Nkhumba zofiira za nkhumba

Pakati pa mitundu yambiri ya nkhumba zimakhala zovuta kupeza zomwe zingakhale zoyenera ndi mtundu wa ntchito, komanso ndi zofunikira zogwirizana ndi nyengo, ndi zakudya zoyenera.

Choncho, musanayambe kusankha mwanjira imeneyi, poyamba muyenera kudziyesa nokha ndi zosowa zanu, ndipo pokhapokha mutsimikizire mtundu uliwonse ndi makhalidwe ake apadera.

Komabe, pali mitundu yambiri yotchuka ya nyama zomwe zingagwirizane ndi mlimi aliyense wa nkhumba.

Tikukamba za nkhumba za mtundu wa belt wofiira, ubwino wokomera umene udzawone pokhapokha pokhapokha mutangoyamba kumene.

Kusankha bwino nkhumba - Chinsinsi cha kubereka bwino

Zotsatira za nkhumba zimadalira makamaka kuti kusankha nkhumba kunapangidwa molondola. Pa chifukwa chimenechi, funsoli liyenera kuyankhidwa bwino, osamangoganizira zokhazokha, komanso zofunikira za mtundu umene mukufunikira.

Pachiyambi choyamba, zotsatirazi ndizofunikira. maonekedwe a nkhumba:

  • Samalani ndi chikhalidwe cha nyama. Mu dzenje, nkhumba zing'onozing'ono ziyenera kukhala zamphamvu, zamoyo.

    Ngati, pofufuza katunduyo, mukuwona kuti ndizosavuta, ndibwino kuti musayambe kuikapo pangozi, ndikupitanso kwa ena ogulitsa, chifukwa zizindikirozi zingasonyeze kuti pali matenda.

  • Odziŵa bwino obereketsa pamalo oyamba ndikukulangizani kuti mumvetsere bulu amene anagula nyama. Chowonadi ndi chakuti ngati icho chiri chodetsedwa - izi zidzasonyeza kuti pali vuto la chimbudzi.

    Kawirikawiri, izi sizingakhale vuto lalikulu, koma zingabweretse mavuto ambiri, mwayi wa imfa ndi wapamwamba.

  • Njira yosavuta kudziwa momwe nyama iliri ndikuyesa mchira wake. Ngati zokhotakhota, nkhumbayi ndi yathanzi, ndipo palibe vuto lomwe liyenera kutuluka ndi ilo.
  • Pafupi ndi mphere kapena matenda ena amasonyeza komanso ovuta, onyoza nkhumba. Kawirikawiri, ziyenera kukhala zosavuta.
  • Mfundo yakuti nyama idzatha kulemera kwambiri m'tsogolo imatsimikiziridwa ndi mawonekedwe a thupi lake: miyendo yaitali, mmbuyo ndi mfuti.

Dziwani kuti patsogolo panu muli nthumwi ya mtundu wa belt wofiira, mukhoza kuyang'ana khungu la nkhumba. Ndipotu, mtunduwu uli ndi mtundu wofiira, komanso umadziwika ndi lamba wamphumphu, umene umakwirira thupi pansi pa mapewa.

Ndipo ndithudi, musaiwale kuti mufunse za munthu yemwe akugulitsa mwanayo: ndikofunika kufunsa mtundu wonsewo wakufesa ndi nkhumba, kulemera kwake, kuchuluka kwa farrowing mu nkhumba. Wogulitsa wabwinoyo akufunseni ndikudziwitsani zomwe adayetsa kudyetsa nkhumba ndi nkhumba kuti pakapita nthawi musadzavutike nazo.

Kodi ndi zotani za nkhumba zofiira kwambiri: kufotokozera mtundu

Yambani kudziwana ndi mtundu uwu wa nkhumba ndikufotokozera za chiyambi chawo, kapena mmalo mwa mitundu imeneyo yomwe idagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati chiyambi cha kuswana.

Amagwiritsidwa ntchito makamaka poltava nyama ya nkhumba, yotchuka chifukwa chapamwamba.

Komanso, majini amachokera ku mitundu ina yodziwika bwino ya nkhumba, zomwe zimakhala ndi nyama - Hampshire, Duroc, Krupna Belaya ndi Landrace.

Mitundu yomwe anaipeza chifukwa cha kuwoloka kwa nthawi yayitali inali imodzi mwazipindulitsa kwambiri, inayamba kufalikira m'minda yonse yafamu ya Soviet Union.

Masiku ano, nkhumba zofiira zimagwiritsidwa ntchito osati kubzala nkhumba zokhazikika, komabe zimapezekanso m'mapulasitiki a amishonale.

Kodi ubwino waukulu wa nkhumbazi ndi chiyani?

