Ng'ombe zofiira ndi zoyera

Mwinanso pakati pa ng'ombe zonse zakumwa za mkaka zimakhala zotchuka kwambiri.

Pambuyo pake, nyamazi zimatha kutikondweretsa tsiku ndi tsiku zokhala ndi zokolola, ndipo nthawi zambiri amapita kukadya nyama, ndipo nkhumba yomwe imapezeka kwa iwo imakhala ndi mtengo wapatali.

Kawirikawiri, ng'ombe zoterozo zimagulidwa m'minda yayikulu yomwe imapatsa mkaka waukulu zomera. Koma, kwa mabanja pawokha, sali oyenera, chifukwa kufunika kwa mkaka wopangidwa ndi nyumba kumakhala mosasamala kanthu za mavuto komanso nthawi ya chaka.

Pansipa tidzakhala tikudziŵa bwino mtundu wa wakuda ndi motley wa zokongola za mkaka ndipo tidzakuuzani mwatsatanetsatane za zochitika zawo ndi zokolola.

Zomwe zili zofunika kwambiri ndi zofunikira zonse kwa oweta ng'ombe pa ng'ombe zakuda ndi zoyera.

Mbiri ya mtundu ndi anthu wamba

Pofuna kupeza ng'ombe ndi zokolola zapamwamba kwambiri za mkaka, chotsalira chokhala ndi nthawi yaitali kwambiri chotsitsa chidachitika, kuphatikizapo kudutsa mitundu ya ku Russia komweko ndi ng'ombe zakuda ndi zoyera za chi Dutch.

Chotsatira chake, chiwerengero chachikulu cha magulu a chigawo chazilombowa chinalengedwa, ndipo kusiyana pakati pa zina ndizofunikira.

Kusiyanitsa kwakukulu ndikuti iwo anapangidwa kuchokera ku mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya makolo, komanso pansi pa nyengo zosiyana za zomwe zili ndi zomwe zimadyetsa. Ndipotu, cholinga chachikulu cha obereketsa chinali kubzala ng'ombe zamtundu wakuda ndi zakuda kuchokera ku ng'ombe zamitundu imodzi.

Zina mwa ziweto za abambo akudutsa pozembera zinagwiritsidwa ntchito:

  • Chikulire chachikulu cha ku Russia.
  • Zauralskaya.
  • Grey Ukrainian.
  • Siberia.
  • Central Asia.

Lero, ng'ombe zazikulu zisanu ndi ziŵiri za ng'ombe zakuda ndi zoyera zimadziwika, ndizo: zazikulu kwambiri ndizopakati (zochokera ku ng'ombe zaku Central Russian), Baltic, Siberia, ndi Ural.

Ndipo chiwerengero chachisanu chimapangidwa ndi oimira malo osiyanasiyana ozungulira nyengo ndi a m'madera - Belarusiya, Ukraine, Central Asia ndi madera ena a Transcaucasian. Timakuganizirani zinthu Nkhosa zitatu zoweta zija zinalongosola kuti:

  • Ng'ombe zofiira ndi zoyera za gulu lalikulu zimatengedwa kuti ndi zazikulu kwambiri ndipo ndizofala kwambiri.

    Kulemera kwake kwazimayi kumafika pa 550-650 kilogalamu. Zizindikiro zazikulu zotere za nyama zambiri zimakhala zosiyana kwambiri ndi oimira nyama zakutchire kusiyana ndi mkaka, zomwe zimakhala zakuda ndi motley.

    Izi zikusonyeza kuti gulu lokha lilinso lamphamvu pa zokolola za nyama. Mukumanga, gulu lomwe likufotokozedwa liri lophwanyika, lili ndi lokongola kwambiri.

    Makamaka amakopeka ndi miyendo yochepa, yomwe sizodabwitsa ndi kulemera kwakukulu koteroko. Koma pokhapokha kulemera kwake, gululi limakhalanso ndi zokolola zabwino kwambiri, zomwe zingakhale 5500-6500 kilogalamu pa nthawi ya lactation.

