Mitundu ya tulips, magulu ndi magulu a maluwa

Chifukwa cha mitundu yowala komanso yosiyanasiyana, mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya maluwa, tulips ndi maluwa olemekezeka kwambiri kuchokera ku chiwawa cha masika. Mtundu wa tilip ndi wa banja la kakombo. Ngakhale m'zaka za zana la makumi asanu ndi limodzi mphambu zisanu ndi chimodzi, chigwacho chinabweretsedwa ku Western Europe.

Kuyambira kale, mitundu ya tulip yakhala ikufotokozedwa nthawi zambiri, koma kawirikawiri chifukwa cha kusiyana kwachilengedwe ndi kosavuta, zomera za mitundu yofananayo zafotokozedwa mosiyana.

Zotsatira zaposachedwapa zikugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi chigawo cha 1981 International Tulip, chomwe chinasinthidwa mu 1996, kumene mitundu yonse ya tulips inagawidwa m'magulu anayi ndi makalasi 15 omwe ali nawo.

Magulu atatu oyambirira, omwe ali ndi makalasi 11, amagawidwa ndi maluwa kumayambiriro a maluwa, maluwa akuda komanso maluwa oyambirira. Zilonda zakutchire ndi zakunja zomwe zinachokera kwa iwo zinaphatikizidwira ku gulu 4.

Mukudziwa? Bungwe lachifumu la ogulitsa mbewu za babu, lomwe linakhazikitsidwa ku Holland mu 1860, ndilo mayiko ovomerezeka akulembetsa mitundu yatsopano ya tulip. Pafupifupi mbiri ya 12 tlipi yakhala ikufotokozedwa m'mbiri yonse, ndipo m'zaka makumi awiri mphambu makumi awiri zapitazo mitundu ya mitundu iwiri ya mitundu yosiyanasiyana ndi mitundu ya tulips imakula potsatsa malonda.

Maluwa oyambirira

Mapupa a gulu ili amasintha pamaso pa onse mu April. Izi ndi maluwa ochepa kwambiri omwe ali ndi kutalika kwa masentimita 15 mpaka 40. Peduncles ndi amphamvu ndi osatha, okhala ndi mphepo yamkuntho yolimba.

Zovuta zam'mbuyo zoyambirira

Kalasi 1 imaphatikizapo tulips ndi kutalika kwa 25-40 masentimita ndi maluwa ngati mawonekedwe a ellipse kapena galasi, yokhala ndi mapa 6, omwe amavumbulutsidwa bwino, chifukwa chake maluwa sali oyenera kudula. Mitundu ya tulips ya kalasiyi ndi yaikulu kwambiri ya pinki, yachikasu ndi yofiira.

Odziwika kwambiri oyambirira ndi yaitali maluwa. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri kuti alandile msanga, mu Januwale-March, maluwa mu nyengo yotentha, akukula m'mabedi a maluwa.

Terry oyambirira tulips

Kufotokozera za tulips m'kalasi 2: pansi pa tulips 15-30 masentimita pamwamba, maluwa ndi aakulu, mpaka masentimita 8 m'mimba mwake, amakhala ndi masamba 15-20 ndipo ambiri amakhala achikasu-lalanje ndi mithunzi yofiira.

Kuthamanga kwa nthawi yayitali, kumasiyana ndi chinthu chochepa chochulukitsa. Ndibwino kugwiritsa ntchito ma tulips kutsogolo kwa mabedi, kukongoletsera kapena kukakamiza miphika.

Ndikofunikira! Kuti mukhale ndi distillation yabwino bwino muyenera kusankha mitundu yoyenera, kukonzekera dothi ndikupanga kutentha kofunikira.

Kupakatirana maluwa

Tilipiyasi yothamanga mkati imatenga nthawi ya maluwa a tulips a gulu loyamba ndikuyamba pachimake kumapeto kwa mwezi wa April - kumayambiriro kwa May. Mitengo ya mitundu iyi ndi yamphamvu, 40-80 masentimita wamtali, maluwa ndi osavuta. Mitundu yonse yamtunduwu imagawidwa m'magulu awiri: kupambana-tulips ndi Darwin hybrids.

Triumph tulips

Maulendo amtunduwu amapezeka popyola Darwin ndi ma tlips oyambirira, omwe amapezeka m'kalasi losiyana. Amadziwika ndi maluwa oyambirira kuyambira kumapeto kwa mwezi wa April ndipo amagwiritsidwa ntchito mofulumira pofuna kukakamiza mafakitale.