Malamulo a anthu oimira mkaka wofiira wa nkhumba ndi amphamvu kwambiri.

Choyamba, izi zimawathandiza kukhala zotsutsana kwambiri ndi nyengo zosiyanasiyana, ndiko kuti, kuswana ndiko kotheka kumwera ndi kumpoto.

Chachiwiri, ndi lamuloli, nyama sizitha kutenga matenda osiyanasiyana, osati zovuta za chakudya.

Mwa njira, kudyetsa mtundu uwu ndi wophweka - nkhumba zimatha kudya ndi kulemera pa zakudya zilizonse. Inde, kuti ngati ali ndi thanzi komanso mosamalitsa pamodzi - ndiye zotsatira zake zidzafika mofulumira.

Kukonzekera kwa nkhumba zofiira sikumabweretsa mavuto, chifukwa ngakhale zinthu zosavuta kwambiri za pigsty zimawakwanira. Akuluakulu molimbika amalekerera kutsika kutentha kwa mpweya kufika 5ºС, kusowa malo odzaza malo kapena malo osambira.

Inde, suti ya nkhumba imasewera kwambiri kusiyana ndi malo oyamba ngati kulipindulitsa kubereka kapena ayi. Komabe, chifukwa chokhala ndi lamba wofiira pambali pa mapewa, n'zovuta kwambiri kusokoneza ndi mtundu wina.

Choncho, mwayi woti mutenga nkhumba zabwino pa msika ndikupeza zinthu zambiri zabwino kuchokera kwa iwo ndizapamwamba kwambiri.

Chimodzi mwa ubwino wofunika kwambiri pakati pa mtunduwu ndi mwayi wogwiritsa ntchito bowa wofiira chifukwa cha umuna wa mitundu ina.

Pa nthawi yomweyo, zotsatirazi phindu:

  • Zambiri zafesa za mitundu ina zimakula ndi 0.2-0.55 nkhumba.
  • Nthawi yochepa yomwe nkhumba imakhala nayo nthawi yobereka (pafupifupi masiku 15-18).
  • Kuchepetsa kuchepetsa mtengo wa kudyetsa nkhumba. Makamaka, kilogalamu imodzi ya kukula ikugwiritsidwa ntchito pamagulu ang'onoang'ono odyetsa zakudya oposa 0.3-0.5.
  • Nkhumba zofiira, monga oimira nyama zakutchire, zimachulukanso kuchuluka kwa nyama ndi ana awo, mosasamala kanthu za mtundu womwe nkhumbazo zinali. Kuchuluka kwa nyama mu nyama kumawonjezeka ndi 2-3%.

Kudziwa zovuta za mtunduwu: kodi muyenera kukonzekera pasadakhale?

Pa mtundu umenewu ndikofunika kuti nthawi zonse pakhale chowongolera chowuma m'khola lawo.

Chowonadi ndi chakuti nkhumba zofiira-zofiira ndi nyama zoyera, choncho ukhondo uyenera kuonekera kwa mwiniwake. Kugonana kwamtunda kungakwiyitse zinyama, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti ayambe kutaya thupi.

Ndiponso musalole zikhomo mu chipindakumene nkhumbazi zimasungidwa. Ngakhale kulimbana ndi chitetezo champhamvu, pansi pa zikhalidwe zoterezo zimapweteka.

Kawirikawiri, zofooka izi ndizo zokha zomwe zingatchulidwe poyerekeza ndi mtundu wa belt wofiira.

Zinthu zina zofunika za nkhumba zofiira ndi belt

Pofotokoza nkhumba zofiira, tifunika kudziŵika kuti ndi nyama zazikulu ndithu, zomwe zimayenera kuwerengedwa pamene zimamanga zolembera.

Nyama zamoyo, ndiko kuti, ziwalo zonse za thupi kumene kuli minofu, zakula bwino kwambiri. Mutu wa zinyama izi ndi zochepa, zochepa. Mvetserani nawonso ndi aang'ono, osakanikirana.

Thupi liri lozama kwambiri, lonse, lalitali, limene, monga tanenera pamwambapa, limasonyeza kuti n'zotheka kupeza cholemera kwambiri. Pa nthawi imodzimodziyo, miyendo ya belt yofiira sizitali kokha, komanso imakhala yolimba.

Malinga ndi ndemanga za ogulitsa nkhumba, milandu yotereyi, pamene nkhumba imagwera paws yake chifukwa cha kulemera kwakukulu, sizinachitike kwa oimira mtundu umenewu.

