Kubalana kwa maula cuttings: kukolola, rooting, kubzala ndi kusamalira

Mlimi aliyense ali ndi zomera zomwe amakonda. Kawirikawiri kukongola ndi wokondedwa kumakhala chokoma chokoma chomera m'munda.

Mphungu si yabwino yokha, koma ili ndi machiritso ambiri. Zipatsozi zimakhala ndi magnesium, chitsulo, zinc, vitamini C, ndipo pakukula kumakhala ndi vitamini B2, komwe kumathandiza kuti thupi lizikhala ndi thupi. Kuonjezerapo, mavitamini a B amateteza dongosolo la mitsempha kuchokera ku zochitika zakunja, kuteteza nkhawa ndi kulimbikitsa kuchotsa zinthu zovulaza kuchokera mthupi.

Ndikofunikira! Pali vitamini B2 wambiri m'madzi kuposa mbeu zina za m'munda.
Zipatso za plums zimapangidwa ndi zinthu zomwe zimalimbitsa mitsempha ya magazi ndi kuchepetsa kupanikizika, kuchotsa cholesterol chowonjezera ndi kulimbikitsa ubongo woyenera. Koma osati zipatso zokha zokha zimachiritsira katundu, komanso makungwa, mitengo, komanso maluwa. Mtengo uwu ndi wofunika kwambiri pa dacha.

Ngati ndinu woyang'anira minda wopanda chidziwitso chochepa, mwinamwake mumakhudzidwa ndi funso la momwe mungamerere mitundu yosiyanasiyana komanso momwe prunes ingachulukitsire. Ganizirani malamulo oyambirira.

Mbali za plamu yobereka

Pali njira zambiri zofalitsira ma plums: mizu ya mphukira, cuttings, kukulumikiza kapena kumera kwa mwala. Kuchokera ku mbewu kawirikawiri wamkulu wamitundu yosiyanasiyana maula. Zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga zomera, pamtengo umene amapereka ma graft kapena masamba a mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya zomera. Mitengo yotereyo imatchedwa masitengo. Kuti muzule rootstocks, mudzafunika kusankha mbewu zabwino. Lolani iwo kwa masiku 4, kusintha madzi ndikuyambitsa. Mutatha kuyanika mbeu ndikusintha ku mtsuko kuti mupitirize kusungirako. Musanadzalemo, mbewu za plamu ziyenera kusungidwa. Kuti muchite izi, silinganizani ndi mchenga wouma kapena utuchi, ndipo zilowerere kwa miyezi isanu ndi umodzi pa kutentha kwa +1 mpaka -10 ° C. Mbewu ziyenera kufesedwa kumapeto kwa autumn kapena kumapeto kwa chisanu. Chaka chotsatira, mudzakhala ndi mbande zokonzedwa zomwe mungathe katemera.

Mitundu ya kudulira maula

Mbewu imakula bwino mwa kudula. Imeneyi ndi njira yodalirika yopangira mitengo yabwino ndi zipatso zokoma. Kulumikiza moyenera miyala cuttings, muzaka zingapo mudzalandira mizu yobala, mtengo wobala zipatso. Kuberekera kwa plums mwanjira iyi kuyenera kuchitidwa ndi lignified ndi greentings cuttings.

Kudulira mitengo yobiriwira ya cuttings yakhala yotchuka ndi wamaluwa posachedwapa. Poyamba, njira iyi imagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga. Zomwe zimapindulitsa kwambiri ndi kuberekana mofulumira komanso kuchuluka kwa mizu ya rooting, yomwe imapangitsa kuti mitengo iwonjezeke pamtunda. Mitengo yobiriwira imatha kukula msanga mitengo yambiri. Koma ndikuyenera kuzindikira kuti si mitundu yonse ya mitengo ya plum yomwe imachokera mosavuta. Kwa njirayi ndizitsanzo zabwino zomwe zimakhazikitsa chiwerengero chachikulu cha mphukira. Zinthu monga zipangizo, ubwino wodzala zakuthupi, feteleza, nthawi yozumizira, ndi zochitika za zomera zimakhudza zotsatira zobereketsa. Kubalana kwa lignified cuttings kumaonedwa kuti ndi njira yosavuta yowonjezera. Kukula maula kuchokera ku kudula, konzekeretsani nthawi yochepa. Chinthu chachikulu pa nkhaniyi ndi kukonzekera kwa mbeu ya mayi - kudulira pang'ono chaka chisanadulidwe. Pambuyo pa njirayi, mphukira zimawoneka pamtengo, womwe ukhoza kuphuka ndikuyamba kukula.

