Mmene mungamere ndikukula irgu m'munda wanu

Nthawi zambiri zimachitika kuti zomera zosadziŵika bwino zomwe zimafunikira kusamalidwa ndi kusamalidwa nthawi zonse zimapatsidwa chidwi, ndipo kudzichepetsa kumachiritsidwa mosasamala. Ndi chikhalidwe chotero ndi irga. Kawirikawiri amatha kuwona kwinakwake pamphepete mwa nyumba. Koma sikuti aliyense akudziwa kuti irga ndi chomera chodabwitsa kwambiri, chomwe chiri chofunika m'mayiko ambiri. Mu May, zimakondweretsa diso lomwe lili ndi maluwa okongola kwambiri, ofanana kwambiri ndi maluwa a chitumbuwa, ndipo mu September, Irga imabvala mukongoti wofiira ndi wachikasu. M'nkhaniyi muphunzira zinthu zambiri zosangalatsa za shrub irga: kubzala ndi kusamalira, kubereka, kulima, ndi zina zothandiza.

Ndikofunikira! Mitengo ya acid mu irgi ndi yochepa, kotero imatha kudyetsedwa bwino ndi anthu okhala ndi acidity.

Irga: kufotokoza kwa mbewu

Irga ali ndi mayina ambiri, kotero kufotokoza kwake kuli kosangalatsa. Ku England, shrub iyi imatchedwa shadbush, kutanthauza "mthunzi shrub"; Juniune - June mabulosi kapena serviceberry - mabulosi othandiza. Dzina lakuti currant (sinamoni) linaperekedwa kwa Irga chifukwa cha kufanana kwake ndi mphesa zing'onozing'ono. Ku Russia, irgu amatchedwa anazale kapena toffee. Ku North America - saskatoon (saskatoon). Dzina la Provencal la zomera izi ndi amelanche, lomwe kwenikweni limatanthauza "kubweretsa uchi".

Mitundu ya Irga ndi ya banja la Rosaceae. Zimaphatikizapo mitundu 18 (malinga ndi magwero ena - 25), ambiri omwe amakula ku North America. Nthawi zambiri Irga imapezeka pamphepete mwa nkhalango, kumalo otsetsereka a dzuwa, mumapiri. M'madera otseguka a Russia, makamaka dziko la Irga likukula, lomwe dziko lawo limatchedwa Caucasus ndi Crimea. Ku Ukraine, pafupifupi mitundu 10 ya zomera izi zimadziwika: spicy irga, Canadian irga, magazi ofiira irga ndi ena. Kaŵirikaŵiri amamera kuthengo. Chikhalidwe chikufalikira kudzera mwa mbalame, kotero irgu ikhoza kupezeka pamphepete mwa nkhalango.

Chomeracho sichita mantha ndi chilala ndi mphepo, zimakhala zabwino pamtunda uliwonse, kupatula malo osungirako madzi, siziwopsa ndi chisanu. Mphamvu ya Irriga imafotokozedwa mophweka: mizu ya chomera imapanga ma mita awiri mozama ndikusiyana pakati pa mamita awiri ndi hafu. Pa chifukwa chimenechi, irga sichiwopa mthunzi, mpweya woipa, sichiwopa matenda ndi tizilombo toononga, chikhalidwe chimakula mofulumira ndikulekerera kudulira. Pakati pa abale awo, irga ndi nthawi yaitali - zitsamba zambiri zimafika zaka makumi asanu ndi ziwiri kapena kuposerapo. Ndipo chofunika kwambiri, chomera ndicho chomera cha uchi.

Koma ngati mukufuna irga kukula pa chiwembu, osati kubzala ndi kudzikongoletsa ndikofunika, komanso kudziwa za zotsatira za zomera. Iwo ndi ochepa. The irke spikeberry ili ndi mizu yolimba, choncho iyenera kuchotsedwa nthawi zonse. Ndipo sikulakwa kubzala irgu pafupi ndi malo oyimika magalimoto - magalimoto a mitundu yowala angawonongeke ndi madontho omwe amasiya akugwa zipatso.

Mukudziwa? Zipatso za irgi ndizokoma kwambiri kotero kuti zimayenera "kugunda" zokolola - mbalame zimatulutsa zipatso zopsa ndi mphezi.

