Mfundo zazikulu zodyetsa zinziri zoyenera

Alimi onse a nkhuku omwe amasankha kubzala zinziri ayenera kuzindikira kuti chinthu chachikulu pakubeletsa kwawo ndizoyenera kudya mbalame.

Ngati mutachita zonse bwino mudzapambana bwino.

Makamaka mukuphwanya thanzi la mbalame ndi vuto la kudya.

Pali kusiyana kwakukulu pakati pa alimi a nkhuku zokhudzana ndi kudyetsa zinziri.

Pazochitika, zakudya ndi mavitamini onse ofunikira zofunika kwa zinziri, tidzakambirana m'nkhaniyi.

Makhalidwe a zinziri kudyetsa

Mbalame zimadya zakudya zosiyanasiyana. Chikhalidwe chachikulu cha zakudya zawo ndi chakudya chatsopano, popanda zowonjezera. Zakudya zouma zikhoza kuwonjezeredwa monga chakudya chopuma.

Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya chakudya chonyowa iyenera kukhala yowonjezera maola oposa awiri kuchokera pa nthawi ya chiwerengero, ngati simukugwirizana ndi matendawa, ndiye kuti zinziri zingathe kuwonetsedwa ndi chakudya chodalirika.

Kuwonjezera apo, chakudya chakuda chimayenera kusakanizidwa ndi chimanga chilichonse, kuti chikhale chovuta kwambiri. Dyetsani kusagwirizana koyambirira sikuyenera kudya mbalame.

Njira yabwino yoperekera mbalame zoterozo ndi chakudya cha mbalame zosanjikiza. Nkhuku zowonjezera nkhuku zimalimbikitsa chakudya chotero.

Njira yachiwiri yodyetsera zinziri idzakhale chakudya cha broilers, ngakhale kuti ndi zovuta kwambiri. Pafupifupi mbalame imodzi idzafunikira kilogalamu imodzi pa mwezi.

Ngati mukufuna kudyetsa mbalame zopanga zokondweretsa chakudya, ndiye kuti ayenera kukhala ndi tirigu wochuluka (oatmeal, semolina, mpunga wa mpunga ndi zina), pansi pa mikate yoyera (koma nthawi zina mumatha kuwonjezera mikate yakuda), komanso mankhwala omwe ali ndi mapuloteni komanso mavitamini othandiza.

Pa zakudya zonse, mapuloteni ayenera kupanga limodzi lachisanu. Zotsatirazi zingakhale zoyenera monga mapuloteni: nyama yophika, nyama ya fupa, nsomba yophika, nsomba yophika, mazira owiritsa kapena mazira a mazira, mkaka, kanyumba tchizi kapena mkaka wouma. Komanso, chakudya cha nsomba chikhoza kuwonjezeredwa monga mapuloteni: mphutsi, zouma zamasamba ndi zina.

Vitamini m'zigawo za zakudya

Monga vitamini gawo mu zakudya za zinziri zingathe kudyetsedwa makonzedwe okonzeka kupanga zinziri ndi kuika nkhuku, zomwe zingagulidwe pa malo osungirako nyama kapena malo ena ogulitsa nyama.

Kodi kudyetsa mavitamini kuti mbalame ziwonetsedwe bwanji? Koma zimachitika kuti palibe mwayi wogula mavitamini ndi mchere wa mbalame, ndipo multivitamins wamba amatha kugula mu pharmacies, omwe amafunika kuphwanyika ndikuwonjezeredwa ku chakudya chokhazikika.

Ndigwiritsire ntchito multivitamins nthawi zonse Vitamini D ayenera kuwonjezeredwa ndi zinziri chakudya. Mbalame imodzi imafunika kudya D2 (ergocalciferol) tsiku lililonse la pafupifupi 3000 IU kapena D3 (ya cholicalciferol) ya pafupifupi 100 IU.

Mbalame sizifunikira mavitamini owonjezera, komanso mchere. Kwa mchere, zikanakhala zabwino kupanga chakudya chosiyana. Mu chikhochi nthawi zonse muyenera kukhala kansalu kakang'ono.

Kuwonjezera pa zipolopolo za dzira, mukhoza kutsanulira zipolopolo za m'nyanja, sukulu ya sukulu kapena chakudya chapadera pamenepo, ndipo mukhoza kuwonjezera miyala yabwino ndi magawo awiri a mamita awiri.

Ngati zinziri zanu zimakhala ndi mbalame kapena mbalame yokongoletsera, akhoza kudya tirigu nawo. Chisamaliro chiyenera kutengedwa kuti usawonjezere oat unpeeled.

Ngati mbalame idya oat osasakanizidwa, ndiye kuti posachedwa zingakhale zovuta ndi tsamba la m'mimba, ndiyeno nkufa. Zowonjezeretsa zabwino mu zinziri zamadya ndi mapira ofiira.

