Momwe mungakhalire ndi ng'ombe zonenepa

Mukagula ng'ombe zamphongo kapena kale nyama, mumakonda kupeza mtundu wa zakudya ndi mkaka.

Pofuna kupeza zokolola zokwanira, ng'ombe ziyenera kudyetsedwa bwino.

Koma pali mitundu yambiri ya mafuta, omwe ali ndi zizindikiro zake.

Ndi njira iti yomwe mungatsatire nayo.

Kawirikawiri, kaya nyama zinyama kapena ng'ombe zomwe zakanidwa pazifukwa zina zimaloledwa kudyetsa.

Kawirikawiri, ndondomeko ya ng'ombe zonenepa zimatenga miyezi 4 mpaka 6, ndipo nyama zazikulu zimatha kukhala miyezi itatu mpaka 4. Zinyama zonse ziyenera kugawidwa m'magulu, ndipo magulu awa ndi osiyana kwambiri, ndi zotsatira zabwino za mafuta.

Pankhani ya kulemera kokhala ndi zinyama, ntchito yofunikira imasewera ndi zikhalidwe zomangidwa, makamaka m'nyengo yozizira. Zinyama zofunika tanizani pamtengo, apatseni mwayi womasuka kwa mbale zopatsa komanso zakumwa.

Chipinda chomwe ng'ombe kapena ng'ombe ikusungiramo ziyenera kukhala bwino mpweya wabwinozomwe ziyenera kugwira ngakhale m'nyengo yozizira.

Ngati chakudya chikukonzekera kuti chichitike m'nyengo yachilimwe, ndiye kuti muyenera kukonzekera malo apadera pamsewu, pamwamba pazimene muyenera kukhetsa, zomwe muyenera kuziyika omwe akumwa ndi odyetsa.

Lero, pali mitundu iwiri ya ng'ombe zonenepa: mwamphamvu ndi mzere.

Kuchulukitsa kwambiri mafuta

Njira yowonongeka ikugwiritsidwa ntchito minofu kukula, osati mafuta, masulu a ana a ng'ombe.

Nyama zazing'ono zimadya chakudya chochepa kusiyana ndi ng'ombe zazikulu kuti zipeze 1 kg wolemera. Monga gawo la mafuta olemera kwambiri olemera kulemera kwa 1 makilogalamu, ana a zaka zapakati pa 15-18 amadya pafupifupi 7 - 7.5 magulu a chakudya.

Kawirikawiri, ng'ombe zazikazi ndi ng'ombe zamphongo zimadwala kwambiri, kapena ana a ng'ombe obadwa m "mene anabadwira poyenda ng'ombe za mkaka ndi ng'ombe zamphongo.

Koma zotsatira zabwino mwa mawonekedwe opindulitsa kwambiri amasonyezanso ndi mkaka wachinyamata, nyama ndi mkaka. Ngati tiganizira chitsanzo cha konkire, ng'ombe za Simmental, Schwyz, Black-and White ndi mitundu ina yambiri imalemera 350-400 makilogalamu kale ali ndi zaka 17-18.

Popha nyamayi, nyamayo imakhala yapamwamba kwambiri, komabe mafutawo amapitilira ng'ombe kuti zikhale nyama.

Mafuta olemera kwambiri angagawidwe mu nthawi ziwiri:

  • woyamba - mpaka nthawi yomwe mwanayo amatha kulemera kwa makilogalamu 400
  • chachiwiri - mpaka ng'ombe ifike polemera makilogalamu 650.

Ndikofunika kuyamba kudyetsa ana mwa njira yomwe nthawi ya lactation imatha, ndipo ndi nthawi yosamutsira mwana wang'ombe "wambiri".

Maziko a zakudya zowonongeka kwa ng'ombe ndi high quality chimanga silage. Ndi khalidwe lomwe limakhala ndi ntchito yofunika kwambiri, popeza chakudya chimakhala bwino, phindu lake lidzakhala lolemera kwambiri.

