Zipatso za Brussels: kubzala, kusamalira, kupindula

M'nkhaniyi, tidzakuphunzitsani mmene mungamere mitengo ya Brussels molondola.. Tiyeni tiuzeni chomwe nthaka iyenera kukhala komanso nthawi zambiri muyenera kuthirira mbewu. Simungophunzira china chatsopano, komanso phunzirani zochepa zokhudzana ndi kabichi.

Mukudziwa? Karl Linney poyamba asayansi anafotokoza kabichi, akuitcha ku Brussels pambuyo pa abalimi a ku Belgium ku Brussels. Ku Belgium, ziphuphu za Brussels zinalengedwa kuchokera ku kale.

Mbalame yoyenera ya Brussels

Kawirikawiri, kubzala kosayenera kungayambitse ovary oipa, ndipo poipa kwambiri - mpaka imfa ya chomeracho. Choncho, tidzapeza nthawi komanso momwe tingabzalidwe ku Brussels.

Zosowa za nthaka

Mbewu zimakonzekera chisakanizo chapadera (nthaka ya mchenga + mchenga mofanana). Pambuyo pake, 2 supuni ya phulusa phulusa ndi 1 supuni ya superphosphate imaphatikizidwa ku kusakaniza. Dothi losakaniza liri lonse mabokosi a mbande ndi kutsanuliridwa ndi mankhwala "Chom" (15 g pa madzi okwanira 5 l). Grooves amapangidwa mu gawo lapansi ndi kuya kwa masentimita 1 (mtunda pakati pa mizere ndi masentimita 10), pambuyo pake mbewuzo zimayikidwa, zophimbidwa ndi nthaka, ndipo mopepuka kwambiri.

Kutentha mu chipinda ndi mabokosi ayenera kukhala pafupifupi 20˚С. Kuwala sikuyenera kukhala bwino, koma simuyenera kusunga mabokosi m'chipinda chapansi pa nyumba kapena pansi ndi kusayera kwathunthu. Mu sabata, mphukira imayamba. Panthawi imeneyi, m'pofunika kuchepetsa kutentha masana mpaka 6-8˚С, ndipo usiku - mpaka 9-12˚С.

Ndikofunikira! Kutentha kumachepetsedwa patatha kumera kuti chomera chikhale cholimba, ndipo chikhoza kubzalidwa poyera.

Pambuyo pa tsamba loyamba la kabichi, likhoza kuyesedwa pansi (kumalowa) kupita kumalo ena (bokosi lalikulu kapena kapu). Ndiyeneranso kudziŵa kuti posankha malo ena, cabbages ayenera kuikidwa m'manda mpaka masamba a cotyledon. Mbande ayenera kuthiriridwa ndi madzi firiji + 18-20˚С. Ndikofunika kufesa mbewu. Izi zachitika mu magawo awiri:

  1. Pambuyo poonekera masamba awiri mu kambewu kakang'ono, amadyetsedwa ndi zakudya zowonjezera (piritsi-piritsi la microelement pa 1 l madzi).
  2. Pa nthawi ya kuuma mbande. Panthawiyi, kuvala pamwamba ndikusakaniza 1 supuni ya urea ndi potaziyamu sulphate mu chidebe cha madzi (70-100 ml imatsanulidwira mu chomera chilichonse).

Musanabzala pa malo muyenera kuumitsa kabichi. Kuti muchite izi, masiku 15 musanayambe kuziyika, mabokosi / makapu a mbande ayenera kumachitika nthawi zonse dzuwa ndi kutentha kutsika (ndikofunika kuti musapitirize kutentha, komabe chomera sichinapeze mphamvu).

Mbeu zokonzeka kubzala pamalo omasuka ziyenera kukhala ndi mapepala 5-6, kukula kwa tsinde ndi pafupifupi masentimita asanu ndipo kutalika sikukhala masentimita 20. Mlungu umodzi musanadzalemo, kuthirira kumasiya (sikuvulaza chomera). Tsiku lomwelo mutabzala lotseguka nthaka, chomeracho chimathirira madzi ochulukirapo, kotero kuti mochuluka ngati momwe zingathere kumamatirira mizu.

Mbewu yokonzekera kubzala

Pamene kufesa ku Brussels kumamera, nkofunikira kuchita zokonzekera. Mbewu isanayambe kubzala ayenera kukulunga mu nsalu yonyowa kwa masiku 4-5. Pambuyo pake, nyembazo zimamizidwa kwa mphindi 15 m'madzi otentha (50 ° C), kenako kuzizira kwa mphindi (chitani izi pofuna kupewa matenda otheka). Kenaka, nyembazo zimagwedezeka mu yankho la nitrophoska (1 tsp kwa madzi okwanira 1 litre) kwa maola 15-16.