Zingatheke bwanji kubereka bwino mukamakula pakhomo: zomwe zimaweta nkhumba

Ndi mtundu wa nkhumba zofiira ndi nyama. Izi zikutanthauza kuti mitembo yawo yambiri imakhala ndi nyama, ndipo minofu ya mafuta imakula bwino. Pa mlingo wa 6-7 thoracic vertebra, kuchuluka kwa mafuta a munthu wodyetsedwa bwino kumatha kusiyana ndi mamita 21 mpaka 25, omwe ndi otsika kwambiri kwa nkhumba.

Kawirikawiri, ali wamkulu, nkhumba zimapanga mosavuta makilogalamu 300-340. Kulemera kwa zofesa, ndithudi, ndi kochepera, ndipo kumatha kusintha pakati pa 200 mpaka 250 kilogalamu, zomwe zimakhalanso zambiri.

Kutalika kwa thupi la amuna amatha kupikisana ndi nkhumba zina zonse, chifukwa chizindikiro ichi chikhoza kufanana ndi masentimita 180-185. Kutalika kwa thupi lofesa pafupifupi ndi 160-169 centimita.

Chinthu chofunikira kwambiri pa ntchito ya mtundu uliwonse wa nkhumba ndi kuthekera kubereka ana awo. Pankhani ya nkhumba zofiira, izi ziyenera kuyesedwa ngati mwayi wina, chifukwa chofesedwa amawoneka kuti ndi opangidwa bwino.

Makamaka, ngakhale m'midzi yamba, amafesa awiri kapena one farrowing amatha kubala nkhumba 10 mpaka 12. Komanso, kulemera kwake kwa chisa, chomwe chafika msinkhu wa miyezi iwiri, kawirikawiri chimakhala cha 177 mpaka 188 kilogalamu.

Nkhumba za nkhumba zimadziwa nkhaniyi pamene wina akufesa mtundu wa 3 farrow anabweretsa 36 nkhumba zabwino m'thupi. Pa nthawi ya nkhumba, chilemero chawo chonse chinali 660 kilogalamu.

Zinyama zimakula bwinochifukwa thupi lawo limatha kugwiritsa ntchito zakudya zomwe zimalandira.

Pa masiku 170 mpaka 205, nkhumba zazing'ono zimalemera makilogalamu 100, osati kuchepetsa kukula kwa mtsogolo. Panthawi imodzimodziyo, kuwonjezeka kwa tsiku ndi tsiku kumakhala kuchokera ku 480 mpaka 870 magalamu, malingana ndi kuchuluka kwa zakudya ndi zakudya zomwe amadya.

Mtengo wokwana 1 makilogalamu kukula ndi 3.1-3.8 mafakitale a chakudya, zomwe zimakupatsani 56-62% ya nyama pamtundu.

Ndizosangalatsa kuwerenganso za mitundu ya nyama ya nkhumba.

Kusamalira nkhumba zofiira: timapereka zokolola zambiri

Ngakhale zilizonse zapamwamba zomwe tatchulazi, ubwino wake udzadalira mosamala mwiniwake, komanso kusamalira nyama. Ndizomwezi, sizowonjezera malamulo omwe akukonzekera malo oti asunge nkhumba, kuwapatsa mpata woti ayende, komanso kuwonetsa chakudya.

Malamulo odyetsera nkhumba ndi akulu

Kumbali imodzi, kudyetsa ng ombe ndi kosavuta, chifukwa sali okhudzana ndi chakudya, makamaka mtundu umene umatchulidwa ndi ife.

Zikhoza kukhala zowonongeka kwambiri kuchokera kumzu wa masamba ndi kuwonjezera chakudya chochokera ku khitchini. Komabe, njira yachikhalidwe yotere sikupatsa nthawi zonse zotsatira zofunikira zokhudzana ndi zinyama. Pa chifukwa ichi, zamakono Omwe amawadyetsa amapuma kudya.

Pachifukwa ichi, nkhumba zimadyetsedwa mothandizidwa ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya zakudya, zomwe zimapatsa thanzi chakudya champhongo kapena nsomba, zakudya zosiyanasiyana za keke, komanso mavitamini apadera.

Mfundo yokha yofunikira pa kudya wouma ndiyo Nkhumba ziyenera kupatsidwa madzi ambiri, zomwe zidzateteza mavuto ndi chimbudzi ndi madzi mu thupi lawo.

Kawirikawiri, pofuna kulima mtundu wofiira-lamba, ndithudi, njira yachiwiri yodyera ndi yabwino. Kuonjezerapo, zimakupatsani mwayi wokhala ndi phindu lolemera kwambiri la zinyama tsiku ndi tsiku, zimakhala bwino kwa mwiniwakeyo.