    Koma zovuta za ana awa a ng'ombe zakuda ndi zoyera ndi mafuta ochepa mkaka wawo - okha 3.6-3.7%.

  • Oimira ana a Ural a mtundu wakuda ndi woyera amakhala olemera polemera ndi kumanga.

    Matupi awo amakhala owuma komanso owopsa, kulemera kwake kumachokera ku 500 mpaka 600 kilogalamu. Ng'ombezi zimakhala zochepa, monga momwe ziwonetsedwera ndi miyendo yambiri.

    Kuchuluka kwa mavitamini kumathandizanso kuti gulu lapitala likhale labwino (5000-6000 kg), komabe potsatira mafuta, mkaka wa ng'ombe za Ural ndi wapamwamba kwambiri - 3.8-3.9%.

  • Gulu la Siberia la mdima wakuda ndi loyera ndiloling'ono kwambiri ndi thupi lolemera - ndi 450-550 kilogalamu.

    Lamulo laling'ono limeneli likhozabe kubweretsa nyama yochuluka yokhala ndi ng'ombe.

    Ngakhale milkiness imatsalira mmbuyo mwa mawu a magawo awiri a m'mbuyo magulu, amakhalabebe: pa nthawi ya lactation, pafupifupi, 4500-5000 makilogalamu mkaka amapezeka, mafuta okhudzana ndi 3.7-3.8%.

Ng'ombe ziwiri za ng'ombe zakuda ndi zoyera zomwe sizinafotokozedwe, zimakhala pakati pa makhalidwe awo, ngakhale kuti sizing'onozing'ono ndi zomwe zatchulidwa pamwamba pa mkaka ndi kukolola kwa nyama.

Ndikofunika kuzindikira kuti mosasamala za mayina a mayiko a magulu akuda ndi a motley, onsewa akhoza kusintha mosiyana kwambiri ndi nyengo yosiyanasiyana komanso nyengo yakumangidwa.

Zonse za ng'ombe zakuda ndi zoyera: ndi zosiyana zotani ndi mtunduwu?

Kuwonjezera pa zomwe tatchulidwa pamwambapa, mtundu uwu uli ndi zizindikiro zotere zomwe zimakhala ziwalo za mamembala ake onse, mosasamala kanthu za gulu lachigawo. Choyamba, ndi udder ndi makhalidwe ake:

  • Udder uli ndi mawonekedwe a chikho, omwe amasonyeza kukula kwake kwakukulu (pafupifupi masentimita 120 mu girth) ndi cholimba cholimba ku thupi la ng'ombe.

    Ndizowonjezereka kwambiri, ili ndi pansi, koma panthawi yomweyi ndi yabwino kugwirana komanso kusasokoneza nyama ikayenda.

    Chikopacho ndi zotupa kwambiri, chomwe chimawathandiza kutambasula mkaka kukakwera ndi kuchepa pambuyo poyamwa.

  • Chifukwa cha nkhono zomwe zimayikidwa pamtunda wosiyana kuchokera kwa wina ndi mzache, udder umakhala wosakanikirana. Makamaka nsonga zam'mbuyo zimakhala zosiyana kwambiri kusiyana ndi zigawo ziwiri zapatsogolo, zomwe sizikukhudzidwa ndi ndondomeko yoyendetsa manja ndi manja ndi zipangizo.
  • Mndandanda wa udder ndi waukulu kwambiri - 43-45%.

    Chizindikiro ichi ndi chimodzi mwazofunikira kwambiri pa ng'ombe za mkaka, chifukwa zimasonyeza kuti chiŵerengero cha mkaka chomwe chimapangidwa kuchokera kumaso awiri kutsogolo kwa mkaka womwe umatulutsidwa ndi ng'ombe.

    Munthu wotchuka kwambiri, monga mtundu uwu, akuwonetsera gawo limodzi lokhala ndi gawo limodzi la zokolola za mkaka komanso zapamwamba za oimira mtunduwo.

