Phacelia - yapadera siderat

Phacelia ndi ya banja la madzi othamanga (hydrophilic) ndipo ndi chomera cha pachaka ndi chosakera. Phacelia amawoneka ngati manyowa abwino, komanso chakudya chabwino ndi uchi.

Phacelia akufunikira chidwi chenicheni chifukwa cha kukula kwake mofulumira, komwe kumabweretsa yaikulu yobiriwira. Popeza masamba ofewa a phacelia m'malo mofulumira akutha, amatumikira monga feteleza abwino kwambiri a nayitrogeni panthaka.

Kulongosola kwa zomera

Cholinga chachikulu cha phacelia ndi feteleza. Motero, mbali zambiri zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati manyowa omwe ndi omwe amathandiza kuti nthaka ikhale ya feteleza.

Pambuyo pa kuwonongeka kwa nthaka, chilengedwe chonse cha phacelia chimasandulika kukhala feteleza mosavuta, ndipo nthaka yokha imadzazidwa ndi humus ndi organic matter. Kwa mwezi ndi hafu phacelia amapindula pafupi Malekitala 300 a zobiriwira pa zana limodzi, zomwe zimakhala zofanana ndi nthaka, zomwe zimapanga makilogalamu 300 a manyowa. Malingana ndi izi, m'chilimwe chimodzi mukhoza kugulira mbeu 4 pa malo amodzi.

Ndizimene zimapangitsa kuti nthawi iliyonse izikhala yosadalira nyengo ya nyengo (ndipo nyengo yabwino ndi nthawi yokolola), popanda kugwiritsa ntchito feteleza zina ndi manyowa, kuti mupange chiwembu chabwino kwambiri kuchokera ku nthaka yovuta, chifukwa cha zomwe mungapereke kwa zaka zinayi zotsatira popanda kugwiritsa ntchito zowonjezera zowonjezera ndi feteleza.

Kuphatikiza pa ntchito ya feteleza phacelia, imagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati chakudya cha nyama zakutchire, ndipo ndi mikhalidwe yake yapamwamba yomwe imalowetseratu ndikusakaniza ming'alu zina. Chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa zakudya ndi zakudya zokha, zomera zimakhudza kwambiri thanzi la nyama: amadwala pang'ono ndipo amayamba kulemera mofulumira.

Popeza phacelia ndi mbewu yamtengo wapatali, mungu wabwino ndi uchi zimathandizira kuti zipatso zizikhala bwino komanso zimakhala bwino. Zimakopa njuchi ndi maluwa ake a buluu ndi zipatso kuchokera ku hekitala kufika pa kilogalamu 300 za uchi, ndipo mu nyengo yabwino mbewu imatha kufika pa tani imodzi.

Ngati tiyerekezera phacelia ndi zikhalidwe zina, ndiye kuti: buckwheat imapereka makilogalamu 70 kuchokera ku hekita imodzi, ndi mpiru woyera mpaka 100 kilogalamu ya uchi. Njuchi "zimagwirira ntchito" ndi phacelia ngakhale nthawi yosonkhanitsa - kuyambira kumayambiriro kwa masika mpaka kumapeto kwa autumn, kuyambira m'mawa mpaka madzulo.

Makhalidwe

Kuphatikiza pa phindu lonse limene limabwera chifukwa cha kuwonongeka kwa phacelia (feteleza abwino kwambiri padziko lapansi), kulima kumeneku pamtunda wina kumapindulitsa kwambiri.

Phacelia ali ndi mizu yabwino kwambiri. Choncho, mizu yake imapita pansi mpaka 20 cm pa nthawi yonse ya chitukuko cha mtundu wobiriwira. Chifukwa chaichi, nthaka imasulidwa mwadongosolo. Dothi lonse lovuta, monga, dothi, lomasuka ndi lowala, liri lodzaza ndi mpweya. Izi, komanso, zimakhudza kwambiri kukula kwa zomera, kucha kwa zipatso zawo, tubers ndi zipatso.

Pambuyo yozizira, phacelia imakhalabe yoteteza nthaka kuchokera ku mphepo ndi kutentha kwa madzi, kudziunjikira chinyezi ndi kuchenjeza za chilala.

Phacelia Amatha kukula pamtundu wosiyana siyana, monga momwe amadzikonzera okha ndikumanga bwino, m'lingaliro lililonse. Zimakula mofulumira ndipo zimapanga mtundu waukulu wobiriwira. Kusiyanasiyana kwa dothi kumayesedwa ndi kudzichepetsa kwa mbeu, imatha kukula ponse pa mchenga wosauka komanso pamtunda. Amamasula mkati mwa masabata asanu ndi asanu ndi limodzi (6) pambuyo pofesa. Phacelia - kwambiri uchi chomera.

Lili ndi masamba abwino ndi tsinde, lomwe limathamanga mofulumira ndipo limatumikira monga feteleza wabwino kwambiri wa nitrogenous.

Ili ndi phacelia kuzizira -kugwa, imatha kulekerera chisanu mpaka -10 ° C, choncho imayenera kufesedwa nthawi yomweyo chisanu chimasungunuka ndipo nthaka imatha.

