okwanira ayenera kuwonjezeka kufika 10 - 13 malita pa 1 sq.m. Madzi ndi bwino kutsanulira pazukotero kuti masamba ndi zipatso okha zikhale zouma.

    Zina mwazinthu, nthawi yabwino kwambiri yopangira chinyezi m'nthaka ndi m'mawa komanso madzulo, popeza madzulo pali chizoloŵezi chokhazikika.

  • Kutentha
  • Kwa tomato, kutentha kwabwino n'kofunika kwambiri, mwinamwake sichidzaphuka, kenako kubereka zipatso. Choncho, ngati kunja kwa dzuwa, ndiye kuti mpweya uyenera kuyaka mpaka 22 ° C, ndipo ngati nyengo imatha, ndiye kuti kutentha kudzakhala 19-20 ° C.

    Ndikofunika kuti kutentha kulibe usiku, mwinamwake, kusinthasintha kulikonse kwa kutentha kumayambitsa mavuto osakanikirana kwa tomato.

    Usiku, muyenera kusunga 16 17 ° C. Kutentha uku kuli koyenera tomato omwe samasambabe. Komanso, n'zosatheka kuwoloka mzere wa 26-32 ° C, mwinamwake tomato sungapereke mbewu.

    Chofunika pa nthawi ya maluwa ndi 14 16 ° C. Tomato amadziwika ndi kuwonjezeka kwa kukula kwa vegetative misa, zomwe zidzasokoneza zam'tsogolo. Ngati izi zichitika, ndiye kuti kutentha kumayenera kusungidwa pa 25 26 ° C.

    Pamene mutachotsa zipatso zoyamba kuchokera ku tchire, ndiye kuti chidziwitso cha thermometer chidzakhala 16-17 ° С. Izi zimachepa mu kutentha kudzathandiza kukhazikitsa njira yakukula ndi kucha zipatso.

  • Kudulira
  • Kudulira tomato mu wowonjezera kutentha ndiko kuchotsa zomwe zimatchedwa stepsons (mphukira zowonjezera zomwe zimachokera pachifuwa cha tsamba). Pa mphukira izi zimakula masamba omwe amalepheretsa kupeza kuwala kwa dzuwa kwa zipatso zokha.

    Chotsani masitepe amayenera kuti azikhala nawo nthawi zonse. Chitsamba chokhacho chiyenera kupangidwa kuchokera ku mphukira yapakati, komwe mungachoke maburashi 5 - 6.

    Muyeneranso kutsitsa pamwamba pa chitsamba kwa pafupifupi mwezi umodzi kutha kwa nyengo yokula. Zipatso zikayamba kutembenuka, muyenera kuchotsa masamba onse apansi. Kudulira kuyenera kuchitidwa m'mawa kuti malo "zilonda" athe kuuma tsiku.

  • Kupewa, kuchiza matenda
  • "Wodwala" akhoza kupanga mbande ziwiri ndi akulu akulu. Kwa mbande zovuta matenda blackleg.

    Bowa ili limapangitsa mbande zomwe palibe chimene chingathe kukula. Pofuna kupewa matendawa, muyenera kusintha pansi pa wowonjezera kutentha musanabzala. Ambiri matenda a tomato ndi phytophthora.

    Matendawa "amagunda" masamba, amasanduka wakuda ndikufa. Chotsatira chake, mukhoza kutaya mbeu yanu 70%.

    Kulimbana ndi matendawa ndi kofunika kukonza tchire katatu: masabata atatu mutatulutsa mbewu ku nthaka yotentha, masiku makumi awiri mutatha kuchipatala ndipo mutatha maluwa a bura lachitatu pa tchire.

    Mankhwalawa amapangidwa ndi njira zothetsera mankhwala "Zopinga" ndi "Mzere" (ntchito molingana ndi malangizo).

    Chithandizo chachitatu chikuchitika ndi adyo yankho.

Malangizo ophweka awa adzakuthandizani kupeza tomato yabwino nthawi iliyonse pachaka popanda kuwonongeka.

Bwino!