Quince: kubwera ndi kusamalira

Pogulitsa nthawi zambiri amapezeka zipatso zazikulu zonunkhira, monga maapulo kapena mapeyala, otchedwa "quince". Zili ndi katundu wothandiza kwambiri, koma chifukwa chachitsitsimutso chofunika cha mbewuyo ndikofunikira kupereka zinthu zabwino zowonjezera ndi chitukuko. Tiyeni tiyese kupeza chomwe quince chiri ndi momwe tingasamalire bwino.

Ndipotu, ndi ofanana kwambiri ndi mtengo wa apulo ndi peyala, monga momwe zilili ndi banja limodzi ndi iwo - rosaceous. Komabe, quince ndi mtundu wosiyana wa zomera, zomwe zimaphatikizapo mitundu ingapo. Kulima, otchuka kwambiri ndi quince ndi lalikulu-fruited.

Mukudziwa? Quince ali ndi zakudya zambiri: mavitamini C, E, B1, B2, B6, PP, carotene, pectin, salt ya potassium, phosphorous, chitsulo ndi mkuwa, ndipo ali ndi zotsutsana ndi zotupa, zokopa komanso zakuthambo. Amatchedwanso "apulo ya golidi".

Mmene mungakulire ndi quince m'dziko, kusankha malo

Zomera zapakati - chomera chakummwera, koma ndizolimba komanso zosasamala zikakula. Malo omwe quince adzakulira ayenera kuyatsa bwino ndi kutetezedwa ku ma drafts, mwinamwake simungakhoze kuyembekezera kukolola bwino. Ndi bwino kubzala quince pakati pa munda, koma nthawi yomweyo mitengo yoyandikana nayo iyenera kukhala patali kuposa mamita 2, kuti musalowetse dzuwa.

Ndikofunikira! Kupukuta mungu kumathandiza kuti pakhale zokolola zabwino za quince. Kuti muchite izi, mtengo umodzi wa zipatso wa banja uwu uyenera kukula pa chiwembu: wina quince, apulo kapena peyala mtengo.

Choyenera kukhala maziko a quince

The quince ali ndi mizu, choncho imakonda loamy nthaka yathanzi. Quince adzakuliranso pa dothi lopanda mchenga, koma zokolola zidzakhala zoipa kwambiri. Ikhoza kukula bwino m'madera omwe madzi akumwa sali pafupi ndi mita imodzi kuchokera pamwamba.

Chiyenera kukhala kuwala, kutentha ndi chinyezi

Kudziwa momwe mungamere ndi quince mu kanyumba kanu ka chilimwe, mukhoza kupeza zokolola zabwino za zipatso. Choncho, imafuna kuwala kochuluka, koma imatsitsa chinyezi. Ichi ndi chomera chokonda kutentha, choncho ndibwino kuti pafupifupi kutentha kwapachaka tsiku ndi tsiku kudzapitirira + 9 ° C.

Chimene muyenera kudziwa mutabzala quince

Pofuna kulima bwino quince ayenera kusunga malamulo odzala ndi kusamalira.

Kukonzekera kwa dothi

Nthanga za quince zingabzalidwe kumayambiriro a masika kapena autumn mu dzenje lokonzedwa bwino ndi pafupifupi masentimita 40 ndi kupitirira masentimita 60 mpaka 80, pansi pazigawo zazing'ono zadothi. Masiku angapo musanadzalemo, muyenera kusakaniza organic ndi mineral feteleza, mwachitsanzo, 50 g wa phulusa la nkhuni ndi 150 g wa superphosphate ndi dothi ndikudzaza dzenjelo. Ngati nthaka yayamba, mukhoza kuwonjezera katsulo kakang'ono.

Kodi kubzala quince

Mukamabzala quince, chotsani nthaka kuchokera ku dzenje lakudzala, ikani mmera mu dzenje, ikani mizu yake mu malo osanjikiza ndikuphimba ndi nthaka yochotsedwa. Mukamadzala mmera, onetsetsani kuti khosi lawo lili pamtunda. Dothi pozungulira nyemba pang'ono, osakhudza mizu ya khosi. Pangani mzere wa pafupi-tsinde pofuna kusungirako madzi mwa kuwaza mthunzi wadothi 5-7 masentimita pamwamba pozungulira mphepo. Kenako tsitsani mmera ndi 30-40 malita a madzi ndipo, pamene madzi akumwa, perekani ndi nthaka youma ndikupera ndi peat kapena masamba owuma. Kuti ukhale ndi mizu yabwino, nthambi za mmera zikhoza kufupikitsidwa ndi 1/3 - 1/2 kutalika, malingana ndi kukula kwake. Dulani zowonjezera 1-2 masentimita pamwamba pa impso. Ngati pali masamba pa nyemba, theka lawo liyenera kuchotsedwa.