Ngati simukudziwa mtundu wa silage woti mugule, kumbukirani izi zofunika zomwe gawoli liyenera kukumana:

  • Chiwerengero cha mankhwala owuma mu silo chiyenera kukhala pamlingo wa 32-35%
  • Zosiyanasiyana ziyenera kukhala zolondola, ndiko kuti, m'mimba mwa nyama, zoposa 73 peresenti ya zinthu zakuthupi ziyenera kudetsedwa.
  • Fiber yopanda kanthu iyenera kukhala yosapitirira 0,2 makilogalamu pa kilogalamu yowuma
  • Mapuloteni osayenera ayenera kukhala osachepera 70-90 g pa kilogalamu yowuma

Ngati chimanga cha chimanga chili chovuta kapena chosatheka kuchipeza, chingasinthidwe ndi chofanana chomwe chinapangidwa kuchokera ku zomera zonse za mbewu. Koma tiyenera kukumbukira kuti nyamayo iyenera kupatsidwa kuchuluka kwa zotayira, chifukwa ndi chimanga cha chimanga chimene chimakhala champhamvu kwambiri.

Sitikulimbikitsidwa kugwiritsa ntchito udzu wa udzu, chifukwa mwana wang'ombe adzalandira mphamvu pang'ono pokha pamene adya, zomwe zidzawathandiza kuti azidyetsa zakudya zambiri, komanso kuchepetsa kuyamwitsa kwakukulu.

Silage ya chimanga imayenera kuwonjezeredwa ndi chomwe chimatchedwa chakudya chokwanira. Ntchito yaikulu ya chakudya ichi ndiyeso. Popeza pali mapuloteni ochepa mu silo, zakudyazo ziyenera kuperekedwa ndi zinthu zomwe zimapangidwa ndi mapuloteni.

Zinyama zazing'ono zimasowa mapuloteni ambiri mpaka pakati pa kuchepa kwa mafuta, ndipo pambuyo pake mlingo wa mapuloteni sayenera kuwonjezeka.

Chiwerengero cha mapuloteni omwe ali ndi mafuta olemera ayenera kukhala ofanana ndi 22-24% mu chakudya. Ngati zakuthupi, rapesedwe, soya kapena chakudya cha tirigu, nyemba kapena nyemba zimakhala zangwiro.

Zokakamizika ziyenera kukhala zapamwamba kwambiri. Kudyetsa ziweto zomwe zili ndi nkhungu kapena bowa sikuloledwa.

M'nthawi yoyamba, 40% ya chakudya chonse chiyenera kugwera pa zakudya zowonjezera mapuloteni, ndipo nthawi yachiwiri ndalamazo ziyenera kuchepetsedwa kufika pa 28-30%. 2 - 3 makilogalamu a makilogalamu pa tsiku adzakhala mwana wang'ombe wokwanira ndi kulemera kwake.

Ndikofunika kupereka ng'ombe zazing'ono ndi mavitamini komanso mavitamini opindulitsa. Pachifukwa ichi, adayambitsa zakudya zamtengo wapatali zomwe zidzathetseretu kuthekera kopanda mankhwala omwe amathandiza kuti ziweto zizikula.

Zakudya za ziweto ziyenera kupangidwa ndi phosphorus ndi calcium (1: 2 chiŵerengero). Sodium ndi yofunikanso, yomwe ingapereke nyama powadyetsa mchere.

Kawirikawiri chakudya chamchere chimaphatikizidwa ku chiwerengero cha 2 - 3 peresenti ya kuchuluka kwake, koma nthawi zina nyama zinyama zimapatsidwa vitamini yoyamba ya vitamini 60 kuchuluka kwa 60-80 g pa mutu pa tsiku.

Ngati tifotokozera mwachidule komanso kufotokoza zizindikiro za nthawi iliyonse yokhudzana ndi mafuta, tikhoza kupeza mfundo zingapo.

Mwachitsanzo, nthawi yoyamba chinyama chiyenera kuwonjezereka kwambirindiko kuti, moni idzawonjezeka tsiku ndi tsiku.

