Nkhumba yoyera yoyera - kholo la mitundu yonse

Nkhumba zazikulu zoyera ndizofala kwambiri osati m'dziko lathu lenileni, koma padziko lonse lapansi. N'zachidziwikire kuti mtundu umenewu umakopa abambo odziwa nkhumba osati mtundu wawo, koma ndi zizindikiro zake zogwira ntchito. Masiku ano, nkhumbazi ndizozitchuka kwambiri pakubereka, chifukwa zimatha kukhala ndi makhalidwe abwino.

Mitengo yabwino ya mafuta ndi nyama, kutenthetsa mtima komanso kubereka kwabwino kwa mibadwo yambiri imapangitsa kuti nkhumba izigwiritse ntchito bizinesi yopindulitsa yomwe imakopa ngakhale aulesi. Kuti mudziwe zambiri zokhudza ziweto zazikulu zoyera, timapereka kuti tiwerenge nkhaniyi pansipa.

Kupita nkhumba: malamulo oti musankhe anthu wathanzi

Chinthu chofunika kwambiri pakubereka nkhumba ndiko kusankha nkhumba zabwino ndi zobala, phindu la ana omwe mungathe kumanga bizinesi yanu yonse kapena kungowonjezera banja lanu. Pankhaniyi pali malamulo ambiri omwe amavomerezedwa ndi obereketsa odziwa bwino ntchito:

Nkhumba zimagulitsidwa nthawi zambiri Mwezi umodzi. Ndikofunika kwambiri kuti panthawiyi adzidyetse okha, kawirikawiri ndi chakudya chochokera m'khola. Apo ayi, mutha kukhala ndi mavuto ambiri ndi zinyama zomwe mwalandira, ngakhale zotsatira zowopsya zowonongeka n'zotheka.

Choncho, ndizofunikira osati kungouza wogulitsa mwatsatanetsatane za momwe nkhumba zake zimadyera komanso momwe amachitira chakudya chokwanira momwe angathere. Ndibwino kwambiri ngati nyamayo imakoka ndikudya chakudya kudzera pakamwa.

Ngati njira yodyera ikuwoneka ngati nkhumba ikuyamwa, ndiye kuti sanayamikidwe ndi mayiyo ndipo wogulitsa sanayambe kumuphunzitsa kuti azidyetsa.

Nkofunika kuti nkhumbazo zikhale zoyera zoyera komanso kukhala ndi kuluma koyenera. Kuchokera mwachindunji chidzadalira momwe msangamsanga imatha kulemera. Ndi mitsempha yosalumikiza molakwika, nkhumba silingathe kudya chakudya chonse ndipo imakakamizika kumeza mizati yake. Chotsatira chake, chakudya sichinachotsedwa kwathunthu ndikuchotsedwa mthupi, ndipo sichipatsa nyama zakudya zake.

Zimayambitsa mavuto osokoneza bongo. Choncho, posankha nkhumba, yang'anani mosamala kwambiri mano ake ndi momwe mzere wam'munsi ndi wam'munsi umagwirira ntchito pamodzi.

Thupi la thupi la nkhumba ndilo chizindikiro chachikulu cha zokolola zake ndi thanzi lawo. Posankha mtundu wawukulu woyera wa nkhumba, samalani kuti misana yawo ndi yolunjika ndipo sacrum yawo ili.

Ndiponso, chifukwa cha mtundu wotchulidwawo umakhala ndi kutalika kwa thupi, komwe kumawonekera paunyamata. Miyendo ya nkhumba ziyenera kukhala zolimba, chifukwa monga akulu akuluakuluwa amatenga kulemera kwakukulu, zomwe sangathe kunyamula miyendo yofooka. Mutu wa oimira mtunduwo ndi wausinkhu wa kukula ndi mphuno yowongoka ndipo chigamba chinapitirira patsogolo. Mvetserani kugwera pa khungu ndipo akhoza kutseka maso awo pang'ono.

Akatswiri amalimbikitsa kugula nkhumba zingapo kamodzi, chifukwa mwa njirayi amadyetsa bwino. Kawirikawiri, nkhumba zimaonedwa kuti ndi zinyama, choncho zimadziwika ndi mpikisano wokhudzana ndi chakudya. Choncho, ngakhale osakhala ndi njala, zinyama zidzangoyesera kudya chakudya chochuluka momwe zingathere, zomwe zidzatithandiza kulemera kwake.

Cholinga chokweza anthu angapo nthawi imodzi ndi chisankho choyenera chimene magulu omwe amagwiritsa ntchito posamalira nkhumba imodzi ndi angapo adzakhala pafupifupi ofanana. Koma ponena za phindu - izi ndi zinthu zosiyana kwambiri.

