Mafuta a Ryegrass (Osatha)

Grazing ryegrass, yemwenso amadziwika kuti English ryegrass ndi Chaff osatha, ndi chomera cha herbaceous cha maluwa a mtundu wa Nkhumba, zomwe zimachokera ku banja la tirigu.

Chomera ichi chosatha chimakhala ku Ulaya, kumpoto kwa Africa ndi kumadzulo kwa Asia. Nthawi zina, ngati si zachilendo, ryegrass yosatha imapezeka m'madera akummawa kwa Asia, mpaka ku Western Siberia.

Kulongosola kwa zomera

Nkhalango ryegrass, kapena, monga imatchulidwira anthu, osatha grassgrass ndi imodzi mwa udzu wabwino kwambiri wambiri wam'masika. Kawirikawiri English ryegrass imasakanizidwa ndi mbewu zapachaka, ndipo mpaka maluwa, amadya ndi nyama zosiyanasiyana zakutchire.

Mbeu yosakaniza yosakaniza ndi yosiyana ndi achibale ena omwe ali ndi zakudya zabwino: makilogalamu 100 a udzu amafanana ndi magawo 23 opangira zakudya, pamene udzu - mpaka magawo 60 a chakudya.

Nkhalango yosakanizidwa ili m'minda yosiyana siyana kuyambira zaka zapakati pa 4 ndi zisanu ndi chimodzi, ndipo kumalo odyetserako ziweto amatha zaka 12. Mpaka chaka chachinayi chikadzafesa, chimafika pamtunda wake. Amalekerera kawirikawiri kutchetcha ndi kupondaponda, ndipo imabwereranso mofulumira pambuyo pa kuwonongeka kwa mtundu uliwonse.

Zokonda zimapereka dothi lolemera, labwino komanso loamy. Komanso, imakula bwino pa dothi lomwe lili ndi acidity yapamwamba.

Nkhalango ryegrass ndi chomera chobiriwira chomwe chimaperekedwa kuti chidyetse nyama zambiri zoweta.

Ndiponso, pulagrass yosakhalitsa ndi yochepa ndipo amawombera ambiri ndi kuwala komanso kobiriwira, masamba obiriwira, kupanga chophimba chabwino kwambiri chapamwamba. Iye ali ndi mizu yabwino kwambiri ndipo chotero chomerachi ndi chimodzi mwa udzu wofulumira kwambiri pa udzu.

Chitsamba chimenechi ndi mesophyte. Choncho, sichilimbana ndi chinyezi chochulukira, koma si chimbewu chosagonjetsa chilala.

Chitsulo chachingerezi chachingerezi chimagwiritsidwanso ntchito kulimbikitsa mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya dothi lopanda pake.

Chimodzi mwa zinthu zazikuluzikulu zomwe zimakhala ndi zokolola zadyetserako ndizopindulitsa kwambiri. Ndibwinja yosatha yomwe imabweretsa udzu waukulu umene umagwiritsidwa ntchito kudyetsa zinyama. Mtundu wa ryegrass kuti ukhale ndi moyo wautali ndi wokonzeka kwambiri, kuyambira pafupipafupi, nthawi ya moyo ndi zaka 5-6.

Zapadera za zokolola za ryegrass osatha zimadalira moyo wa chomera chimodzi. Tikudziwa kuti subspecies izi za ryegrass ndizomwe zimapangidwira feteleza komanso chithandizo cha nthaka, chomwe chimamera. Izi ndizofunikira kuti zokolola zisadalire pazimenezo, koma pazinthu zokha, zomwe zimathandiza kuti feteleza ndikumeretsa nthaka m'malo obala.

Ngati tikulankhula mofanana ndi digito, ndiye kuti malo odyetserako ziweto amapatsa pafupifupi 400 magulu ambiri pa hekita. Kuonjezera apo, amapereka pafupifupi 90-100 magulu a udzu pa hekitala, yomwe imakhalanso chizindikiro cha mbewu zokolola. Ndipo kutayika kwa njira yonse ya chitukuko ndi chithunzithunzi cha kukula kwa zokolola chaka chilichonse cha ryegrass ndi chiwerengero cha mbewu. Choncho, chaka choyamba mutatha kufesa, pafupifupi makilogalamu anayi pa hekita akuchitika, ndipo pambuyo pa zaka ziwiri ndi zitatu - pafupifupi asanu ndi limodzi pa hekitala ya nthaka.

