Kuweta nkhumba zapakhomo: Kumayambira kuti tikwaniritse zotsatira zabwino?

Kupeza nkhumba yatsopano ndi yapamwamba kunyumba sikovuta kwambiri.

Komanso, anthu ambiri amabwera kudzachita nkhumba za nkhumba, makamaka ngati akumana ndi nkhuku za nyama mobwerezabwereza komanso "osati mankhwala atsopano".

Choncho, zomwe zinachitikira zinyamazi zakhala zikuchuluka kwambiri, zomwe zimapangitsa ngakhale panthawi ya lingaliro kuti aphunzitsidwe bwino, komanso kuti aphunzire za ubwino ndi zowononga nkhumba.

Tinasankha kugwiritsira ntchito nkhaniyi kuti tidziŵe zenizeni za mtundu wa mitundu, kukonzekera zofunikira za ndende komanso zina zambiri, zomwe zingakhale zothandiza kwa wofalitsa nkhumba.

Nkhumba za nkhumba: ndi njira iti yomwe ndi yabwino yosankha?

Ndizomveka kunena kuti mtundu umodzi kapena mtundu umene umayenera kwambiri kubereka kunyumba ndi wovuta. Ndipotu, mitundu yambiri yomwe ikupezeka masiku ano ikhoza kusinthira zonse zomwe zilipo komanso kulima pa mafakitale.

Mulimonsemo, zokhudzana ndi nyumba zidzakhala zogwira mtima kwambiri popeza kulemera kwa thupi.

Posankha mtundu wa nkhumba, mumayenera kumvetsetsa mtundu wa ntchito, ndi mtundu wanji umene mukuufuna.

Mu kubereketsa nkhumba, zotsatirazi zikudziwika. mitundu nyama izi:

  • Mitundu ya nkhumba ya greasy

    Kuchokera pa dzina lomwelo zimatsimikizirika kuti cholinga chachikulu cha zinyama zotere ndicho kupeza minofu yambiri ya mafuta kapena mafuta. Mwachidziwikire, nyama pa nyamayo imakhalabe yochuluka kwambiri, koma ali ndi zaka 0,5 mu nkhumba zotere, kukula kwa minofu ya minofu kwatsala pang'ono kuchepa.

    Chifukwa cha izi, makamaka ndi minofu ya adipose. Nyama imodzi ya nkhumba yomwe ili ndi mtundu uwu ikhoza kukhala ndi mafuta 40-45%.

    Mitengo ya nyama pamatumbo a nkhumba amatha kufika kufika 53 peresenti. Kunja, nkhumbazi zimasiyanitsidwa ndi thupi lawo loopsya komanso lalikulu.

    Kutsogolo kwa thupi kumakhala kolemetsa kuposa kumbuyo, pamene ham imakhalanso ndi kukula kwakukulu.

    Mitundu yodziwika kwambiri ya nkhumba za nkhumba ndi Ukraine, stegorodskaya, zazikulu zakuda, chi Hungarian Mangalitsa, Berkshire.

  • Nyama kapena nyama yankhumba

    Mtundu uwu umadziwika ndikuti minofu ya nyama imakula kwambiri, pamene chitukuko cha minofu ya mafuta chimangotsala pang'ono kumbuyo.

    Mitundu yambiri ya mtundu uwu ingadzitamande chifukwa cha kukula kwa ana awo: Kudyetsa moyenerera komanso kwakukulu, pakadutsa miyezi isanu ndi iwiri ya moyo iwo amatha kufika pamtunda wa makilogalamu 100.

    Kawirikawiri, kuchuluka kwa nyama yotengedwa kuchokera ku nyama imodzi ya nkhumba kungakhale 58 mpaka 68%, ngakhale nthawi zina chiwerengerochi chikhoza kufika 80%.

    Kuchuluka kwa minofu ya adipose ikhoza kusiyana ndi 21 mpaka 32%. Pomwe thupi limakhala, nkhumba za njuchi nthawi zambiri zimakhala zochepa, ndi chifuwa chosaya.

    Mbali yam'mbuyoyi imakula makamaka, chifukwa chaichi, imakhala patsogolo pa kukula kwake.