Malire a Zogulitsa

Ndikofunika kusunga cuttings mu dziko lisanayambe katemera. Zitsanzo zobiriwira ziyenera kukololedwa pamtunda wa kukula (pakati pa mwezi wa Julayi), ndi ma lignified, m'malo mwake, panthawi yonse.

Ngati mitengo ikuluikulu ikukula m'deralo komwe nyengo yachisanu imakhala yozizira, dulani zidutswa zowonongeka kumapeto kwa November kapena kumayambiriro kwa December, koma nthawi zonse isanayambe mvula yakuda pansi -20 ° -

Ngati nyengo yozizira sinali kwambiri frosty, mukhoza kukonzekera cuttings kumayambiriro kasupe, musanayambe masamba. Pankhani iyi, sipadzakhala mavuto ndi kusungidwa kwa kubzala.

Kodi kukonzekera maula cuttings

Musanabzala phesi lamadzi, nkofunika kuti mukolole zokolola. M'kati mwake, kudula kungakhale kukula kwa pensulo. Ngati zimakhala zowonjezera, zizuma musanamere limodzi ndi katundu. Kukonzekera kudula kumatenga chaka cha 40-50 cm kutalika kwake. Ngati maula, omwe mwasankha kutenga cuttings, ndi ofooka, ndiye kumapeto kwa nyengo mudzafunika kukonzanso kudulira nthambi za chigoba.

Kutentha kwabwino kwambiri kwa kusungirako cuttings ndi 2-4 ° C.

Kumadera kumene kuli matalala ambiri, cuttings akulimbikitsidwa kusungidwa pansi pa chisanu 50-70 masentimita pamwamba. Koma kumalo komwe nthawi zambiri mumakhala m'nyengo yozizira, mumayenera kudzaza zidutswazo ndi mvula yowonongeka ndikuzitulutsa kunja kuzizira. Pambuyo pa utuchi wa zitsulo ndikuwombera pakhomo, pita nawo kumalo osakanikirana ndi dzuwa ndikuwawaza ndi wosanjikiza wa 30-40 masentimita mu zitsulo zouma. Valani ndi polyethylene pamwamba ndi kusunga mpaka kumtengowo. Udzu umapitirizabe kutentha bwino, choncho timadontho timene tidzakhala mazira mpaka tsiku lofunidwa. Masiku angapo musanayambe ndondomekoyi, sungani thumba ndi zidutswa zam'madzi ku malo otentha, pomwe mtsogolomu amatha kusungunuka.

Ngati muli ndi cuttings pang'ono, mukhoza kuziika mu firiji. Ikani thumba la pulasitiki, tambani kuzungulira mtolo ndipo muzitole ndi chingwe. Ikani thumba lina kumapeto ena ndikulimangiriza.

Ndikofunikira! Sitikulimbikitsanso kusungira mbeu mufiriji - akhoza kufota pamenepo.
Onetsetsani kuti zidutswazo sizitsamba kwambiri pamalo osungirako. Izi zikhoza kubweretsa cuttings kuchokera mu mpumulo ndipo, motero, zimawachititsa kukhala osayenera kwa inoculation. Kuperewera kwa chinyezi n'kopanda phindu kusiyana ndi kupitirira kwake.

Ngati zidutswazo zouma panthawi yosungirako, ziyenera kuthiridwa m'madzi ndikuyika masiku atatu ozizira. Koma musanayambe, onetsetsani kuti mukusintha magawo.

Mukudziwa? Pofuna kuti tizirombo tizilombo tiziyenda mofulumira ndi bwino, yesetsani zigawo zochepa tsiku limodzi musanayambe inoculation ndikuziika m'madzi pamalo ozizira.

Rooting cuttings

Tsopano tiyeni tiwone momwe angayambire phesi la plamu. Choyamba muyenera kudzala msipu wobiriwira mpaka masentimita atatu kuti tsamba la pansi la mbeu likhale pamwamba pa nthaka. Mtunda pakati pa cuttings ndi pakati pa mizera, yesetsani kusunga masentimita asanu 5. Tsekani mbande ndi zojambulazo. Chojambula chimene mudzatambasula filimuyo, mupangire ma foni. Kutentha pansi pa filimuyo kukhale 25-30 ° C. Madzi cuttings 2-3 pa tsiku.