Ng'ombe zimakonda masamba atsopano: mitengo yamtengo wapatali, snyt, oats odzala ndi udzu wodulidwa bwino. Mbalame zidzakhala zosangalala kwambiri ndi kaloti ndi maapulo okoma. Koma kuwadwalitsa ndi udzu ndi zipatso sikoyenera, ngati simungathe kumaliza ndi mazira ang'onoang'ono, kapena mbalame zidzasiya kudya.

Zikhola zonse zakudya ziyenera kukhala zoyenerera, koma pazimenezi mbalame idzakondweretsani inu ndi kukhala wathanzi.

Kodi zikhale zida zotani?

Njira yoyenera kudyetsa mbalame ndi chakudya chachitatu pa tsiku kapena chakudya china pa tsiku. Zabwino kwambiri, pamene chakudya chidzapatsidwa kwa iwo nthawi yomweyo. Kuti muchite izi, perekani chakudya moyenera.

Zilombo zazikulu zimafuna kudya mapuloteni tsiku lililonse. Ndikofunikira kutsatira izi tsiku ndi tsiku. Ngati pali mapuloteni ochulukirapo kapena ochepa phindu, ndiye kuti likhoza kukhudza mazira omwe adayika: kaya pangakhale ochepa chabe, kapena adzakhala ochepa kwambiri.

Kuwonjezera kokwanira mapuloteni mu zakudya kungachepetse dzira kupanga akazi, kuchititsa pecking. Ndipo kuperewera kwa mapuloteni mu zakudya kumawonjezera mwayi wa mawonekedwe awiri a dzira mu dzira.

Ngati nthawi yayitali imakhala yosokoneza mapuloteni m'thupi la mbalame, ndiye izi zingakhudze thanzi lake.

M'magulu ochiritsira ali ndi mapuloteni ochepa. Choncho, patsiku lililonse kudyetsa zakudya ziyenera kuwonjezeredwa ndi mapuloteni (kanyumba tchizi, nsomba ndi ena), muyeso wa magalamu awiri pa zinziri.

Ngati mumadyetsa mbalame zamasamba, kuchuluka kwa mapuloteni kuyenera kuwonjezeka mpaka khumi ndi awiri magalamu akuluakulu pa anzala akuluakulu patsiku. Amuna omwe safulumira, chifukwa cha ukalamba wawo, amafunika kudya zakudya zochepa. Nkhuku zimafunikira mapuloteni ambiri ku chakudya chawo kuposa zinziri zam'tchire.

Zakudya zowonjezera mavitamini ziyenera kuperekedwa kwa mbalame, zimakhala zabwino kwambiri..

Gawo lalikulu la zakudya, pafupifupi makumi anai peresenti, liyenera kuperekedwa pa chakudya chomaliza cha tsikulo, makamaka pankhani ya kusakaniza kwa tirigu, chifukwa chimakumbidwa pang'onopang'ono ndipo mbalame sizidzakhala ndi njala usiku wonse.

Kuika zinziri kumasiyidwa bwino ndi njala, choncho adzakhala ndi mazira apamwamba. Koma mbali ya alimi a nkhuku amakhulupirira kuti chakudya cha feeders chiyenera kukhazikika nthawi zonse.

Zomwe zimadzaza kosatha zingayambitse vuto la mbalame, ndipo zowonjezera kwambiri. Chimene chimapangitsa kuti kuchepa kwa dzira kuwonjezeke komanso kuwonjezeka kwa chakudya cha mbalame.

Pamapulasi akuluakulu a nkhuku, zinziri zimadyetsedwa kuchokera kwa ogwilitsila nkhuku. M'zikhomo zotere mumatsanulira chakudya malingana ndi kuchuluka kwa chakudya cha nkhuku tsiku ndi tsiku.

Zimakhalanso zosangalatsa kuwerenga za kumanga khola kwa zinziri ndi manja anu.

Kodi muyenera kuchita chiyani mukamadyetsa zinziri?

Kuganizira kudyetsa mbalame n'kofunikira, choyamba, ndi zomwe zili ndi amino acid, monga: lysine, methionine, cystine, tryptophan. Zigawozi zimatchedwanso kuchepetsa, chifukwa kuchuluka kwa amino acid kumatsimikizira kuti amafunika amino acid.

Kudya moyenera ndi mbalame yomwe ili ndi mbali imodzi mwazigawozi zimakhudza zokolola zake, komanso kukula ndi kukula kwa zinziri.

Lysine amaonetsetsa kuti kukula kwa nyama zinyama, kuthamanga bwino, kumayika nayitrogeni kusinthanitsa thupi, kumalimbitsa mafupa a mbalame, komanso kumafunikanso kuti kaphatikizidwe ka nucleoproteins.