Izi ndi zazifupi ndi zazikulu za tulips ndi kutalika kwa masentimita 70, maluwa aakulu omwe satayika mawonekedwe a galasi. Maluwa a mitundu yosiyanasiyana - kuchokera ku zoyera mpaka kufiira, kuphatikizapo mitundu iwiri. Ndibwino kuti mukuwerenga kudula ndi kukongoletsa flowerbeds.

Darwin hybrids

Darwin hybrids amapezeka podutsa tulips ya Foster ndi timatumba ta Darwin - izi ndi tulips ndi zamphamvu, masentimita 80, peduncle ndi zazikulu - mpaka masentimita 10, ndi maluwa okwera pansi.

Maluwawo ndi owala kwambiri, omwe ali ndi mitundu yofiira ndi yachikasu, makamaka monochromatic, komanso imakhala ndi mitundu iwiri yamitundu yokhala ndi malire kapena malire ofanana, otchedwa lawi la moto, osati osiyana ndi kachilomboka.

Mitundu yambiri ya Darwin yambiri imabzala zomera. Darwin hybrids ndi otchuka kwambiri, kulekerera kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka ntchito, amagwiritsidwa ntchito pokakamiza ndi kudula pa mafakitale. M'chilengedwe, pachimake kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa May. Kulimbana ndi chisanu.

Maluwa ochedwa

Gululi likuphatikizapo chiwerengero chachikulu cha magulu a tulips, omwe amadziwika ndi nthawi yamaluwa - kuchokera pakati pa May.

Zambiri zochedwa tulips

Kalasi ya tulips yochedwa mochedwa imaphatikizapo mitundu yokhala ndi chigoba chokhala ndi goblet chokhala ndi zofiira 6, zazikulu, zosalala, zam'mbali komanso zapakati. Izi zikuphatikizapo mitundu yayitali kwambiri - mpaka 80 cm ndi pamwamba.

Mtundu wa mitundu ndi wosiyana kwambiri - kuchokera kuwala ndi wosakhwima mpaka mdima ndi wowala. Pali mitundu iwiri yofiira ndi mitundu yambiri. Mapupa a kalasiyi ali ndi kuchulukanso kwa kubereka, ali oyenerera kwambiri kudula, koma chifukwa cha nthawi yamaluwa, mitundu yosiyanasiyana yokha imagwiritsidwa ntchito kukakamiza.

Lily akulira

Maluwa a tulips a kalasiyi ndi osavuta, mu mawonekedwe ofanana ndi maluwa. Makhalidwe awo ali pafupifupi masentimita 10 m'litali, ndipo malekezero ake amatsika kunja. Peduncles 50-65 masentimita wamtali, amphamvu.

Maluwa a mitundu yosiyana, awiriwa ndi amitundu awiri. Iwo amakula pakati pa oyamba mu gulu lawo. Anali kukongoletsa mabedi, kudula ndi kukakamiza.

Kuwombera tulips

Kalasiyi imaphatikizapo mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya tulips, m'mphepete mwa mapiri omwe ali ndi mpeni wodula bwino, chifukwa maluwawo amakhala okongola komanso okongola kwambiri.

Maluwa amamera mosiyanasiyana, nthawi zambiri amakhala ophweka, koma mitundu yokongola kwambiri yamitundumitundu imamera. Nkhumba nthawi zambiri zimakhala zozungulira, koma zimanenedwa.

Mitengo yambiri yokhala ndi mabala a mitundu yosiyanasiyana: kuchokera koyera kupita ku chokoleti yakuda, zonse zomveka komanso zoyambirira ndi zosiyana. Kutalika kwa peduncle ndi 50-65 masentimita. Tilipasi zotere zimakonda kwambiri, zimagwiritsidwa ntchito polima m'minda, mu flowerbeds, pofuna kudula ndi kukakamiza.

Mukudziwa? Mbalame zoyambirira zamitundu yosiyanasiyana zinamangidwa mu 1930 pansi pa dzina lakuti "Sandyu", kutanthauza "chomera chodyera chomwe chimagwira tizilombo." Pang'onopang'ono, "kudandaula" kwa chibadwidwe kunatheratu ndipo mitundu yotereyo inakula kwambiri.

Zithupi zamdima

Tilipu zobiriwira (kapena zobiriwira), nsana za pamimba zimakula ndipo zimakhala ndi zobiriwira kunja kwa nthawi yonse ya maluwa. Petals 5-7 masentimita pamwamba, ozungulira mawonekedwe kapena okhala ndi malekezero ake, m'mphepete mwa maluwawo amakhala pang'ono akuyang'ana mkati kapena kupindika kunja, chifukwa izi zimakhala zooneka bwino komanso zooneka bwino.