    Ena mwa oimira nkhumba zotchedwa bacon ayenera kutchedwa nkhumba yayikulu ya ku England, Duroc, Landrace, Vietnamese vislobryukhuyu, nyama yankhanza ya Estonia, Pietrain, Tamvor.

  • Mtundu wa mtundu wonse wa nkhumba

    Mtundu uwu uli ndi dzina lina - nyama. Ngakhale asanakhale akulu, oimira mtundu umenewu amatha kubereka nyama yambiri yamtundu.

    Pa nthawi yomweyi, amatha kupeza mafuta ochuluka kwambiri. Kawirikawiri, kulemera kumachokera kwa iwo mofulumira, ngakhale kumadya mokwanira ndi zinyalala za zakudya.

    Kawirikawiri, chisonyezero cha kuchuluka kwa nyama yomwe ingapezeke ku nyama imodzi ikhoza kusiyana pakati pa 53 ndi 65%, ndi minofu ya mafuta - kuyambira 29 mpaka 37%.

Ndizosangalatsa kuwerenganso za mitundu ya nyama ya nkhumba.

Kodi ndi zifukwa zotani kusunga zinyama ngati nkhumba?

Ngakhale nkhumba yonseyo siingathe kutchedwa nyama yochulukirapo, ndi bwino kulingalira zina mwazofunikira. Ndipotu, osati zokolola za nyama, komanso mwayi wokhala nkhumba zidzadalira.

Chofunika kwambiri ndi kupereka nyama zowonongeka. Pazimenezi, kukonzekera kwake kuyenera kuyang'aniridwa ngakhale musanagule nyama zinyama. Kotero, okhetsedwa ayenera kukhala ndi mbali zotsatirazi zovomerezeka:

  • Corrals (zipangizo zamakina) kuti azisamalira nyama nthawi zonse. Ayeneranso kugawa magawo awiri - malo oti adye, kumene malo akuyima, ndi khola, komwe nyamayo ikhala nthawi yonse.

    Makina ang'onoang'ono adzakhala ndi makina okwana 3m2, pakuti mimba imafesa iyenera kuwonjezeka ndi 1 m2, komanso kwa woyamwa - kufika mamita 6.

  • Danga limene lingakhale ngati malo a nyama zoyenda m'nyengo yotentha.

    Popeza mitundu ina ya nkhumba ikhoza kuthamanga pafupi ndi koloko, payenera kukhala yokhetsedwa pamwamba pa malo (kapena gawo lake).

  • Amakumba dzenje losadziwika ndi madzi omwe nyama zimatha kusambira.

Sitiyeneranso kuiwalika kuti nguruwe ndi yaikulu komanso yamtundu. Makamaka, onse amafesa ndi nkhumba, nthawi zambiri amatha kuswa magawo, kuwononga pansi.

Inde, m'chilimwe, iwo adzakwanitsa kukwaniritsa zosowa izi pothamanga, koma pofuna kusunga nthawi yachisanu mipanda iyenera kukhala yamphamvu kwambiri.

Musaiwale kuti denga la chipinda cha pigsty liyenera kukhala lolimba, lotentha komanso lopanda madzi. Zizindikiro zoterezi ziyenera kuganiziridwa ndi makoma, zomwe ziyenera kuteteza nyama kutentha.

Pansi pake sayenera kukhala amphamvu, komanso kutentha. Kwa iye ayenera kubweretsamo makungwa, zomwe zingatheke kuchotsa zinyama zakutchire.

Komanso, mu pigsty ndikofunika kukhala ndi magetsizomwe zikuphatikizidwa mu nthawi ya farrowing ndi masabata oyambirira akudyetsa ana aang'ono ndi nkhumba. Achinyamata a nkhumba amafunikanso kutentha.

Wopangidwa kuchokera ku zipangizo zomwe zimatha kusunga kutentha, cholembera chiyenera kukhala choyera kuchokera mkati. Izi zimafunikanso kulingalira zaukhondo komanso zoyera, zomwe ndi mwayi woteteza kufalikira kwa matenda osiyanasiyana.