Ngati mulibe vuto la lysine, izi zimakhudza kukula kwa mbalame ndi zokolola, minofu imakhala yaing'ono, calcium imakhala yochepa, nthenga zake zimakhala zouma kwambiri komanso zimakhala zowopsya, ndipo zimakhala ndi zotsatira zoipa pa spermatogenesis. Zomwe zili ndi maselo ofiira a magazi ndi hemoglobin zachepa.

Kuchuluka kwa lysine kungakhale ndi poizoni pa mbalame. Zakudya zazomera zili ndi pangТono kakang'ono ka lysine, ndi chakudya cha nyama m'malo mosiyana kwambiri.

Methionine imakhudza kukula ndi kukula kwa mbalame zazing'ono, amatanthauza gwero la sulfure kwa thupi la mbalameyi, mothandizidwa ndi methionine zimachitika mozama mu thupi.

Methionine ndi mmodzi mwa ophunzira omwe amapanga serine, creatine, cystine, choline, yomwe imakhala ndi maudindo akuluakulu mu thupi la metabolism. Methionine amachititsa kuti mafuta asamafe kwambiri m'chiwindi, ndiko kuti, amachotsa mafuta ochulukirapo.

Komanso, amino acid amafunika kuti apangidwe nthenga mu zinziri. Kulephera kwa methionine pakudya mbalame kumaphatikizapo zotsatira zotsatirazi: kuchepa kwa nyama zinyama, kusowa kwa kudya, kuchepa kwa magazi m'thupi. Ngati zinziri zakula kuti zibweretse nyama, ndiye kuti kufunika kwa aminodi kumawonjezeka.

Chinsomba n'chofunika kuti mapangidwe a nthenga azigwiritsidwa ntchito, amagwiritsidwa ntchito m'thupi, kapangidwe ka redox, kaphatikizidwe ka keratin, insulini, ndi cystine ndi mankhwala osokoneza bongo amino pamene mankhwala oopsa ndi ochizira amalowa m'thupi la mbalameyo.

Izi amino acid, monga ena, ndi ofunika kwambiri kwa thupi la zinziri. Gwero lake likhoza kukhala methionine. Ndi kansalu kakang'ono kamene kamakhala mu thupi la mbalame, sizingakhale zolimbana ndi matenda opatsirana, chiwindi cha chiwindi chimatha, ndipo nthenga zimakula bwino.

Tryptophan imafunika kuti ukhale wabwino ndikukula kwa mbalame, komanso kuberekanso. Amino acid amafunika kuthandizira kuthamanga kwa magazi, kukula kwa nthenga, hemoglobin synthesis, kutsutsana ndi kukula kwa pellagra.

Nkhosa zimafuna testptophan zochepa kusiyana ndi zina amino acid, chifukwa zingasinthidwe ndi nicotinic acid (mwachitsanzo, yisiti). Tryptophan akukhudzidwa pa chitukuko cha mimba ndi feteleza.

Ndi kusowa kwa amino acid akhoza kukula mofulumira kulemera kwa mbalameyi., atrophy ya gland endocrine, kuchepa kwa magazi, kuchepa kwa magazi, kuchepetsa chitetezo cha mthupi.

Arginine imakhudza kuchulukitsa kwa nthenga, kulemera kwa phindu, kumagwiritsa ntchito kusinthanitsa mapuloteni a maselo a intranuclear, spermatogenesis ndi kagayidwe kake kazakudya. Arginine ndi amino acid yomwe imapanga mlengalenga ndi creatinine mu thupi, zomwe ndi zofunika kuti thupi likhale loyenera.

Ndi zochepa za arginine mu thupi, mbalame, chilakolako chimachepa, kupanga mazira kumachepa, ndi kukula kochepa ndi zinziri.

Kufunika kwa leucine kuli koyenera. Kuwonjezera pa kuchuluka kwa amino acid kungayambitse kusowa kwa njala, kudumpha komanso kukula kwa nkhuku, kuchepa kwa nayitrogeni.

Kuti dongosolo la manjenje la mbalame lizigwira ntchito bwino, ziyenera kufunika. Chifukwa chosoŵa kuchepa, kusowa kwa mgwirizano, kuimitsa kukula kwa nyama zinyama.

Mankhwala ake amafunika kuti apitirize kukula ndi kukula kwa mbalame, komanso kuti azigwiritsa ntchito kagayidwe kameneka. Kulephera kwake kungachititse kuchepa, kuchepa kwa thupi ndi kuchepa kwa njala.

Glycine ndi yofunika kuti mbalame zikule bwino, kupanga mapangidwe a khungu, komanso ndizofunika kuti asakhale ndi poizoni. Izi ndi amino acid zimapangidwanso ku chakudya, chimanga, chomwe chimakhudza kukula kwa mbalame.