Mu miyendo yosavuta mizu yamaluwa, mizu yotsitsika imapangidwa pa 12 - 18th tsiku, komanso mu mizu yomwe imayamba pang'onopang'ono, mwezi. Pamene mizu ikungowoneka, yambani filimuyo masana kuti mupeze oxygen yambiri mu wowonjezera kutentha. Patapita mwezi umodzi, idyani zakudya za mchere ndi mineral feteleza, ndipo muthe kutsanulira.

Kwa mbande anapirira yozizira, pakati autumn, kuwaza mabedi ndi wosanjikiza wa peat kapena masamba owuma.

Mitundu yotsatira ya ma plums imabereka bwino ndi kudula wobiriwira: Tula wakuda, Memory ya Timiryazev, Moscow yoyamba yofiira ndi Hungary.

Lignified cuttings ayenera kubzalidwa kuti impso yachitatu ili pansi, koma pafupi kwambiri kotheka pamwamba. Mizu yachitsulo imapangidwira pamunsi kudula komanso pamtengo. Ndipo amene anawonekera pa tsinde la cuttings, pang'onopang'ono kufa. Choncho, mizu ya pulamu yatsopano imapangidwa kuchokera ku mizu ya basal yomwe ili pansi pa mbande. Kuti mizu ya basal ikhale mofulumira, muyenera kukonza cuttings ya cuttings ndi kukula regulator ndikuwapatsa mpweya wabwino kutuluka. Njira yabwino kwambiri ya kukula ndilo nthaka yoyambira 5 cm.

Kuti phesi likhale lozikika bwino, kuti lisadwale komanso kuti liume, kutalika kwake kuyenera kukhala pafupifupi masentimita 15.

Kubzala mbewu yaying'ono

Zomwe zimapanga nthaka sizingafune komanso zimakula bwino pa nthaka iliyonse. Chinyezi chokhacho chimakhala chovulaza, choncho musabzale mtengo pafupi kwambiri ndi madzi pansi. Ndipo maula sayenera kukula mumthunzi. Kumeneko zipatso zimawonongeka, ndipo masamba amawala chifukwa chosowa dzuwa.

Ngati munagula mitengoyi mu kugwa, ndiye kuti mukufunika prikopat ndi kuphimba ndi nthambi za spruce, ndiyeno ndi chisanu. M'chaka, dulani mbande musanadzalemo ndi kuwabzala mwamsanga pamene masamba ayamba kuphulika. Ngati mwaphonya mphindi ino, mitengo idzayamba mizu yoipa. Malo omwe maula amakula ayenera kukhala dzuwa komanso opanda mphamvu. Mtunda pakati pa mbande ndi pakati pa mizere ndi 3 mamita. Mitsuko kwa mbande ndi okonzeka mu autumn kapena anakumba m'chaka, masabata awiri asanadzalemo. Kuzama kwa dzenje kuyenera kukhala theka la mamita, ndi kutalika kwake - masentimita 70. Pakati pa fossa limbitseni ndodo, yomwe imabalalitsa chisakanizo chodzala. Kuti asawononge makungwa, khosi lake liyenera kukhala lalitali la masentimita 5 kuchokera pansi. Phulani mizu ya nyemba mu fossa ndikuphimba ndi nthaka yosanjikiza popanda kuwonjezera feteleza. Mmerawo uyenera kulimbikitsidwa kuchokera kumbali yakumpoto ya ndodo pamtunda wa 90 ° kuchokera pansi. Mutabzala, tsanulirani chomera (zitsulo 4 pa sapling), gwirani ndi humus, nthaka youma kapena peat.

Kupaka kusakaniza:

  • nthaka;
  • humus;
  • ammonium nitrate;
  • mphothosphate;
  • mchenga wa mtsinje;
  • potaziyamu chloride;
  • miyala.
Kukula maula kudulidwa ndi imodzi mwa njira zovuta kwambiri koma zothandiza (ngati zili bwino) kuti ukhale ndi mtengo wabwino wa zipatso.