Kunja, ng'ombe zakuda ndi zoyera zimatha kusiyanitsidwa ndi thupi lolimba. Backbone ndi nyama wokhazikika kwambiringakhale zosavuta. Mitsempha yamphamvu ndi yowakhazikika, yosankhidwa bwino.

Mwachiwonekere, gawoli linasamutsidwa kwa oimira mtunduwo kuchokera ku makolo awo a ku Russia. Komanso, muyenera kumvetsera mwatcheru kumbuyo komanso kumbuyo kwa thupi, kumbuyo komanso kumtunda. Chifuwa cha nyama ndi chachikulu komanso chakuya.

Mimba ndi yovuta kwambiri, pafupifupi pafupifupi onse oimira mkaka. Thupi lenileni la ng'ombe izi ndilolitali, koma ndilopakati.

Mtundu wa ng'ombe izi mwachibadwa ndi wakuda ndi motley. Kawirikawiri, malaya awo ndi khungu lawo ndi lakuda, ndi msoko woyera, mchira ndi malo oyera mu malo a clavicles. Khunguli ndi lovuta, pansi pake m'nyengo yozizira nthawi zambiri ma tishu a mafuta amasonkhana.

Kufotokozera za magawo a oimira mtundu wakuda ndi woyera

Pafupifupi nyama zonse, magawo a amuna amtundu ndi apamwamba kuposa awo a mtundu wa akazi.

Choncho, ngati mbuzi zamtunduwu zimakhala zosiyana ndi 450 mpaka 650 kilogram, ndiye kuti ng'ombe zamphongo - kuyambira 650 ndi zoposa 1000 kilograms. Mukamafota, kutalika kwa woyamba kumakhala sikuposa 130 centimita, ndipo kutalika kwachiwiri kumakhala pafupifupi masentimita 132.

Zina mwazofunikira zofunika kuzizindikira:

  • Kuchuluka kwa chifuwacho ndi pafupifupi masentimita 67.
  • Chigawo cha chifuwa - kuyambira 39 mpaka 41 centimita.
  • Chithunzi cha chifuwa mu girth ndi 178-182 masentimita.
  • Kutalika kwa thupi kumachoka pa 153 mpaka 158 sentimenti.
  • Ku Maklak thupi lonse ndi 45-46 centimita.
  • Chozungulira cha metacarpus ndi masentimita 19-20.

Zopindulitsa zazikulu zomwe ziyenera kudziwika kwa eni ake a ng'ombe zamdima ndi zakuda zam'tsogolo

Inde, ndi bwino kuona kamodzi kusiyana ndikumva nthawi zambiri, komabe kudziwa mwatsatanetsatane ndi ubwino wa mtunduwo kudzakuthandizani kuti mukhulupirire kuti ndi yapadera.

Mosakayika, phindu lalikulu kwambiri ndi kupanga mkaka komanso zoyenera kukhala m'minda yayikulu komanso yamtundu uliwonse.

Koma, konkire yowonjezera zinthu oimira ng'ombe zakuda ndi zoyera:

  • Kusinthasintha kwabwino kwa nyengo zosiyana siyana za kuswana.

    Mitundu ya majini ochokera kwa anthu omwe akukhala m'madera osiyanasiyana amathandiza kusunga ndi kubereketsa ng'ombezi kumadera akumwera ndi kumpoto. Izi ndi zomwe abereketsedwe anayesetsa kuti azikwaniritsa pobereka mtundu wakuda ndi woyera.

    Komabe, saloledwa kusunga oimira mtunduwu pazomera zaulere chaka chonse, popeza sichimasinthidwa kuti chizizira chisanu. Kutentha, iwo amafunikira madzi ambiri ndi malo osungirako apadera, akukamba.

  • Kukhazikitsa chitetezo ku zotsatira za matenda osiyanasiyana.

    Chikhalidwe ichi chikhoza kukhala chofunika kwambiri, chifukwa ndikofunika kwambiri kwa ng'ombe za mkaka. Chowonadi ndi chakuti matenda aliwonse amakhudza nyama, zimakhudza nthawi zonse mkaka.