Pochita izi, ng'ombe iliyonse iyenera kuperekedwa pafupifupi 1 makilogalamu a udzu kapena silage, 1 makilogalamu a chakudya, omwe ali ndi mapuloteni, komanso makilogalamu 1 - 1.2 a zowonjezera mphamvu.

Pa nthawi yachiwiri, phindu lalemera lidzatsika, ndipo nyama ziyenera kupatsidwa mavitamini. Choncho, kuchuluka kwa silage kuperekedwa kumachepetsedwa ku 0.5-0.6 makilogalamu, 1 kg ya mapuloteni chakudya ayenera kuperekedwa, komanso 1.5-2 makilogalamu a chakudya cholemera.

Kudula mafuta

Monga gawo la mafutawa, mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya chakudya ikhoza kugwiritsidwa ntchito, mwachitsanzo, beet zamkati, bard ndi molasses, zamatope, msampha ndi mitundu yambiri ya chakudya.

Zakudya zowonongeka zimafunikanso kuwonjezeredwa ndi kuziyika ndi kuzizira. Mukhoza kunenepa nyama iliyonse mwachangu: onse aang'ono ndi akuluakulu.

Njira yonseyi iyenera kugawidwa mu nthawi ziwiri: choyamba (chimatha masiku 30), sing'anga (chimatha masiku 40) ndipo chomaliza (chimakhala masiku 20). Nthawi iliyonse ayenera kukhazikitsidwa malinga ndi zakudya zosiyana.

Zakudya zotsika mtengo zingaperekedwe kwa nyama kwa masiku 70 oyambirira, ndipo padzakhala zofunika yonjezerani zakudya ndi chiwerengero chachikulu.

Ndikofunika kutumiza nyama ku chakudya chatsopano pang'onopang'ono, pafupi masiku 7 mpaka 8. Kudyetsa boma ndi chimodzimodzi mu mtundu uliwonse wa mafuta odyetsa - chakudya choyenera chikhale 3 - 4. Ndikofunika kupereka ng'ombe ndi madzi okwanira.

Phindu pa nthawi yoyamba lidzakhala lalitali, chifukwa puloteni iyi, mafuta ndi madzi amadziunjikira mu thupi la nyama.

Nthawi yachiwiri, phindu lolemera lidzatsika, pamene njira yothetsera mwamsanga ya minofu ya adipose imayamba.

Mu nthawi yachitatu, phindu lolemera lidzawonjezanso ngati mugwiritsa ntchito chakudya chabwino.

Kuweta ng'ombe ndi zamkati kumatengedwa kuti ndi njira yabwino kwambiri, popeza nkhaniyi ili ndi chakudya chambiri, calcium. Koma pakadali pano, chakudyacho chiyenera kuwonjezera chakudya, chomwe chili ndi mapuloteni, phosphorous ndi mafuta. Ndiponso Zakudya ziyenera kuwonjezeredwa ndi chakudya chokhala ndi mapuloteni, fupa chakudya ndi mchere.

Poyamba, nyamayo iyenera kuphunzitsidwa kuti idye zambiri zamkati. Ndondomekoyi iyenera kukhala masiku osachepera 6 mpaka 7. Patsiku, ng'ombe yaikulu iyenera kupatsidwa makilogalamu 65 mpaka 80, ndi ng'ombe - 40 - 50 kg. Ziwerengerozi ziyenera kuchepetsedwa ndi mapeto a zowonongeka.

Chakudya chokwanira chidzathandizira momwe chimbudzi chimayendera, kotero amafunika kupatsidwa ndi chiŵerengero cha 1 - 1.5 makilogalamu pa 100 kg ya moyo wolemera ng'ombe. Hay idzakhala yabwino kwa achinyamata, ndipo ndi bwino kupereka kasupe udzu kwa anthu akuluakulu.

Mukamadya mafuta ndi bwino kugwiritsa ntchito mbatata kapena mkate bard. Zakudyazi zili ndi madzi ambiri (mpaka 94%), ndipo nkhani youma ili ndi mapuloteni ochepa. Kawirikawiri, ng'ombe zimayenera kudya chakudya cha mtundu umenewu.