Kuti bwino kulimbana ndi chisanu, mbewu zimasungidwa mu firiji pa -1 ° C. Zochita izi ndi zofunika chifukwa zimapulumutsa chomera ku matenda ndi tizilombo toononga, kuwonjezera kukana chisanu.

Nthawi yabwino yofika pakhomo

Kubzala mbewu kumachitika nthawi zosiyana, zomwe zimadalira mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya kabichi. Mitengo yoyambirira imayamba kubzalidwa pakati pa mwezi wa March, mochedwa - kuyambira pa April 10. Mbeu zokonzeka zimabzalidwa kumayambiriro kwa June.

Ndondomeko ndi kuya kwake

Inu muli ndi mbande za ku Brussels zikumera, tsopano ndikofunikira kuti muzitsatire bwino. Kuti muchite izi, tsatirani malamulo ena oyendetsa.

Popeza chomera chikukula mpaka kukula kwakukulu, muyenera kugawa malo okwanira pamene mukubzala pa webusaitiyi. M'lifupi pakati pa mizere ikhale yosachepera 0,6 mamita. Mzerewu, mtunda wa pakati pa zomera uyenera kukhala osachepera 40-50 masentimita. Kuya kwa kubzala kumayenera kufanana ndi kutalika kwa mizu ya mbande. Ndi bwino kubisa tsinde pansi pang'ono, kusiyana ndi kusiya mizu pamwamba.

Mukudziwa? Zipatso za Brussels zimalimbikitsidwa ngati zakudya zopatsa anthu omwe akudwala matenda a mtima.

Zowonongeka za kukula ndi kusamalira ku Brussels zikumera

Tinaganizira momwe tingabzalitsire zomera ku Brussels pa mbande, tsopano phindani malamulo a kusamalira mbewu.

Otsatira abwino ndi oipa

Musanabzala mbande pamalo otseguka, ndi bwino kukumbukira kuti malowa adakula kale. Pali zikhalidwe pambuyo pake zomwe zingatheke komanso zofunikira kudzala mbewu za Brussels. Koma pali zina zomwe sizikutheka kubzala mbewu.

Musamabzala mbeu ya Brussels pambuyo pa mbeu zotsatirazi: nyemba kabichi kapena kabichi, beet, mpiru, tomato, radish ndi radish. Ngati mumabzala ku Brussels pambuyo pa mbeu izi, mukhoza kuiwala za kukolola bwino.

Ndikofunikira! Pambuyo pa oyipa oyipa, malo oti mubzalitse ku Brussels zidzakhala zosayenera kwa zaka zitatu..

Ngati mumabzala ku Brussels pambuyo pa nyemba, sideratov, mbatata, anyezi, nkhaka kapena tirigu, ndiye kudyetsa kwina sikofunikira kuti dothi likhale. Zomera zimenezi ndizopangitsa kuti ziphuphu za Brussels zikhale bwino.

Kuthirira ndi kuvala kabichi

Kuwona feteleza kwazomera za Brussels, timayamba ndi kufotokozera nthaka, yomwe ili yoyenera kwa zomera. Inde, malingana ndi nthaka ndi kuchuluka kwa feteleza zidzakhala zosiyana.

Chikhalidwechi sichikufuna ku gawo lapansi, koma ndibwino kutenga chomera chonde chomwe "chimapuma" bwino. Nthaka iyenera kukhala yonyowa, koma nthawi ya chilala, kabichi suma chifukwa cha mapangidwe a mizu. Ngati mukukonzekera kudzala m'dziko latsopano, ndi bwino kupanga pafupifupi 4-5 makilogalamu a humus pamtunda uliwonse wa malo ogwiritsidwa ntchito, kapena gwiritsani ntchito kusakaniza uku: urea, superphosphate, potaziyamu kloride ndi nitroammophos.

Ndikofunikira! Manyowawa ndi oyenerera kulowa mu nthaka yopanda phindu, mwinamwake kuphuka kwa Brussels kudzapereka zokolola zochepa ndipo zingadwale.

Pambuyo pa feteleza, mabedi amasungidwa ndi kuthiriridwa ndi njira yothetsera potaziyamu permanganate (1.5 g pa madzi okwanira 5 l). Chithandizo china ndi mankhwala a Fitosporin, omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito masabata awiri asanafike.

Komanso, masiku 10 mutabzala kabichi, m'pofunika kudyetsa ndi nayitrogeni feteleza. (musapitirirepo, ngati simungathe kufa). Kumapeto kwa July - August, chovala chachiwiri - feteleza phosphate feteleza chiyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito.