Malo abwino kwambiri a nkhumba ndi matabwa, kuchokera ku matabwa wamba. Komanso, pansi ayenera kupangidwa pansi pa malo otsetsereka kuti madzi ndi mkodzo wa nyama zitha kuyenda. Koma mipanda ya zipangizo zamakina imatha kupangidwa ndi chitsulo, chifukwa matabwa sungadzitamande ndi mphamvu ndikhazikika.

Malo oyendayenda ayenera kukhala ochuluka kwambiri, makamaka ngati akukonzekera kupanga anthu ambiri kapena nkhumba yomwe ili ndi ana aang'ono.

Corral osachepera 10 m2 sichiyenera ngakhale kuchita. Mu khola ayenera kukhazikitsidwa kumwa mowa kwa nkhumba, koma iyenera kuikidwa paphiri laling'ono. Apo ayi, nyamazo ziipitsa madzi omwe ali nawo.

Kukambilana za zofunikira zodyera nyama

Dyetsa kwa nkhumba ayenera kukhala ndi tizilombo tochepa ngati n'kotheka, chifukwa m'mimba mwawo simungathe kudya chakudya choterocho. Choncho, ndi bwino kupatsa nyama zowonjezera chakudya, komanso zowutsa mudyo komanso zowonjezera kuti zizigwiritsa ntchito monga zowonjezera.

Pa nthawi yomweyo, pali mitundu iwiri yodyetsa: yonyowa ndi youma.

Pachiyambi choyamba, nyama zimaperekedwa kwa ambuye omwe ali ndi madzi. Izi ndizo, njira yachidyetsero yodyera, pamene nyama zimapatsidwa zakudya zowonongeka ndi mizu yophika.

Njira imodzi, njirayi ndi yophweka, chifukwa sichitengera kugula chakudya china chilichonse, koma sichikhoza kupanga kuchuluka kwakukulu kwa kulemera kwa nkhumba.

Choncho, ngati mukufunabe kudalira nyama yochulukirapo, ndibwino kwambiri kugwiritsa ntchito chakudya chouma. Ndi iwo, ndi zocheperako pang'ono, ndipo zotsatira za chakudya choterocho zidzawonekeratu.

Chinthu chokha - pamodzi ndi chakudya chouma Nkhumba ziyenera kupatsidwa madzi ochuluka.

Koma kupatula izi, nkofunikira kulingalira zenizeni za chakudya chirichonse, ndi boma limene kuli bwino kupatsa nyama:

  • Nkofunika kuti nkhumba zibale tirigu wambiri, koma osati zonse. Ng'ombeyo idzadya, koma nkhumba sizingathetse mbewu, ndipo zambiri zimatuluka ndi nyansi.
  • Mbatata ingagwiritsidwe ntchito monga maziko a zakudya za nyama izi, makamaka ngati mumagwiritsa ntchito mtundu wouma wodyetsa kwa iwo. Komabe, tubers amapatsidwa nkhumba pokhapokha ataphika. Asanaphike, ayenera kutsukidwa, koma madzi ochokera ku mbatata sayenera kuperekedwa kwa nyama.

    Mizu yambiri imaperekedwa kokha pokhapokha, ndipo imakhala ndi mavitamini owonjezera.

  • Musamapereke chakudya chokwanira nthawi imodzi, chifukwa adakalibe mumtsuko, zomwe ziyenera kutsukidwa nthawi zonse.
  • Monga chitsime cha mapuloteni kwa nkhumba, ndikofunika kuwonjezera nsomba kapena nyama ndi fupa chakudya, chotupa cha mafuta ndi yisiti ya chakudya, mbewu zowonjezera, ndi mkaka wosakanizika. Mapuloteni ndi ofunika kwambiri kwa nkhumba za nkhumba.

Mitundu ndi malamulo odyetsera nkhumba

Malinga ndi ngati mukufuna mafuta kapena nyama chifukwa chodyetsa zinyama zanu, njira yodyera idzadalira.