Ubwino:

Kuwonjezera pa zokolola zazikulu, ryegrass ndi msipu wina uli ndi zinthu zina zabwino:

  • - Mtengo wapamwamba wa zakudya ndi kukula kwapamwamba kwambiri pambuyo pakutchetcha;
  • - Zimaphatikizapo bwino ndi zitsamba za mtundu wina (makamaka ndi clover);
  • - ndi feteleza m'nthaka ndi mankhwala ake, chifukwa zimateteza kutentha kwa nthaka;
  • - mawu othamanga a kusasitsa kwathunthu, chaka chachiwiri mutangoyamba kufesa, udzu wa rye umakafika kuphungu wake.

Palibe zovuta zodziwikiratu komanso zofunikira m'mabusa odyetserako ziweto. Zina mwazing'ono zomwe zimachitika pa chitukuko cha mbeu zimangotchulidwa kokha chifukwa cha kukana kwake kwa chilala. Komanso, chomeracho sichitha kupirira chinyezi chochulukira nthawi yake yakucha ndipo nthawi yayitali chikhoza kuchepetsa kukula kwake.

Kufesa

Malingana ndi mtundu wa mbeu, pali kusintha kwina kwa mbeu za mbeu. Choncho, mbeu ya mbeu ya mbeu yoyera pa hekta imodzi idzakhala 12-14 makilogalamu. Mtundu wachiwiri wofesa udzafesa ryegrass osatha limodzi ndi zitsamba zina. Pachifukwa ichi, mlingo wa seeding pa hekta imodzi idzakhala yosiyana kukula kwa makilogalamu 8 mpaka 10.

Malingana ndi mitengo yomwe ili pamwambayi, ndi nyengo yachibadwa yomwe imakhalabe yochepa kwambiri ya chinyezi ndi njala yambiri, zotsatira zake zitha kuyembekezera.

Ndi zachibadwa kuti munthuyo sali pansi pa kutentha kumene msipu wa msipu umakula. Ndipo komabe, munthu akhoza kuthana ndi zochitika zina za chitukuko chomera. Kutentha kwakukulu kwa mbewu kumera kumachokera ku +2 madigiri C mpaka madigiri 4. Zotsatira za kutentha zimachokera ku luso la munthu kuti amwe madzi nthawi zonse.

Kuthira kwa masamba odyetserako ziweto za grassgrass kumakhala kochepa komanso kofanana ndi 2-3 masentimita. Ndizo chifukwa cha mtundu wa ryegrass womwewo, womwe ndi mesophytic chomera, kuti madzi ambiri sungaloledwe, komanso kuteteza nthaka imene udzu umakula.

Zizindikiro za kukula

Nyama ryegrass, ngakhale kuti si yaikulu kwambiri, imafuna zinthu zina pamoyo ndi chitukuko. Zambiri zimadalira njira yofesera, chifukwa pofesa ryegrass ndi zina zobiriwira zomera, ndikofunikira kumamatira zofanana, koma panthawi yomweyi ndi njira yosiyana yolima, kukula ndi chitukuko cha zomera zomwe zimabzalidwa pa nthaka yomweyo.

Pambuyo m'nyengo yozizira, ndi nthawi yabwino yofesa ryegrass kwa zaka zambiri, popeza nthaka imakhala yonyowa, palibe chilala ndipo nthaka "yatsitsimutsa" ndi kutuluka kwa chisanu ndi chisanu.

Kusiyanitsa ku zikhumbo zotsatirazi kungayambitse kuwonongeka pang'ono kwa mbewu, komanso kulephera kwathunthu poyerekeza ndi malo omwe akupita. Izi ndizo:

  • - Seeding iyenera kuchitika kumayambiriro kwa masika; dothi sayenera kukhala louma ndikuyesa yonyowa;
  • - English ryegrass sangathe kuthana ndi chisanu ndi kutentha;
  • - Nthaka iyenera kukonzedwa mwamsanga nyengo yachisanu ndi chisanu zisungunuke; chinyezi chiyenera kusungidwa pamtundu wina wamtengo wapatali ndipo sichiloledwa kuti "madzi" asefukire mbewu zabegrass zosatha;
  • - kulima ndikofunika kupanga potashi ndi feteleza phosphate, ndipo kumayambiriro kwa masika kuti ayambe feteleza feteleza kwa kufesa koyamba;
  • - Mowing ayenera kuchitika kumayambiriro kwa maluwa, chifukwa chakuti ryegrass limakula coarse mofulumira, chifukwa cha nyama zomwe amadya bwino.