    Ng'ombe zakuda ndi zoyera zimakhala zosagwirizana ndi matenda omwe ali ndi kachilombo koyambitsa matenda, komanso kuti sangathe kudwala matenda a khansa ya m'magazi.

    Mastitis ndi matenda opuma amavomerezedwa ndi anthu m'malo molimbika, kawirikawiri popanda mavuto. Kutetezeka kwa chitetezo cha m'mimba kumayambitsidwanso m'matenda aang'ono omwe amadyetsedwa ndi mkaka wa amayi.

  • Gwiritsani ntchito chakudya chobiriwira kumadera akuluakulu a msipu, silage ndi haylage.

    Kuti ng'ombe zowonjezera mkaka zikhale zabwino chakudya chabwino kwambiri, pogwiritsira ntchito momwe mungathere ndi chakudya chobiriwira cha vitamini. Choncho, m'nyengo ya chilimwe, nyama zimadyetsedwa m'malo odyetserako, zomwe zimakhala "zoyera".

    Pa nthawi yomweyo, kudya kotereku kudzakhala kokwanira kwa iwo omwe amapezeka mkaka wokwanira. M'nyengo yozizira, silage ndi udzu ziyenera kukhazikitsa maziko a zakudya, ngakhale kuwonjezera masamba ndi kuziganizira zidzakhalanso ndi zotsatira zabwino pazokolola zonse.

  • Kukhoza kwa anthu kuti asamangokhalira kuchepetsa kulemera ndi mkaka.

    Izi ndizofunikira kwambiri kwa iwo amene agula ng'ombe ya mtundu wofotokozedwa mu dera lina. Izi sizingakupangitseni zovuta zilizonse, monga momwe nyama idzasinthira kusintha popanda mavuto ndipo idzakhazikika bwino.

    Komanso, oimira mtunduwu amangozoloŵera kusinthika mosavuta nyengo, nyengo yamvula yambiri komanso nyengo yamvula yaitali.

  • Kuthamanga kwa nyama.

    Ng'ombe zimenezi sizingowonjezereka mwamsanga, komanso mofulumira kwambiri kukhala okonzeka kuzinyamula ndi kuthamanga ng'ombe.

    Pofika kulemera kwa kilogalamu ya 400 kilili ndi zaka chimodzi ndi theka, anyamatawa ayamba kale kusonyeza zochitika zogonana, kotero ng'ombe zoyamba zimayamba miyezi 2-4 isanafike kuposa ya mitundu ina.

    Pa nthawi yomweyi, amasonyeza makhalidwe abwino a amayi, kusamalira kwambiri ana awo. Kukhalira kawirikawiri kumakhala kophweka popanda thandizo. Burenka imakhalabe yogwira ntchitoyi ngakhale patapita zaka 10, koma sikuti kuchepetsa kuyatsa mkaka.

Zimakhalanso zosangalatsa kuwerenga za mitundu yabwino kwambiri ya ng'ombe.

Ndiyeneranso kudziwa kuti ng'ombe zomwe zatchulidwa ndizoyenera kuti zikhale zovuta. Izi zimapangitsa Ndondomeko yabwino ya nsonga ndi momwe angapangidwire kuti apange chipangizocho.

Ndiponso, yabwino kwa izi ndi mtunda wochokera ku udder mpaka pansi, yomwe ilipo 61 centimita. Komanso, chifukwa chogwiritsira ntchito makinawa, kusungunula kumachepetsanso kuchepa kwa nthawi, chifukwa mkaka umatuluka mwachangu mofulumira komanso mosavuta.

Zimathandizanso pa izi komanso kukhazikika kwa nyamazomwe zimasintha mosavuta phokoso lopangira. Kuwombera kokwanira sikungabweretse mavuto, chifukwa ntchentche imangoyenda bwino mdzanja lanu, chifukwa kutalika kwake ndi masentimita 5-6.