Kuthira madzi a brussels kumafunika kukhala ochepa. M'nyengo yotentha, mukhoza kutsanulira chomeracho molimbika pang'ono, pa chinyezi chakuda kuthirira chingatheke. Musati mudye mopitirira muyeso kabichi, mwinamwake mudzakumana ndi mizu yovunda.

Kutsetsereka ndi kumasula nthaka

Pakukula kwake, ziphuphu za Brussels zimayimbidwa kangapo ndi kamtunda kakang'ono ka nthaka (ziyenera kuchitidwa mosamala kuti zisadzaze makabati ochepa).

Ndikofunikira! Pofuna kulimbikitsa zomera zazikulu zimayika mitengo, yomwe imamanga chomeracho.

Monga tafotokozera pamwambapa, zomera zimakonda nthaka, yomwe imapereka mpweya wabwino kwambiri. Choncho, nthawi zambiri zimakhala zofunikira kumasula nthaka kuti mizu ya mbewu isagwedezeke.

Chitetezo cha tizilombo

Chitetezo pa tizirombo ndizofunikira monga kuthirira ndi kuthirira feteleza. Ngati palibe mankhwala kapena kupewa matenda, simudzapeza zokolola.

Zipatso za Brussels zimakhudzidwa ndi tizirombo omwewo monga kabichi woyera. Choncho, ngati Brussels ikuphuka ndi kabichi yoyera ikubzala pa chiwembu, ndiye kuti mankhwalawa ayenera kuchitika m'zinthu zonsezi.

Tiyeni tipeze mndandanda wa tizirombo toyambitsa matenda.

1. Nkhuta ya Cruciferous

Zilondazi zimapanga makoka a masamba a kabichi, pogwiritsa ntchito mabowo ambiri.

Njira yotsatirayi idzawatchinga: 1 tbsp. l Viniga wa 70% pa 10 malita a madzi. Kukonzekera kwa nthawi imodzi.

Njira yothetsera tizilombo ndi tsamba la masamba, lomwe limabzalidwa pakati pa mizere.

2. Kabichi ntchentche

Mapepala pamapiritsi osapangidwa mozungulira amapanga tizilombo, akuluakulu omwe sawononge zomera. Vuto limapangidwa ndi mphutsi. Amaika ntchentche pansi pafupi ndi zomera. Mphutsi imawononga zomera zazing'ono zosiyanasiyana.

Kulimbana ndi tizilombo kuli bwino musanagwire kabichi. Kuti muchite izi, perekani nthaka kuzungulira zomera ndi chisakanizo (100 g wa phulusa la phulusa, fumbi la fodya ndi 1 l wa tsabola wakuda wakuda). Anagwiritsanso ntchito fodya (200 g fodya pa 10 malita a madzi ndi kuwonjezera 1 lita imodzi ya sopo). Njira yothetsera yowonongeka, yosankhidwa ndikupopera mbewu zonse pamodzi ndi nthaka pafupi nayo.

Njira yosungira mavitamini ndikulumikizana ndi nthaka ndi pepala la sera, zomwe zimapangitsanso zowonjezereka kwa tizilombo.

3. Kufika pamsika ndikusintha

Butterflies omwe amaika mazira kumbali yina ya kabichi tsamba. Mbozi zonyezimira zimadya kwambiri masamba ndi mikate ya kabichi.

Ndikofunika kumenyana ndi tizilombo mwamsanga, kotero kuti chomera sichifota. Mukhoza kugwiritsa ntchito yankho la phulusa (300 g wa phulusa ndi supuni imodzi ya sopo madzi mumadzi 10 malita). Komanso kuchepetsa kufalikira kwa mbozi kumatulutsa nthaka.

Njira yophweka ndi mauna abwino, omwe ali ndi tchire. Choncho, gulugufe sizingathe kuika mazira pa masamba.

4. Aphid

Aliyense amadziwika ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, chifukwa zimakhudza pafupifupi zomera zonse m'munda.

Kulimbana ndi nsabwe za m'masamba zikhale motere: 150 g wa phulusa, 150 g fodya, 1 tbsp. l sopo wamadzi, 1 tbsp. l mpiru; Thirani osakaniza a 2-3 malita a madzi otentha (80-85˚С) ndikulimbikitseni tsiku. Pambuyo pazothetsera vutolo, ladzaza ndi malita 7 a madzi ndi osankhidwa. Mankhwalawa amachitidwa masiku 3-4, kupopera malo okhudzidwa ndi nsabwe za m'masamba. Komanso polimbana ndi nsabwe za m'masamba, njira zina zotchuka ndizoyenera, zomwe zingagwiritsidwe ntchito kuzitsamba za Brussels.