Mitengo ya tchire imakhala yosiyana - kuyambira 30 mpaka 60 masentimita, ili ndi masamba ang'onoang'ono, omwe amakhala pachimake mpaka kumapeto kwa May. Mtundu wa maluwa ukuchokera ku zoyera mpaka kufiira, kuphatikizapo mitundu iwiri, koma kuwala kobiriwira tulips kuyang'ana mwachikondi kwambiri.

Kalasiyi siinali yambiri, ku Netherlands mu 2014 chifukwa cha malonda zokha 21 zokha za ma tulips omwe adakula. Mitambo ya tchire imagwiritsidwa ntchito pocheka ndi kupanga maluwa.

Rembrandt Tulips

Kalasiyi imaphatikizapo mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya tupi. Ndiloling'ono kwambiri komanso malinga ndi mndandanda wa 1981 umaphatikizapo mitundu itatu yokha, kumene mitundu yosiyanasiyana imafalitsidwa. Mitundu yowonongeka ndi mavitamini a variegation sizinaphatikizidwe.

Kutalika kwake kwa Rembrandt tulips pakati pa 40-70 masentimita. Maluwawo ali mawonekedwe a galasi, ali ndi mapiko aakulu, osasunthika 7-9 masentimita.

Maluwawo ndi oyera, achikasu, ofiira ndi mawanga ndi mabala osiyana (kuchokera ku buloni mpaka ku mdima wofiirira). Kuphulika kuyambira pakati pa May. Amagwiritsa ntchito mabedi ndi kudulira.

Ndikofunikira! Matenda a variegated, omwe amakhudza mtundu wa pigment m'magulu a tulips, kuwapangitsa kukhala variegated, anapezedwa ndi asayansi mu 1928. Kuyambira nthawiyi, ma tulips sagwedezeka chifukwa cha malonda ndipo akuyesera kuwononga. Omwe amanyamula kwambiri tizilombo toyambitsa matenda - tizilombo timayamwa timadzi tomwe timatuluka kuchokera ku matenda mpaka ku thanzi labwino (thrips, nsabwe za m'masamba), zimatha kupatsira zomera m'munda, kudula odwala ndi owathanzi ndi mpeni umodzi.

Mapulotiti a parrot

Petals wa parrot tulips si wofanana woboola, iwo kwambiri kudula m'mphepete, kawirikawiri nsalu, wavy, wopotoka ndi kuwoneka ngati nthenga yowonongeka mbalame. Maluwawo amawoneka osadabwitsa kwambiri.

Mtundu wa maluwa umaphatikizapo mtundu wonse wa tulips, woyera kupita ku maroon wakuda, komanso awiri ndi atatu. Maluwa amatseguka, kufika pamtunda wa masentimita 20.

Peduncles 40-70 masentimita wamtali nthawi zambiri amavutika chifukwa cha nyengo yoipa chifukwa cholemera masamba. Anagwiritsa ntchito kudula, kubzala patsogolo pa mabedi kuti awonetsedwe bwino ndikuwunika quirkiness.

Terry akuchedwa tulips

Mafuta otchedwa late terri tulips ali ndi mapepala ambiri ndipo amawoneka ngati peonies, choncho amatchedwanso peony. Mankhwalawa amathandiza kwambiri, 30-60 masentimita wamtali, nthawi zina mpaka mamita 1, omwe nthawi zambiri mvula ndi mphepo sizilimbana ndi kulemera kwakukulu kwa maluwa.

Mafuta otchedwa latery tulips amatha kusiyana ndi maluwa otchedwa terry tulips oyambirira komanso ozungulira maluwa, kuphatikizapo lilac, mpaka mtundu wofiirira, ndi mtundu wa maonekedwe awiri.

Mbali yapadera ya latery terri tulips ndi yotsiriza komanso yotalika kwambiri maluwa - mpaka masabata atatu, kutha kumayambiriro kwa June. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito makamaka kuti azikongoletsa mabedi m'minda ndi m'mapaki.

Mukudziwa? Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya ma tuli tulips imadziwikanso kuchokera m'zaka za zana la XVII, koma inkawoneka kuti ndi yosawerengeka ndipo sinasinthe kwa zaka mazana ambiri. Ndi obadwa zaka makumi awiri okha omwe adayamba kupanga mitundu yatsopano ya terry.