Makhalidwe ndi zikhalidwe za mtundu wa nkhumba yoyera yoyera

Malo obadwira ku England ndiwo malo obadwira, koma akhala akuloledwa zaka zoposa 30 m'madera omwe kale anali USSR. Panthawiyi, zasintha kwambiri. Makamaka zinyama zamakono zimadziwika ndi malamulo akuluakulu a thupi komanso zinthu zabwino zowonongeka.

Chifukwa cha ichi, komanso ubwino wabwino wa nyama ndi mafuta, lero pakati pa nkhumba yonse ya nkhumba, chiwerengero cha oimira mtundu wawukulu woyera ndi pafupifupi 80%.

Kodi ubwino wake ndi wotani?

  • Mphamvu zogwirizana ndi nyengo zosiyanasiyana zosiyana siyana. Ndicho chifukwa chake nkhumba yaikulu yoyera yayamba kwambiri ku Russia, popeza nyengo yotentha ya Krasnodar ndi chisanu cha Siberia ndizopambana moyo. Komanso, anthu amatha kutengedwa kuchokera kudera lina kupita kwina popanda mavuto, ndipo angatenge milungu ingapo, mwinamwake masiku, kuti asinthe zinthu zatsopano.
  • Kudzichepetsa kudya. Apanso, tikuzindikira kuti mtundu uwu ndi wa nyama-mafuta, choncho mtundu uliwonse wa mafuta othetsera mafuta ukhoza kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa iwo komanso chifukwa chake chingapereke zotsatira zabwino. Monga chakudya, zinyamazi ndizobwino ndipo zimayika, ndi zakudya zosiyanasiyana komanso zakudya zabwino. Nkhumba zazikulu zoyera zimapangidwanso bwino pamtunda wamba, zomwe amadya mosangalala.
  • Kusinthasintha kwa chilengedwe. Chifukwa cha ubwino uwu, oimira mtunduwo mosavuta amasunga makhalidwe awo abwino koposa zaka zambiri, ndipo ngakhale amatha kuwathawira ku mitundu ina. Koma N'zosatheka kulingalira za chikhalidwe cha nkhumba zazikulu zoyera kuti zikhale zolimba: nthawi yonse ya kubadwa kwake, idakonzedwanso bwino - malamulo ndi chiwonongeko chonse chakhala bwino.
  • Ntchito yabwino. Thupi la nkhumba yaikulu yoyera lili ndi nyama ndi mafuta ambiri. Minofu ya nyama izi zimakula bwino komanso mofulumira, pamene nyamayo imakhalabe yachisomo komanso ikafika zaka zambiri. Matenda obiridwa amayamba kuikidwa kuyambira ali aang'ono kwambiri ndipo, panthawi yomwe nthawi yoyenera kupha imapezeka, ikani kuchuluka.
  • Mbali yofunika kwambiri ya zokolola ndi luso lofesa kubzala nkhumba zopitirira 10 pa nthawi. Chifukwa cha kukula kwake kwakukulu, imadyetsa ndi anamwino onsewo popanda mavuto, kutsimikizira kubereka bwino kwa mibadwo.
  • Nkhumba zazikulu zoyera zimadziwika ndi zoopsa. Izi zikutanthauza kuti, anthu amakhwima mofulumira kwambiri komanso ali ndi zaka chimodzi, nkhumba zimakhala ndi boar kwa ana. Ena amafesa ndi ubwino wamakhalidwe abwino omwe ali ndi abambo omwe ali nawo okha.

Kuipa kwa nkhumba zazikulu zoyera: ndi mavuto otani omwe angakumane nawo pamene akubala mtundu?

Chosavuta chachikulu ndicho kunenepa kwambiri. Ndipotu, ndibwino kuti nkhumbazi zimatha kudya pafupifupi chakudya chilichonse, koma chimakhala ndi zotsatira zoipa. Nyama zotero nthawi zambiri zimavutika ndi matenda a mtima, chifukwa cha nthawi yomwe moyo wawo umachepetsedwa. Chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa minofu ya mafuta, nyama imachepa.

Oimira a mtunduwo ali ndi zida za malamulo monga mabanki ofewa kwambiri ndi sacram. Chifukwa cha izi, zida zomangira kumbuyo kwa thupi sizingatchedwe kwambiri.

Komanso, posunga nkhumba yaikulu yoyera kumadera akum'mwera, ndibwino kuti musalole kuti nyamazo zilowe mumsewu pansi pa dzuwa. Kwa maulendo muyenera kumanga mapepala apadera. Chowonadi ndi chakuti chifukwa cha suti yoyera, nkhumbazi zimatha kuwotcha kwambiri, chifukwa cha kutentha kwao kwa kanthawi, chilakolako chawo chikuchepa ndipo, chifukwa chake, zizindikiro zawo za kuchepa zimachepa.