Ngati mtundu wa nyama ya nkhumba, ndipo mukufuna kukhala ndi nyama yowonda ndi masentimita atatu a minofu, ndiye Kudyetsa nkhumba zing'onozing'ono kungayambike kale kuchokera kwa miyezi 2.5 ndipitirize mpaka atakwanitsa zaka zisanu ndi chimodzi.

Ngati malangizo onsewa akutsatiridwa, nthawi yaying'ono nkhumba ifika pamtunda wa makilogalamu 90-100. Tsono, pamene nkhumba sizinafike polemera makilogalamu 70, ndipo zimapereka:

  • Pafupifupi 5 kiligrams pa tsiku zosiyanasiyana zodulidwa amadyera (nandolo, nyemba, clover, nyemba).
  • Osapitirira 1.1 kilogalamu ya chakudya choyikirapo, chomwe chingatsatidwe m'malo ndi chakudya chofanana kuchokera kukhitchini yanu.

Kuyambira pa makilogalamu 70 a nkhumba, amayamba kunenepa kwambiri: amadyera amapatsidwa makilogalamu 6 patsiku, amaphatikizapo makilogalamu asanu ndi awiri a zophika komanso zowonjezera zamatope, pafupifupi ma kilogalamu imodzi ya mbatata, kuchuluka kwa mchere kumawonjezeka kufika 1.5 kilogalamu.

Pofuna kukhala ndi thanzi labwino komanso thupi la nyama, zimaperekanso 5-25 magalamu a choko komanso 10-35 magalamu a woweruza milandu.

Kwa nkhumba zamtengo wapatali, nkhuku imayamba pa miyezi 2.5, pamene nkhumbazo zikulemera makilogalamu 25, ndipo nkhumba zimakhala zosawerengeka pa miyezi iwiri. Mu zakudyazo muli:

  • 3 kilogalamu ya masamba atsopano odulidwa.
  • 1.5 kilogalamu ya mkaka wambiri
  • 1.5 akufotokoza.
  • 2 kilogalamu ya dzungu ndi beet.
  • Mpaka 20 magalamu a mchere.
  • Zida zanyama zimachokera kuzing'ono.

Kumayambiriro kwa fattening, phindu lolemera tsiku lililonse la 450 magalamu ndilobwino, koma kuyambira zaka zisanu ndi zisanu ndi zisanu ndi zisanu (5,5 months) ndipo pakapita nthawi phindu lolemetsa liyenera kukhala pafupifupi 500-600 magalamu.

Ndikofunika kuchotsa ku nkhumba zonse zomwe zimadya zomwe zingachepetse nyama - soy, nsomba za nsomba (nkhumba ingayambe kununkhira ngati nsomba), udzu (ukhoza kudetsedwa kwambiri).

Ndi kudya kotere pakatha miyezi isanu ndi iwiri, nyamayo iyenera kulemera makilogalamu 90 mpaka 95. Komanso, kuti mupeze nyama yankhumba yabwino, nkhumba ziyenera kukhala ndi malo ambiri oti aziyenda, sizidyetsedwa kawiri pa tsiku.

Njira yothandiza kwambiri ndiyo mafuta, pofuna kupeza mafuta ambiri. Kuti muchite izi, ndi bwino kukulitsa kapena kudyetsa ana omwe atha kale kulemera makilogalamu zana.

Ndi bwino kugwiritsa ntchito chakudya chomwe chili ndi carbon, ndiko kuti chimanga, mbatata ndi beet. Pofuna kupeza phindu lolemera tsiku lililonse la 1 kilogalamu m'chilimwe, kuchepetsa nyama kumaphatikizapo kuchuluka kwa mankhwala:

  • 4 kilogalamu ya chakudya chobiriwira.
  • 3.5 kilogalamu ya dzungu.
  • 3.3 kilograms of concentrate kapena chakudya zinyalala.
  • Osapitirira 55 magalamu a mchere.

Zomwe muyenera kudziwa zokhudza kudyetsa mbeu zimabzala: timapeza ana athu omwe

Kawirikawiri nkhumba zobereketsa zimagula nsungwana zazing'ono pamsika, koma mukhoza kusunga nokha.