Mkaka umayamba kuthamanga kuchokera kuzing'ono, makamaka ngati udder wadzaza. Chifukwa chachinsinsi ichi, mtima wosagwira ntchito woweta nyama za mtundu umenewu umayambitsa matenda monga mastitis nthawi zambiri.

Ntchito yobereketsa ndi yobereketsa potsata mtundu umenewu ikupitirirabe. Amayesetsa makamaka kuwonjezera mkaka wa mkaka. Pambuyo poyenda ndi mitundu ina, ng'ombe zakuda ndi zoyera ndizochokera ku jini lopangira mkaka, kusintha kwa thupi komanso chitetezo cha mthupi.

Mmene nkhumba zimalongosola zikukwera kwambiri: zizindikiro zolondola kwambiri

Kukonzekera kwa mavitamini monga chofunikira chachikulu chofuna zinyama

Ngati tilingalira kuti pakati pa ng'ombe zonse za mkaka ku Russia, ndi ng'ombe zakuda ndi zoyera zomwe zimakhala ndi gawo lalikulu (zomwe ziri 53%), ndiye tikhoza kuganiza kuti zokololazo ndizopambana.

Ngati tifotokozera mwachidule zotsatira za kupanga mkaka wa mbeu zonse za mtunduwu, ndiye kuti chiwerengero cha mkaka wa mkaka ndi makilogalamu 5.5-8.5 zikwi.

Panthawi imodzimodziyo, mafuta amapezeka pa 3.4 mpaka 4.2%, ndipo chiwerengero cha mapuloteni opezeka mu mkaka chimasiyana ndi 3 mpaka 3.4%.

Ndikofunika kuti ng'ombe zakuda ndi zoyera zili ndi mkaka wabwino kwambiri. Mukamagwiritsa ntchito chipangizo chapadera mu mphindi imodzi mungapezeke kuchokera ku 1.2 mpaka 1.4 kilogalamu ya mkaka.

Mbali za zokolola za nyama za mtunduwu

N'zachidziwikire kuti nyama iliyonse yoyamba imakhala yamtengo wapatali pokhudzana ndi kupeza nyama zabwino, komanso makamaka zokhudzana ndi ng'ombe. Choncho, mosasamala kanthu za mkulu wa mkaka wa anapiye, Nkhosa zakuda ndi zoyera zimagwiritsidwa ntchito poyerekeza kapena kupha.

Mtengo ndi nyama ya ng'ombe zomwe zimakula.

Mfundo yakuti zokolola za mtundu umenewu ndi zazikulu zimatha kumvetsetsa ndi kulemera kwa anthu, zizindikiro zomwe tanena kale. Koma ndiyeneranso kutchula kuti achinyamata a mtundu wakuda ndi motley amatha kulemera mofulumira kwambiri.

Choncho, ngati atabadwa, ana amatha kulemera makilogalamu 35-40, ndiye akamadyetsa mkaka ndi kuwonjezera zakudya zowonjezera pakadutsa miyezi 15-16 kulemera kwao kukufika pa 420-480 kilogalamu.

Ngati mumagwiritsa ntchito mankhwala omwe akupezekapo kwa achinyamata, chiwerengerocho chidzachokera ku 600 mpaka 800 magalamu patsiku, ndipo kulemera kwake kudzafika pa 1 kilogalamu imodzi.

Ali ndi zaka 1.5-2, amphongo amavomerezedwa kuti apite nyama. Kuphedwa kochokera ku nyama imodzi kungakhale 50 mpaka 60%. Chizindikiro ichi chimathandizanso ku mafupa ochepa kwambiri a nyama.

Ng'ombe ya ng'ombe yomwe imalandira kuchokera ku ng'ombe zakuda ndi zoyera imatengedwa kuti ndi yokhutiritsa. Ndi mafuta komanso yowutsa mudyo, koma malinga ndi zifukwa zoyenera za mtundu wa nyama, sizimakwaniritsa zizindikiro zomwe mukufuna.