Koma kutentha kotsika kwambiri sikofunika kwa nkhumba zazikulu zoyera. Alibe ubweya wambiri, kotero nyama zimataya kwambiri kutentha ndi kuyamba kuzizira.

Zizindikiro za kunja ndi magawo akulu a mtundu waukulu wa nkhumba

Mitunduyi imakhala ndi mutu waung'ono komanso wowala kwambiri, womwe uli ndi miyeso yofanana. Mbali yofunikira kwambiri ndi msoti waukulu kwambiri ndi mphutsi yaing'ono.

Mbiriyi ndi concave kwambiri, chifukwa chake, mphuno imakhala yolunjika. Makutu awo ndi aakulu kwambiri ndi otanuka, koma osati obiriwira. Kuchokera kumutu, makutu amatsitsidwa pang'ono ndipo amatsogoleredwa pang'ono kumbali ndi patsogolo, monga ngati atapachikidwa pamphuno, kuti aphimbe maso awo pang'ono.

Thupi lenileni la nkhumba ndilo lonse, lili ndi chifuwa chachikulu komanso chifuwa chachikulu. Kumbuyo kumakhala kosalala, koma kumbuyo kumakhala kochepa pang'ono, ngakhale kusintha kwa kumunsi kumbuyo ndi sacrum kumakhala kosavuta. Zonsezi zimatsimikizira mtundu wa mtundu wa ntchito zomwe zimakhala bwino - zomwe zimatha kupanga minofu bwino ndikudzimangira minofu ya adipose. Komanso, thupi ndilo lalitali, lomwe limabzala zokolola zomwe zimatha kudyetsa nkhumba zopitirira khumi ndi ziwiri.

Nkofunika kuti nyama iliyonse ikhale ndi miyendo, chifukwa miyendo yofooka ndizovuta kukula nyama yaikulu. Koma mu nkhumba za mtundu waukulu woyera miyendo, ngakhale kuti yayifupi, koma yolimba, yosankhidwa bwino. Pali pafupifupi mapepala opanda khungu pafupifupi miyendo. Nsombazo ndizophwa, koma ndizolimba. Khalidwe lomaliza limalola kuti mtundu umenewu udye pamalo osatsekemera, chifukwa si kovuta kwambiri kuti nyama ziziyenda mtunda wautali.

Ubwino wa kusunga mtundu uwu kunyumba umagwirizananso ndi chikhalidwe chosasinthasintha cha zinyama. Iwo amamvera kwambiri chikondi chaumunthu, mwamsanga amazoloŵera kwa mwiniwake. Nthawi zambiri nthawi zambiri nkhumbazi zimafooketsa pansi kapena zimaphwanyidwa. Zoona ndi zofunika kwambiri kuwapatsa malo omwe angakumba padziko lapansi ndikusambira mumatope. Ofesa amawasamala kwambiri ana awo.

Mtundu uwu si wachabechabe waukulu, mu kukula kwake oimira ake amakwaniritsa ntchito yaikulu. Ali ndi zaka 36, ​​kulemera kwake kwa boar kungakhale 320-350 kilogalamu. Ofesa si aakulu kwambiri, koma kawirikawiri ndimalimbikitsanso kulemera kwanga - kuchokera ku 220 mpaka 250 kilogalamu.

Kudyetsa chakudya chodyetsa nkhumba zazikulu zoyera ndizochepa kwambiri. Phindu lolemera tsiku ndi tsiku la 650-700 magalamu, nkhumba zambiri zimakhala ndi masiku pakati pa 180-190, pafupifupi 3.9 zogula chakudya pa kilogalamu yolemera. Pa mlingo umenewu, ali ndi miyezi isanu ndi umodzi, mabotolo ayamba kale kulemera makilogalamu 100.

Kukolola kwa mitembo ya nkhumbazi ndi pafupifupi 82%, yomwe ndi yapamwamba kwambiri ngakhale nyama izi. Nkhumba ya nyama imadutsa kuchuluka kwa mafuta, ngakhale anthu omwe akuvutika ndi kunenepa kwambiri nambala yawo ingakhale yofanana.

Mbali zimasamalira mitundu yayikulu yoyera ya nkhumba

Kudyetsa nguruwe: zakudya zabwino kuti zipeze phindu

Kuti pakhale zakudya zamtundu wambiri, zinyama ziyenera kudyetsedwa ndi zakudya zapamwamba komanso zowonjezera mavitamini. Choyenera kugwirizanitsa nthawi zonse kudyetsa ndi chithandizo cha kuganizira ndikudya zonyansa ndi kuyenda ndi kudyetsa zitsamba zabwino. M'nyengo yozizira, ndikofunika kwambiri kupereka nkhumbazo mwadongo.