Mitundu ya tulips ndi hybrids

Gulu lomaliza limaphatikizapo makalasi anayi, atatu mwawo ndi mitundu yosiyana ndi mitundu yambiri ya zinthu zamoyo zomwe zimapangidwira kuti zamoyo zikhale zatsopano (zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga mitundu yatsopano ndi hybrids), ndipo lachinayi ndi mitundu yonse ya tulips.

Kaufman tulip, mitundu yake ndi hybrids

Maluwa a Kaufman amakhala pachimake pakati pa oyambirira, kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa April. Peduncles wa mitundu iyi ndi yotsika - 15-25 masentimita, maluwa a elongated mawonekedwe, mokwanira kutsegula, ali ndi mawonekedwe ooneka ngati nyenyezi. Mtundu wa maluwa kawirikawiri, imakhala yachikasu, yachikasu ndi yofiira, maluwawo amakhala amitundu yosiyanasiyana mkati ndi kunja.

Kwenikweni sangafike ku variegation kachilomboka. Masamba a mitundu ina ali ndi zidutswa kapena mikwingwirima ya mtundu wofiira. Chifukwa cha msinkhu waung'ono sakhala woyenerera kudula, koma amagwiritsidwa ntchito kukakamiza, kulima m'mapiri a mapiri, m'mphepete mwa miyala, pansi pa mitengo.

Foster's tulip, mitundu yake ndi hybrids

Maluwa a Foster tulips ndi akuluakulu, oboola kapena ophika, okhala ndi mapafupi mpaka 15 masentimita m'lifupi ndi masentimita 8 m'lifupi, samatsegula ndi kufanana ndi ma crocuses akuluakulu. Maluwawo ndi ofunika kwambiri, amthunzi wofiira, omwe sakhala achikasu ndi pinki.

Mafelemu achilengedwe a Foster ndi osagwirizana ndi kachilombo ka variegation. Peduncles a sing'anga kutalika - 30-50 masentimita. Masamba ndi owopsa, wavy, nthawi zina ndi zofiirira. Ntchentche zimatulutsa pachimake kumapeto kwa April. Wambiri pansi pa mitengo, mu miyala ya miyala, yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito kukakamiza ndi kudula.

Nkhumba ya tchire, mitundu yake ndi hybrids

Maluwa a tulip a mtundu wa Greig ndiwopangidwa mofanana ndi mbale yowirikiza, kumene zimkati zimatsekedwa ndipo zakunja zimatsekedwa pakati. Mtundu wa maluwa kuchokera wofiira mpaka wachikasu-lalanje ndi pinki, nthawi zambiri posiyanitsa edging kapena chitsanzo, pali mitundu yofiira ndi terry maluwa.

Kutalika kwa tsinde ndi 20-30 cm, koma pali hybrids mpaka 70 cm wamtali. Chimake mu theka lachiwiri la mwezi wa April. Mbali yapadera ndi masamba omwe ali ndi mizere yofiira kapena mawanga. Anagwiritsa ntchito kukakamiza ndi kukongoletsa m'munda.

Mitundu yakuda yamatope, mitundu yawo ndi hybrids

M'kalasi lachiwiri la 15, mitundu yonse ya maulendo oyenda kumtunda, ma hybrids, komanso mitundu yomwe siidaphatikizidwe m'kalasi yapitayi 14 yaphatikizidwa. Kalasi iyi ya tulips imatchedwanso "zithupi zamatenda".

Nthawi zambiri amatha pachimake kumayambiriro kwa kasupe, amadumpha 20-35 masentimita, ambiri amadziwika ndi multicolor, ali ndi masamba osapyapyala, osakaniza kapena avy. Maluwa nthawi zambiri amafanana ndi asterisk, koma amathika komanso amakhala ndi mapafupi kwambiri.

Khalani oyera, achikasu kapena ofiira, kuphatikizapo lilac ndi pinki ya pinki, monophonic kapena ndi mtundu wosiyana wa pamakhala. Zilonda zakutchire zimatsutsana kwathunthu ndi kachilombo ka variegation ndipo zimagwiritsidwa ntchito bwino poswana.

Zinyama zakutchire zakutchire zimakula bwino. Chofunikira kwambiri pakupanga mapulani a alpine minda ndi minda yokongola ndi malo odyera.

Podziwa malongosoledwewo, funso limabwera: "Ndi mitundu ingati ya ma tulips alipo?". Ma Botanist a m'zaka za zana la 21 amatsutsana chifukwa cha zovuta zowonongeka za mtunduwu, kotero yankho likhoza kukhala pafupifupi - pali mitundu pafupifupi 80 ya tulips, ndipo aliyense wa iwo ndi wokondweretsa kwambiri.