Kupaka zovala ndi kuthirira kwa quince pa nyengo ya dacha

Pa zambiri kuthirira quince akuyankha kuwonjezeka zokolola. Choncho, pa nyengo yokula, zomera zimayenera kuthirizidwa bwino katatu: Musanayambe maluwa, kuti mukhale ovary bwino, mu June pakukula kwa mtengo ndi zipatso, kumapeto kwa chilimwe kutsanulira zipatso. Madzi okwanira imodzi ayenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito pa ulimi umodzi wothirira, ndi mtengo waukulu - mpaka 800 l, kuti mutenge mtengo wonse wa mtengo bwino.

Zomwe zimakhala zokhazokha zimathandizanso feteleza ndi maonekedwe apamwamba. Kumapeto kwa nyengo, potulutsa nthaka, nitrojeni feteleza ya 25-30 g pa 1m² kapena zovuta feteleza zamchere za 50 g pamtengo zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pambali yowongoka. Ngati sizingatheke kuthira manyowa m'chaka, ndiye kuti mpaka theka la chilimwe mukhoza kudyetsa nayitrogeni feteleza mwa kuchepetsa 10 g wa feteleza ndi 10 malita a madzi (mwabwino bwino adakumba kuzungulira mphepo ya korona). Mukhozanso kudyetsa mtengo ndi mankhwala osakaniza omwe amadzipukutira m'madzi 5-10.

Pambuyo kudyetsa, quince ayenera kuthirira mochuluka kuti feteleza ndi wogawa mogawanika. Pakugwa, phosphate feteleza, 20 g pa 1m² ndi feteleza monga mtundu wa mulch pa mtengo wa mtengo, ndiye kukumba pansi pa hafu ya bayonet. Pamodzi ndi autumn ndi nyengo yozizira, izi feteleza zidzalowa pang'onopang'ono mu nthaka ndikudyetsa quince.

Thandizo m'zaka zoyambirira za moyo, momwe mungamangire quince

Mukhoza kugula mbande zomwe quince imadziphatikizidwa kwa mayi ndikukula mu mawonekedwe a mtengo, ngakhale kuti nthawi zambiri imakula ndi chitsamba.

Ndikofunikira! Pogula quince mbande, samalani. Odyetsa amapanga mitundu kuti igwiritsidwe ntchito ngati katundu kwa mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya quince ndi peyala. Izi quince adzakhala ndi zipatso zazing'ono ndi zochepa zokolola. Zimasiyana ndi masamba ang'onoang'ono obala zipatso.

Kuti quince shrub pa kanyumba kanu kakhale ndi mawonekedwe okongola, ayenera kumangidwa atabzalidwa. Chithandizocho chimayikidwa pansi pa dzenje, momwe quince imabzalidwa, ndipo imayenera kukhala 1-1.5 mamita pamwamba kuposa nthambi za mmera. M'pofunika kumangiriza nthambi zonse kuti zithandizidwe, kuti pakhale kusiyana pakati pawo. Pamene mmera umakula, mapiri ayenera kukwera pamwamba kuti quince silingamvere kapena kupumula. Pamene mmera uli wolimba ndipo umayamba kubala chipatso, chithandizo chimachotsedwa.

Zomwe zimapangidwira ndikupanga momwe mungachitire molondola

Poyambira kumayambiriro kwa autumn, chomeracho sichitha masamba ambiri, choncho kudulira mitengo yabwino kumachitika kumayambiriro kasupe, musanayambe Mphukira. Chotsani ofesi yonse yowonongeka ndi yozizira. Komanso, kuti mukolole bwino, muyenera kufupikitsa kukula kwa chaka chatha - nthambi mpaka 50 cm ndi 1/3, yayitali ndi 1/2, pamene nthambi zowonjezereka zikufupikitsidwa. Ndiyeneranso kuonetsetsa kuti pakati pa korona sikunakwaniridwe komanso kuyamwa bwino, ndipo nthambi zina zimachotsedwa.

Ndikofunikira! Ndi kudulira kwambiri zipatso zambiri zingathe kumangidwa, zomwe, chifukwa cha katundu wolemetsa, sizidzakhala zazikulu.

Quince kufalitsa

N'zosavuta kufalitsa quince, ndipo izi zikhoza kuchitika m'njira zosiyanasiyana. Chophweka ndi kubalana ndi cuttings ndi mizu mphukira. Cuttings kwa kubzala amadulidwa mu April pamene masamba ali kale pachimake. Mbewu zapakati pa chaka ndizofunikira pa ntchito yobzala zakuthupi, makamaka kuchokera m'munsi mwa nthambi za mtengo, zomwe zingakhale zatsalira pa kudulira. Pakuti chodzala pamasamba ayenera kukhala 5-6 masamba (m'munsi kudulidwa nthawi yomweyo pansi pa impso, ndipo chapamwamba - pamtunda wa 2-3 masentimita kuchokera chapamwamba impso, kotero kuti pamene cuttings youma, impso akhala moyo). Masamba pamasamba achotsedwa kwathunthu.