Ndipotu simukuyenera kuphika mbatata tsiku ndi tsiku, kusakaniza ndi zigawo zina za zakudya ndi kunyamula zidebe zolemera mu pigsty. Chinthu chokha chimene chiyenera kuchitidwa ndi kudzaza chikhomo kangapo patsiku ndikutsanulira madzi.

  • Nkhumba za nkhumba ziyenera kuperekedwa kokha pansi pa mawonekedwe apansi. Chowonadi n'chakuti nyama silingathe kubzala mbewu zonse, motero izo zikutanthauzira kudyetsa.
  • Mbatata ndi zina zina zamasamba ndi bwino kupereka nkhumba zophika, onetsetsani kuti mukutsuka madzi. Mu mawonekedwe a zinyalala, amapatsidwa kokha pokhapokha ngati vitamini wothirira.
  • Sikoyenera kupereka nkhumba chakudya chambiri, kotero kuti amatsalirabe.
  • Kwa mtundu wa nyama, womwe umaphatikizapo nkhumba zofiira, ndikofunika kuwonjezera mapuloteni ku zakudya: mbewu zokolola, nsomba kapena nyama ndi mafupa, mkaka wokometsetsa, yisiti.

Kwa nkhumba zing'onozing'ono, nkofunika kuti poyamba adye mkaka wa nkhumba, ndipo kuyambira kuyambira tsiku lachisanu mukhoza kuyamba kuwadyetsa pang'ono. Ndikofunika kuwapatsa chakudya, ndi premixes anawonjezera kwa iwo. Izi zidzalola Kuphunzitsa m'mimba m'magulu a chakudya chamagetsindipo adzadyetsanso zamoyo zawo bwino.

Ali ndi zaka zoposa 1.5 ndizofunika kuchotsa kwa amayi, koma siziyenera kuchitapo kanthu mwamsanga, ndikofunikira kuti aphunzire kale kudya nthawiyi.

Mmene mungakhalire nkhumba zofiira kunyumba: ubwino waukulu

Ngati mutamvetsera zonsezi, ndiye kuti mwinamwake mumatha kuganiza kuti sizingakhale zovuta kukula nkhumba zofiira kunyumba.

Mtundu uwu ndi wochepa kwambiri pazomwe amamangidwa komanso kuti ndi chakudya chamtundu wanji.

Mukasunga nkhumba zanu ndi feteleza, mumatha kupeza ana abwino kwambiri. Choncho, ubwino wa nkhumbazi sizingakhale nyama yochuluka, komanso mwayi wothetsera anawo.

Komabe, ndikofunika kulingalira mfundo zotsatirazi:

  • Kukonzekera kwa anthu akuluakulu akuyenera kutenga zolembera zazikulu mkati mwa nkhumba.
  • Zabwino kwambiri, ngati mupatsa nyama mwayi mu chilimwe kuyenda mumsewu, kusambira mumatope.
  • Ndikofunika kuti malo oyendamo aperekedwe kwa nkhumba zazing'ono (koma osati pamodzi ndi akulu). Popanda ntchito zoterezi, zimatha kukhala zopweteka kwambiri, ndipo nthawi zambiri zimakhala zovuta.

Chofunika kwambiri pankhani ya kubala: kusamalidwa ndi kudyetsa mbewu

Monga taonera kale, mtundu uwu uli wambiri. Pamaso pa ubweya wa feteleza, mavuto ophera tizilombo nthawi zambiri samawuka.

Kuchita zachiwerewere kwa achinyamata kungayambe kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa 8. Nthawi ya kugonana mu nkhumba imatha pafupifupi masiku 115. Iwo amabadwira zisa zazikulu, koma nkhumba zimasonyeza chidwi chochuluka kwa iwo, kupereka chisamaliro chonse chofunikira. Mwamsanga atangobereka, kufa kwa mtundu uwu sikunali kosamaliridwa.

Ndikofunikira kuti tipezeke mwachindunji ku farrowing, popeza ana ochulukirapo ambiri amalephera kubzala.

Nkofunikanso pazinthu izi kuti aike udzu wouma wambiri mu khola ndi nkhumba, momwe iye mwiniyo angadzipangire chisa.

Komanso, ndikofunika kuchepetsa chakudya, kupatsa kokha madzi ambiri oyera komanso abwino.

Mfundo yakuti nkhumba idzabweretsa anawo posachedwapa, idzawonetsa umboni wa kuchuluka kwa ziwalo za thupi ndi mawere a mammary, kuchepetsa kwambiri mimba. Tsiku lina asanatuluke, amayamba mkaka, nkhumba imayamba kugona pansi nthawi zambiri ndikumukwera kubla.

Samalani ndi kuwala kwa nkhumba, komanso kutenthedwa, ngati njira ya farrowing ikuchitika m'nyengo yozizira.