Momwe mungachulukitsire maula mwa kuika

Njirayi imagwiranso ntchito kufalitsa zowonjezereka. Zili ndi ubwino wake poyerekezera ndi kubereka kwa cuttings. Mwachitsanzo, kuyang'anira nthawi zonse kunja sikufunika mpaka mbewuyo itakhazikika. Mothandizidwa ndi kuswana, mukhoza kusunga mitundu yomwe mumaikonda.

Kwa cuttings, ndikofunika kusankha mphukira zabwino ndi kulenga zinthu kuti apangidwe mizu.

Nthawi yabwino kuti abereke

Nthawi yabwino yopanga zigawo ndi masika, ndipo ayenera kubzalidwa ndi mizu yopangidwa m'dzinja.

Momwe mungachulukitsire maula mwa kuika

Pa mphukira, pa kutalika kwa 15-20 masentimita kuchokera pamwamba, chotsani ndodo ya makungwa kapena kudula mu nkhuni. Kenaka tengani mabokosi awiri a chonyowa sphagnum ndikupanga mtanda wa iwo. Mukhale otetezeka m'malo mwa odulidwa ndi kukulunga mu black polyethylene. Ngati nyengo ikufunda, mizu idzaonekera mofulumira kwambiri. Nthambi yomwe ili ndi mizu yopangidwira iyenera kuchotsedwa ku chomera cha mayi, pamodzi ndi gawo lapansi, ndipo idzafika pamalo osatha.

Mukudziwa? Njira yofalitsira ndi kuyika inali kudziwika ku China zaka 4,000 zapitazo.
M'chaka, muyenera kutenga mphukira za chaka chatha, ndipo mu August mungagwiritse ntchito mphukira zakuda za chaka chino. Ngati mwasankha kubzala plums kumapeto kwa chilimwe, ndiye pamtunda wa masentimita 15-30 kuchokera pamwamba pa tsinde, chotsani masamba ndikuchita njira zomwezo. Kuti mupange mizu, muyenera kuyembekezera nyengo yotsatira.

Mbali za kubalana kwa plamu mizu mphukira

Njira yosavuta kubzala maula - mizu yotuluka. Kukula maula kuchokera kuwonjezereka, muyenera kudziwa malamulo pang'ono. Zosayenera chifukwa chodzala zimamera pafupi ndi chomera cha mayi. Sankhani omwe ali patali. Kuti sapling ikhale mizu popanda mavuto, muyenera kukonzekera. Ngati njira zonse zikuchitidwa molondola, ndiye kuti zidzatheka kuti muzisangalala ndi zipatso zokoma mu chaka, zokwanira ziwiri.

Nthawi yofalitsa maula azuzi

Mu kugwa, dulani mzuwu womwe ukugwirizanitsa mtengo wa mayi ndi mbande, ndipo mu kasupe kukumba mphukira ndi mizu ndikubzala m'malo atsopano. Njira yachiwiri: Chitani ntchito yonse mu August-September kapena kumayambiriro kwa masika, maluwa asanatuluke.

Kodi kuchotsa scion bwanji?

Dulani pansi kuchokera ku chomera cha amayi ndikupeza mzu waukulu. Gwiritsani ntchito utoto wakuthwa kuti muchotse mzuwo kumbali yina ya mtengo wa uterine. Pambuyo pa masabata awiri, chotsani nyembazo ndipo mwamsanga mutumize ku bwino.

Ndikofunikira! Mzu waukulu, umene mwalekanitsa mmerawo, umayenera kukhala ndi phula la munda kapena owazidwa ndi phulusa kuti asatenge kachilomboka.

Njira yobzala mbewu yaying'ono

Kumayambiriro kwa chaka chamawa, chomera chowoneka bwino chingapangidwe kumalo osatha. Chomeracho chidzakula mizu ngati mukuchikuta kuchokera kumbali yonse ndikuchiyika ndi clod ya dziko lapansi. Onetsetsani kuti muyang'ane mbali zonse za malo akale okukula mmera: makadi akuluakulu, dzuwa, mthunzi.

Kupaka fossa kumakhala kofanana kwambiri kuti mizu ya mmera ikhoza kukhala bwino. Onetsetsani kuti muwaza fumbi lachonde ndi feteleza mu dzenje. Ikani nthaka mozungulira mmera ndikutsanulira.