Komabe, ziyenera kukumbukira kuti kugonana kwake sikukuchitika pasanathe miyezi 8, ndipo kutayika kumachitika patatha masiku 115 patatha umuna.

Pofuna kubereka, muyenera kugwiritsa ntchito nkhumba yomwe yafika pamtunda wa makilogalamu 100, opanda zoperewera. Izi zisanachitike, ndikofunika kuti mudyetse bwino, kukhuta zakudya ndi mavitamini ambiri.

Pofuna kukwaniritsa matenda, nkhumba ziyenera kusaka - iyamba kuchita zinthu mopanda phokoso, kufiira kudzaonekera. Chiyenera kukhala chophatikizidwa ndi boar patapita maola 12, kapena chikhoza kuberekedwa mwadzidzidzi. Pambuyo pa umuna, miyezi itatu yoyambirira nkhumba iyenera kulandira chakudya chokhazikika, ndipo kenako imapangidwanso kwambiri.

Mmene mungamerekere mwana wabwino: malamulo oyang'anira nkhumba kuyambira kubadwa

Nkhumba zimabadwa zofooka ndipo ngakhale kuyang'aniridwa bwino kwa onse akufesa ndi anthu pali ngozi yaikulu ya imfa yawo. Choncho, ngakhale pasanayambe kusamala ayenera kusamalira zofunikira zowonongeka kwa ana akhanda ndikukonzekera chakudya chofunikira.

Choncho, kutentha kwa pigsty sikuyenera kuchepetsedwa kusiyana ndi 18ºС. Chipinda chiyenera kukhala mpweya wabwino ndi zouma.kotero kuti mulibe yonyowa pokonza paliponse, samalani kuunikira kwina.

Ponena za kudyetsa nkhumba zing'onozing'ono, ndi bwino kudyetsa mkaka wa nkhumba, zomwe zidzakulitsa chitetezo chawo ndikuwathandiza kuti apeze kulemera koyenera mwamsanga.

Kuyambira pa sabata lachitatu kupita patsogolo, nkofunika kuti nyama zinyama ziyambe kupereka zakudya zina zomwe zimalimbikitsa kukula kwawo kwakukulu. Komabe, mkaka ukhoza kuperekedwa kuchokera tsiku lachisanu la nyama.

Komanso, mukhoza kuwonjezera zowonjezera zowonjezera, kuyambira tsiku la 20 la moyo - zophika ndi mizu yosakaniza. Kutenga nkhumba nkhumba sikunakonzedwe kale kuposa masabata 4 mutathamanga.

Ngati palibe zofesayo, nkhumbazi zimadzazidwa ndi mkaka wa ng'ombe kapena mbuzi kuchokera ku nkhono. Kuyambira sabata yachiwiri amayamba kudyetsa. Komanso, pa msinkhu wotere, ndi kofunikira kuti ayambe kupaka mavitamini apadera ndi chitsulo.

Zofunikira zofunika kusamalira nkhumba

Zili zovuta kusamalira nkhumba, chifukwa mbali zazikuluzikulu zomwe zikuyenera kuchitidwa ndikudyetsa, kuyang'anira ana ndi kuonetsetsa kuti zikhale bwino. Makamaka, pakati pa anthu otsogolera ayenera kudziwika:

  • Mitundu ina ya nkhumba sizimalekerera kusinthasintha kwa kutentha, kotero mu nkhokwe ayenera kukhala pakati pa 12 ndi 16ºС. Kwa achinyamata - kuyambira 18 mpaka 20 ºС.
  • Sitingalole kuti chinyezi chikhale pamwamba pa 85%, chabwino koposa - 70%.
  • Sitingalole kuzizira ndi zojambula mu pigsty.
  • Ndikofunika kutsatira ndondomeko zoyera ndi zoyera kuti asunge nkhumba, kuti aziyeretsa nthawi zonse pansi.
  • Achinyamata amafunikiradi kuyenda.
  • Musalole kuipitsidwa kwa madzi m'mabotolo akumwa.
  • Odyetsa ayenera kutsukidwa kuchokera ku zotsalira za zakudya ndipo nthawi zonse muzimutsuka ndi burashi.