5. Slugs ndi misomali

Tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa tingachotsedwe mosavuta, komabe ngati tchire timakhudzidwa kwambiri, mungagwiritse ntchito njira zodziwika zowononga tizilombo. Pofuna kuwononga nkhono ndi slugs, muyenera kukonzekera osakaniza: supuni 2 ya tsabola, supuni 2 ya mpiru, supuni 2 ya mchere komanso 500 g wa phulusa. Patsiku la dzuwa, perekani dothi lozungulira mazonde a Brussels, ndipo mwamsanga mumasule masentimita 4-5. Pa tsiku lomwelo, madzulo, amachiritsidwa kachiwiri (500 g wa phulusa + supuni 1 ya tsabola). Kusakaniza kumawaza pa thupi la chomera.

Kuchitidwa kumachitika pakapita masiku 4-5.

Kukolola ndi Kusungirako

Timapitanso kumapeto, komwe timafotokozera momwe tingasonkhanitsire ndikusungira ziphuphu za Brussels.

Mitengo yoyambirira ya ku Brussels zikumera zimakololedwa panthawi, kenako - mwa njira ziwiri. Pakusonkhanitsa mitu ya mitundu yoyambirira, sabata imodzi isanakwane kukolola, imachotsa masamba onse kumtunda (kudula chitsamba pansi, ndipo pokhapokha amachotsa zibambo).

Kuchokera mochedwa mitundu yokolola kumachitika mosiyana. Masamba amachotsedwa kokha kuchokera kumbali yomwe mitu idzasonkhanitsidwa. Popeza kusonkhanitsa kumachitika m'magulu angapo, n'kosatheka kuthetsa masamba onse kamodzi.

Kuyeretsa kumachitika mu September ndi October. Ngati nyengo yabwino, ndiye kochanchiki kudula mwachindunji ku chitsamba, ngati pamsewu pali kutentha kwabwino, ndiye kudula tchire kwathunthu. Pambuyo pake, tchire ndi atsogoleri a kabichi amasungidwa kuphimbidwa ozizira zipinda. Mukhoza kudula kabbages ngati mukufunikira kwa masabata atatu. The momwe akadakwanitsira kutentha kabichi yosungirako ndi 0 ° C pa chinyezi cha 95%. Muzochitika zotero, kabichi idzasungidwa kwa miyezi 2-2.5.

Poonjezera mwatsopano wa kabichi, mukhoza prikopat baka ndi mchenga mchenga (ndi tchire kuchotsa mizu) m'chipinda chapansi.

Madalitso a Brussels amamera kuti akhale ndi thanzi laumunthu

Kotero ife tinasamukira ku gawo lomalizira la nkhaniyi, momwe mungakuuzeni zomwe zimayamikira kuphuka kwa Brussels ndi chifukwa chake ndi bwino kudya nthawi zambiri.

Zomera za Brussels zili ndi zinthu zambiri zothandiza, monga mavitamini a B (B1, B2, B6, B9), vitamini C (zomwe zimapezeka mobwerezabwereza kuposa kabichi wamba), vitamini PP ndi carotene. Kabichi ali ndi riboflavin monga mkaka.

Chifukwa cha mmene zimakhalira, ziphuphu za Brussels zimakhala ndi mankhwala.

Ndikofunikira! Madzi a ku Brussels amamera m'zinthu zazikulu zimakhudza thupi ngati mankhwala ofewetsa tuvi tolimba.

Sok Brussels zimamera kubwezeretsa ziphuphu. Ndiwothandiza kwambiri kwa anthu omwe ali ndi shuga. Madzi ali ndi anti-infective, hematopoietic ndi odana ndi yotupa zotsatira.

Zipatso za Brussels zimapangitsa machiritso achilonda ndipo zimakhala zovuta.

Ndikofunikira! Zomera za Brussels siziyamikiridwa kuti zigwiritsidwe ntchito ndi kuchuluka kwa acidity m'mimba.

Komanso, ziphuphu za Brussels zimatha kudyedwa ndi anthu omwe amatsatira makilogalamu kapena amafuna kulemera. 100 g kabichi ali ndi 35 kcal okha. Choncho, 1 kg ya kalori ya masamba yofanana ndi 100 g ya nkhumba.

Tinakuuzani zonse zokhudza kulima kwa Brussels ku nyumba, kunalongosola malamulo a kusamalira ndi ulimi wa ulimi wothirira, kuphunzitsidwa kubzala mbande ndikuwononga tizirombo. Tsatirani malamulo omwe tatchulidwa pamwambapa, ndipo mutha kupeza zokolola zambiri.