Zina mwa zigawo zikuluzikulu za zakudya zazikulu zoyera nkhumba ziyenera kusamala kwambiri Zamakono:

  • Mbatata (ndi bwino kupatsa yophika, koma onetsetsani kukhetsa madzi omwe anakonzedwa).
  • Kaloti, beets, radishes (angaperekedwe pang'onopang'ono komanso yaiwisi, koma choyamba akuyenera kugaya).
  • Muzaka zabwino, mukhoza kudyetsa nkhumba ndi mapeyala ndi maapulo, koma mochepa, monga zakudya zowonjezera.
  • Zakudya za mkaka zimathandiza makamaka achinyamata, ngakhale kuti ndizofunikira kuwasakaniza ndi chakudya cha nyama zazikulu.
  • Zakudya zopatsa mafuta monga nandolo ndi nyemba.
  • Balere, oats, tirigu, rye. Ndi bwino kupereka tirigu pamtunda kapena pamadzi, chifukwa nkhumba sizingathe kuzitsuka bwino ndipo zotsatira zake zimachotsedweratu pamodzi ndi nyansi.
  • Zakudya zakanthawi: masamba a kabichi, nyemba, zukini, dzungu, chimanga.

Nkhumba zimafunika kukonzekera chakudya tsiku ndi tsiku, kuphatikizapo zophika zophikira masamba, chakudya cha masamba, mkaka wa tirigu ndi tirigu wapansi. Nkhumba imafuna pafupifupi makilogalamu 2-3 a chakudya pa tsiku. Nkofunika kupereka nkhumba mchere, zomwe zingathandize kulimbitsa mafupa.

Mitambo yaying'ono yosunga nkhumba zoyera ndikukula

Zomwe zimakhala bwino pakusungirako mitundu yayikulu yoyera ya nkhumba ndi ofunda pigsty ndi yabwino mpweya wabwino. Ngati simungokhala nawo okha, komanso kuti mubale ana aang'ono, onetsetsani kuti mukukonzekera kuyatsa. Chofunikira chofunika ku chipinda ndi malo apadera ochotsera zowonongeka.

Pigsty ndifunika kuganiza kuti nyama zikhoza kumasulidwa kuyenda. Makina ayenera kukhala ndi malo omwe nyamazo zimafuna: nkhumba ndi zofunikira za boar osachepera 4m2, 3m2 zokwanira kwa achinyamata, koma pafupi 6m2 kwa kufesa.

Nkhumba zing'onozing'ono ndi nkhumba zonenepa ziyenera kudyetsedwa kawiri pa tsiku. Komanso, n'kopindulitsa kuwonjezera kuyika kabwino ndi madzi ofunda ndi omveka, makamaka ngati kudyetsa kumagwiritsidwa ntchito pogwiritsa ntchito.

Kufesa m'mabzala: kodi mumasowa anthu?

Ofesa ali okonzekera kukwatira msinkhu ali ndi miyezi isanu ndi umodzi, koma ndibwino kuti asiye kukula kwa miyezi iwiri kuti kunyamula mwanayo kusapweteke thupi la nkhumba. Zabwino kwambiri, ngati nthawi ya kufalitsa nkhumba imatha kufika pa miyezi 10 ndikulemera 120 kilogalamu. Kuyankhulana kumachitika pokhapokha ngati nkhumba yokha imasonyezera kusaka: ziwalo zake zimakhala zowonongeka ndi zowonongeka, kutuluka pang'ono kumakhala, chirombo chimakhala mosasunthika, chimataya chilakolako chake.

Farrow mu nkhumba zazikulu zoyera zimachitika patatha masiku 115 kuchokera pa kufalitsa. Nkhumba zofiira, zotupa m'mimba ya mammary, kutsika mimba kumasonyezanso kuti nkhumba zimaoneka posachedwa.

Nkhumba yotsuka imayamba kuyamba kupanga chisa cha udzu m'makona a corral. Munthu sayenera kusokoneza pulogalamu yachisokonezo, ngakhale kuti ndiyenera kukhala pafupi ndi nkhumba panthawi ino. Ndikofunika kuti mwamsanga muchotse nkhumbazo ndikuyeretseni mphuno, makutu ndi pakamwa kuchokera mu ntchentche. Komanso, mutha kudula mutu wa umbilical ndikuwutentha ndi ayodini. Pambuyo pa mphindi 45 zoyambirira, muyenera kudyetsa nkhumbazo, kuzibzala pansi pa nkhumba.

Izi sizili zophweka, chifukwa zinyalala za nkhumba zambiri zimapanga 11-12 nkhumba zolemera 1.2 mpaka 1.3 kilograms. Choncho, ndibwino kuti tichite pamodzi, ngakhale zitatu. Farrowing yapamwamba ya mtundu wawukulu woyera umabzala anali 13-15 piglets. Mkaka wa ana nthawi zambiri umakhala wokwanira, popeza kuti nkhumba zimatuluka pafupifupi 80 kilograms.