Phenylalanine ndi chinthu chofunika kwambiri m'magazi komanso kupanga mahomoni. Ndi kusowa kwa phenylalanine, glands za endocrine sizigwira ntchito bwino ndipo kulemera kwa mbalame kumachepa. Ndikofunika kudziwa kuti amino acid akhoza kubwezeredwa ndi ena.

Pofuna kudya chakudya cha mbalame, muyenera kulingalira za chiŵerengero cha amino acid, popeza kuti ena mwa iwo amakhala owonjezera kapena osowa, kusintha kwa mavitamini ena komanso kuchepa kwa mapuloteni akhoza kuchepetsedwa.

Popanda chakudya chokwanira ndi mafuta, mapuloteni amagwiritsidwa ntchito m'thupi ndi kupanga kutentha ndi mafuta.

Ngati mbalame ikuyamba kukula, zikutanthauza kuti palibe mapuloteni okwanira m'thupi lake. Zakudya zamapuloteni ndi zodula kwambiri, choncho ntchito yake ndi yopanda phindu kwa alimi a nkhuku, ndipo nthawi zina imakhalanso yovulaza zinziri.

Kuonjezera mapuloteni, mafuta amtengo wapatali kapena phosphatides akhoza kuwonjezeredwa ku zakudya zosakaniza.

Zakudya zazakudya ndizofunikira kwambiri pa ziweto zamagulu. Zakudya zimakhala ndi maudindo osiyanasiyana m'thupi la mbalame. Amafunika kubwezeretsa mphamvu. Chifukwa chosowa chakudya, palifooka, kusowa kwa njala, kuchepa kwa kutentha kwa thupi. Zakudya za m'thupi zimapezeka mu zakudya zodyera.

Mafuta amagwiranso ntchito yofunikira m'thupi la zinziri, amakhala ngati magwero amphamvu. M'nyengo yozizira, mafuta amafunika kuti thupi likhale lotentha.

Ngati mafuta m'thupi la mbalame amapangidwa ndi chakudya, ndiye kuti zofanana zake zidzakhala zofanana ndi mafuta wamba, mu thupi la mafuta a zinziri, omwe sali ofanana ndi a mtundu umenewu, ndipo ndi ofanana ndi mafuta omwe mbalame zimalandira pamodzi ndi chakudya.

Pano, mwachitsanzo ngati zinziri zimapatsa chakudya chamtundu wambiri, ndiye kuti nyama yawo ikhoza kukhala ndi vuto loipa. Mafuta a masamba amakhala ndi unsaturated mafuta acids (monga linoleic, linolenic, ndi arachidonic), zomwe sizikhoza kupanga nkhuku.

Mavitaminiwa, monga mavitamini ena, amachepetsa mafuta m'thupi, amachepetsa mitsempha ya mitsempha kuti ayimitse. Ayenera kuti azidyetsa chakudya, komanso kusowa kwawo kapena kusowa kwa mbalame kunalepheretsa kukula ndi chitukuko.

Zimadziwika kuti zizindikiro zabwino kwambiri zowonjezera zida zotenga nyama zimapezeka pophatikizapo zakudya za soya ku chakudya, kapena zakudya zina zomwe zimakhala ndi mafuta. Zilonda za masiku khumi ndi zinayi zimaperekedwa kwa mafuta 3%.

Zakudya zabwino zogwiritsira ntchito zinziri ziyenera kukhala ndi mafuta atatu kapena anai, ndipo zinziri zomwe zimakulira nyama zimaperekedwa kwa asanu pa zana pa mafuta.

Koma muyenera kuonetsetsa kuti palibe mafuta ochulukirapo podyetsa mbalame, chifukwa kuchuluka kwake kungayambitse matenda a chiwindi kapena imfa ya zinziri. Zindikirani kuti zakudya zomwe zagulidwa sizikuwonetsa zomwe zili ndi mafuta ndi mafuta, pamapangidwewa amasonyeza mphamvu zonse za chakudya.

Mchere ndi zofunika kuti moyo ukhale wabwino. Zinthu zimenezi zimathandiza kwambiri pakuletsa zakudya za maselo, mumagulu osiyanasiyana a mthupi. Mchere ndi zofunika kuti apangidwe.

Ng'ombe zimayambitsidwa ndi kusowa kwa mchere komanso kufufuza zinthu, chifukwa zimakula mofulumira, zimakhala ndi kudya mofulumira, komanso mbalame zimakhala ndi dzira lalikulu.

Chimene sichikhoza kudyetsedwa kwa zinziri?

Mbalame sizingakhoze kudyetsedwa ndi masamba a phwetekere, mbatata, udzu winawake, euphorbia ndi parsley.

Komanso n'zosatheka kudyetsa amadyera ndi zipatso za solanaceous mbewu, sorelo, amadyera ndi buckwheat tirigu, rye mbewu ndi lupine.