Phacelia - yokwanira fitodoktor. Ndiyo yabwino kwambiri, yomwe ndi machiritso achilengedwe a nthaka ndi chilengedwe. Ubwino waukulu wa phacelia ndi awa:

  • Mtovu wamtambo, pamene umasintha mlingo wa acidity, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti nthaka isalowerere. Ndipo izi sizikuthandizani kuti mukhale ndi mbeu zambiri m'madera ena, koma zimathandizanso kuchotsa udzu wosiyanasiyana wa "zaka mazana ambiri" womwe umakula makamaka pa dothi losavuta.
  • Nectar, yomwe ilipo mokwanira mu phacelia, imakopa mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, yomwe imawononga kwambiri tizirombo: pinworm, masamba, masamba a apulo, ndi zina zotero.
  • Zipangizo za dzombe, maworworms amachoka pamabedi, pomwe pafupi ndi phacelia ndizosasangalatsa kwa iwo.
  • Amachenjeza zomera motsutsana ndi kuyamba kwa tizilombo toyambitsa tizilombo.
  • Mukasakaniza nyemba pa kufesa, phacelia kwambiri amachepetsa chiwerengero cha nodule weevils, nsabwe za m'masamba, mtola weevil, ndi zina zotero.

Kuipa

Palibe zolakwika zomveka mu phacelia, koma muyenera kulingalira mosamala momwe zinthu zowonongeka zamasamba zakhalira.

Njira yowonongeka ndi kusungunula kumachitika kokha ngati pali chinyezi chokwanira m'nthaka. Choncho, manyowa obiriwira adzakhala othandiza popanda ulimi wothirira kokha pokhapokha ngati ziyenera kuwonongeka.

Zizindikiro za kukula

Zopadera za phacelia ndizoti zingakhale zotsatila za pafupifupi chikhalidwe cha masamba. Amatha kukula m'madera a "ulimi" wowopsa, pamene akupereka zokolola zabwino ku chipale chofewa. Mukhozanso kubzala mbeu isanafike yozizira, koma koposa zonse - kumayambiriro kwa masika. Mukhoza kufesa mpaka 4 nthawi iliyonse, monga phacelia ali ndi nyengo yochepa yochepa.

Simungadandaule za kukula kwa phacelia potsakaniza mbewu zina zomwe zimakula mofulumira, chifukwa zimayenda mofanana ndi kukula kwa mbewu. Ndipo mu chisakanizo cha phacelia ndi nyemba, zimapereka zokolola zambiri za zakudya ndi zakudya.

Pansi pa chivundikiro cha phacelia, mbande za kabichi, tomato ndi nkhaka zikhoza kubzalidwa, pamene zidzakhazikika ndikukula mu chitukuko ndi kukula kwa mmera umodzi womwe umakula pa bedi lopanda kanthu. Amagwiritsidwanso ntchito ngati mulch pakati pa mizera ya mbatata. Kudzilima sikukuchitika mu chikhalidwe chotsatira chitatha.

Kulima phacelia, kudzakhala kokwanira kumasula nthaka ndi wolimira kapena wodula manja. Iyi ndiyo njira yabwino kwambiri yolima munda, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti nthaka ikhale ndi chonde komanso imapatsa mphamvu mlimi. Manyowa a feteleza angagwiritsidwe ntchito monga zowonjezera kwa zokolola zabwino. Optim-Humus, komanso kukonzekera tizilombo toyambitsa matenda padziko lapansi.

Koma kawirikawiri, Phacelia ndi wodzichepetsa ndipo amakula pamtunda wosiyanasiyana ndi mchenga. Ngati mukufuna kupeza zotsatira zabwino ndi zokolola za phacelia ziyenera kuchitika kuyambira July mpaka August. Mzere wa mzere uyenera kukhala wa 12-14 masentimita, ndipo kuyala kwakukulu kuyenera kukhala kuyambira 1 mpaka 3 masentimita 120 g pa mamita zana lalikulu kudzawonedwa ngati mbeu ya mbeu.

Popeza mbewuyi imakhala yozizira, imatha kulimbana ndi chimfine cha -10 ° C.

Kuwonjezera pa makhalidwe ake omwe sungagonjetsedwe, phacelia ndichitsamba chosagonjetsa chilala. Choncho, chinyezi sichigwira ntchito yapadera pa kukula ndi chitukuko cha mbewu. Komabe, monga chomera chirichonse, ndi zofunika kupereka chinyezi chokwanira chitukuko chabwino ndi kukwaniritsa mwadzidzidzi gawo lotsiriza la kukula.

Zonse zophweka za zomera chifukwa chokhoza kukula phacelia mosiyana malo. Ndizomwe zimakhala mthunzi, choncho zimakula bwino ngakhale podziwa kuwala komwe kuli pansi pa denga la mitengo.

Pambuyo nyengo yayikulu ndi zokolola zokha, m'pofunika kuyamba kuyeretsa "pambuyo pa mbeu". Amayamba pa nyengo yofiira, yomwe ili pafupi masabata 7-8 kuchokera pa kufesa koyamba.

Kuyeretsa kumatsirizika kumayambiriro kwa maluwa, chifukwa kuchuluka kwa zakudya ndi zakudya zimakhala zochepa kwambiri. Ndikofunikira kudula phacelia ndi wolima kapena Fokin's cuter-cutter, ndikofunikira kuti mumwadziwe kale ndi njira yothetsera EM.

Chithandizo cha phacelia ndi zoterezi zidzafulumizitsa kale mofulumizitsa nayonso mphamvu ndikupanga bwino kwambiri tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, zomwe zidzathandizira kuti nthaka ikhale ndi zakudya zambiri komanso zothandiza zosiyanasiyana.