Nyama zamchere zimayenera kuperekedwa mosalekeza. Kuchuluka kwa chakudya chomwe amapatsidwa ndi ofanana ndi 15 - 20 makilogalamu a mabedi pa 100 makilogalamu a ziweto.

Ayenera kupezeka mu zakudya za udzu. Zikhoza kuthiridwa ndi otentha kwambiri, makamaka popeza nyama zidya chakudya chabwino.

Tsiku ndi tsiku, 7-8 makilogalamu a udzu ayenera kuperekedwa kwa ng'ombe zazikulu ndi ng'ombe, ndipo makilogalamu 4-6 adzakhala okwanira ana. Chakudya chosakaniza ndi balere kapena chimanga cha chimanga ndi zoyenera monga momwe zimakhalira. Tsiku lirilonse, nyama iliyonse iyenera kupatsidwa 1.5-2.5 makilogalamu a zakudya zowonjezera.

Pofuna kuthandizira munthu wamkulu wamkulu wa kashiamu, nthawi zambiri choko akuwonjezeredwa kuti aganizire (70 - 80 g ya choko pa 100 g pa tsiku).

Pofuna kupewa matenda ofala kwambiri - bard snapper - nyama zimayenera kudyetsedwa (1 makilogalamu pa 10 malita) komanso zimakhala zochepa.

Ng'ombe zimatha kukhala ng'ombe zonenepa m'nyengo yozizira. Kwa ichi Gwiritsani ntchito chimanga kupita ku siloser silos.

Komanso zakudyazi ziyenera kukhala udzu, udzu, umayang'ana ndi mitundu ina ya mbewu za chakudya. Nthawi zina, kudzaza kusowa kwa mapuloteni, nyama zimaperekedwa, pamodzi ndi silage ndipo imayika, urea. Pano, chinthu chofunika kwambiri ndi kusunga mlingo, kotero kuti osapitirira 40-50 g wa urea ayenera kuikidwa pamutu pa ng'ombe zazing'ono, ndendende 80 g ya mankhwala ayenera kuperekedwa kwa ng'ombe zazikulu.

Pamene silage yodzala 20 - 30% ya zakudya iyenera kukhala yaying'ono.

Ngati muwerengera mu kilogalamu, ndiye pamutu kuti kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa nthawi yonse ya fattening ndi 200 - 250 makilogalamu. Patsiku, ng'ombe zazikulu ndi ng'ombe ziyenera kupatsidwa 35-40 makilogalamu a silage, ndipo achinyamata adzakhala ndi makilogalamu 30 okwanira.

Chalk ndi mchere ziyenera kupezeka mu zakudya (10 mpaka 15 g wa woyamba ndi 40 mpaka 50 g yachiwiri). Nthaŵi yonse ya mafuta ochepa omwe sagwiritsidwa ntchito posungira mafuta sayenera kukhala oposa masiku 90, ndipo ng'ombe zazikulu zikhoza kusungidwa pa chakudya kwa masiku pafupifupi 70.

Poyamba m'nyengo ya chilimwe, ng'ombe zonse ndi bwino kumasulira chakudya chobiriwira, koma ndi kuwonjezera kwa kuikapo.

40 - 80 makilogalamu a masamba adzakhala okwanira kwa nyama imodzi (izo zimadalira zaka zakubadwa), ndipo kuika maganizo kumaperekedwa kuchokera 2 mpaka 2.5 makilogalamu patsiku. Monga gwero la sodium N'zosangalatsa kupereka ng'ombe mchere.

Ngati mukukhumba, mukhoza kuchepetsa ng'ombe ndi ng'ombe zanu kuti muthe kudabwa ndi zotsatira. Ndipo zotsatira zake sizidzangokhala kuchuluka kwa nyama zomwe zimapangidwa, komanso ndi khalidwe lake.

Choncho omasuka kutumiza ng'ombe ku chakudya chapadera.