Cuttings akuzama mu pafupifupi 2-3 masamba okonzedwa mu nthaka yofulidwa. Pofuna kuti mapulitsi apamwamba apulumuke apitirize, mukhoza kuwaphimba ndi filimuyo pomanga chochepa chobiriwira. Pambuyo pa masiku 20, zidutswazo zimayamba mizu ndipo kugwa zimatha kuziika pamalo osatha.

Kukula kwazu kumadulidwa ndi kachidutswa kakang'ono ka khungwa, kuti mizu ikhale yosasunthika. N'zotheka kuchita zimenezi nthawi yachisanu ndi yoyambilira, ndipo pamene mubzala pa sapling, mzu wa pakati nthawi zambiri umfupikitsidwa kotero kuti mbali yotsatira imayamba kukula mofulumira ndipo masamba achotsedwa (kupatulapo apamwamba). Pakuti mbande zotero zimasowa mthunzi pang'ono.

Kuti kubereka kubwereke, m'dzinja, nkofunika kugwadira nthambi zotsika, ndi kudula makungwa, kuphimba ndi dziko lapansi. M'chaka, mizu imapangidwira pamalo amodzi a makungwa, ndipo mu kugwa, zigawozo zimasiyanitsidwa ndi chomera cha amayi ndikubzala mosiyana. Quince samabala molakwika ndi chithandizo cha katemera. Good varietal cuttings akhoza kuphatikizidwa pa kukula kale mitengo mu kasupe, pamene kwambiri kuyamwa kutaya akuyamba. Nthanga za quince zimabzalidwa pa mbande yapachakayi ndi mphukira (diso), ndipo njira iyi ya katemera ikhoza kuchitika m'chilimwe mu July-August.

Mukudziwa? Monga katundu kwa quince obereketsa ntchito osati mitundu ina ya quince, komanso phiri phulusa ndi hawthorn..

Kufalitsa mbewu ndilo lalitali kwambiri lomwe likukula. Pakufala kwa mbewu, mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya quince ikhoza kusungidwa, komabe mbewuzi zimakhala ndi mizu yabwino komanso zimakula mofulumira, choncho nthawi zambiri zimakula ngati zamasamba osiyanasiyana.

Mbewu za kubzala zimayenera kusonkhanitsa kuchokera ku zipatso zakupsa, kutsuka bwino ku ntchentche ndikuma. Asanayambe kubzala, iwo ali stratified kwa miyezi 2-3. M'dzinja, mbewu zikhoza kufesedwa kale pamtunda, ndiye stratification idzakhala yachilengedwe ndipo idzawonekera nthawi ya masika. Komanso, mbewu zimatha kuikidwa pa stratification kumayambiriro kwa February ndipo kumapeto kwa April nayenso anabzala poyera.

Pa nthawi ya kukula kwa mbande ayenera kubzala kachiwiri: Mitengo yomwe imakhala ndi masamba awiri enieni amatsukidwa kwa nthawi yoyamba (amafesedwa patali mtunda wa masentimita asanu), kachiwiri ndikofunika kubzala mbande pafupifupi mwezi umodzi mutatha kubzala (patali 17-20 cm). M'chaka chachiwiri cha nyengo yokula, amatha kubzalidwa pamalo osatha kapena amagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati katundu.

Ndikofunikira! Quince wakula kuchokera ku mbewu, adzabala chipatso pambuyo pake kubereka vegetatively.

Quince: kukolola ndi kusungirako

Zipatso za quince wamba m'chilimwe pafupifupi musamakula ndikuyamba kudzaza kumapeto kwa August. Iwo samaopa frosts, kotero iwo amafunika kukolola kumapeto kwa October, kuwalola iwo kuti akule bwino. Pofuna kusungirako nthawi yokolola, quince ikukololedwa ndi dzanja, kudula kapena kuchotsa chipatso, kuwateteza kuti asagwe.

The quince amasungidwa nyengo yozizira pa kutentha kwa -2 ... -5 ° ะก. Mu autumn, quince zipatso ndi olimba, otsika yowutsa mudyo, tart, ndi lokoma kukoma. Mwatsopano, iwo sagwidwa ngati chakudya, koma zakudya zokoma kwambiri ndi zonunkhira, zoteteza, compotes, ndi marmalade amapangidwa. Zigawo za quince zikhoza kuikidwa mu tiyi m'malo mwa mandimu. Pakati yosungirako, zipatso zimakhala zokoma kwambiri, zofewa ndi zokoma.

Mukudziwa? Mawu akuti marmalade m'Chipwitikizi "marmelo" amatanthauza "quince puree".

Quince - mtengo wangwiro wa munda wako. Sizothandiza kokha, komanso kukongoletsera kwambiri: masamba ake sakhala ndi matenda ndipo amakhalabe okongola m'chilimwe, ndipo kugwa kumakhala kuwala kofiira komanso kuchedwa mochedwa. Chomerachi ndi chomera chabwino cha uchi.