Kukonzekera kwa dothi ndi kusankhidwa kwa malo kwa zitsamba

Chomeracho ndi wodzichepetsa kwathunthu. Koma popeza irga ndi berry shrub yokhala ndi zipatso, amakonda dzuwa. Mbewu yabwino ingakololedwe ngati irga imabzalidwa mchenga sod-podzolic ndi loamy dothi lachonde.

Irga sachita mantha ndi mthunzi ndi kusowa kwa chinyezi, kotero zimatha kupereka gawolo pamtanda. Irga imabzalidwa mofanana ndi mabulosi ena a mabulosi, monga currants kapena gooseberries. Mbande imatsitsidwa pansi mu kugwa kapena kasupe 8 cm kuposa momwe iwo amakulira kale. Izi zimachitika kuti akule kuchuluka kwa mphukira. Njira yabwino kwambiri yabwino ndi yokongola ndiyo kudzala irgu ngati mpanda.

Mmene mungamere irgu

Ndibwino kuti mukulima zomera zitatu za m'munda. Pansi pa shrub iliyonse muyenera kutenga 16m² ya nthaka yachonde loamy ndi 9m² ya mchenga loam. Pakuti mbande kukonza maenje 80 masentimita m'kati ndi 40 cm chakuya. Mutabzala, tchire amathiridwa madzi, humus kapena peat amaikidwa panthaka pamwamba pake, ndi zofunika kuchepetsa gawo la chitsamba kufika 10 cm kuti masamba 4-5 akhale pamwamba pa nthaka. Nanga bwanji masamba a irgi, omwe amamera kumapeto kwa April, adzanena chithunzi ichi.

Mukudziwa? Irga ndi wodzichepetsa kotero kuti pansi pa chikhalidwe chilichonse chimabala chipatso chabwino.

Ndikufuna kumwa madzi

Zitsamba irgi mizu yodabzala mutabzala ndipo simukusowa chisamaliro chapadera, imakula ndi kubereka zipatso. Koma ndi okwanira komanso nthawi zonse kuthirira chiwerengero cha zipatso kumawonjezeka kwambiri. Dothi louma limateteza mizu bwino ndikulola shrub kukhala wathanzi komanso wamphamvu.

Zomwe zimavala irgi

M'chilimwe, irgiu imadyetsedwa ndi madzi osakaniza, omwe amakhala ndi madzi ndi ammonium nitrate pa mlingo wa 50 g pa shrub kapena 5 l ya 10% yothetsera zitosi za mbalame. Ndi bwino kudyetsa chomera madzulo mutatha kumwa madzi kapena mvula.

Momwe mungadulire chomera

Ndi bwino kupanga irgu mwa mawonekedwe a chitsamba chamagulu kuchokera ku mphukira zakuya, ndikuchotsa ofookawo.

Kudulira koyamba kwa shrub kumachitika panthawi yobzala, pa chomera chaching'ono osapitirira asanu ndi limodzi wathanzi wabwino. Kuchokera kwa iwo ndiye kumamera kukula. Mpaka zaka zitatu, mphukira zonse ziyenera kusungidwa, ndiyeno zosaposa zitatu za pachaka ziyenera kusiya. Nthambi zamphamvu ndi zathanzi zitsimikiziranso kusunga. Chaka chilichonse pa shrub ayenera kukhala nthambi 15 zosiyana siyana. Ngati kukula kwawo kumafalikira, kamodzi kamodzi pa zaka zinayi ndikuyenera kudulira. Koma ndondomeko yotereyi ingakhoze kuchitidwa kokha ndi tchire zomwe zakhala zikufika zaka khumi.

Kuti mukhale oyenera kuti mukolole, kuchepetsani nthambi kufupi ndi kutalika. Pambuyo kudulira, irga kumakula imakula mphukira.

Mbali za chisamaliro m'zaka zoyamba za moyo

M'chaka choyamba mutabzala, rye limakula bwino, kulima ndi kusamalira kumachitika popanda chilichonse. Chinthu chachikulu chomwe chimafunika kumayambiriro kwa masika, isanayambe kuphulika ndi kutayidwa, nthambi zonse zowonjezera za shrub ziyenera kudulidwa, kuchepetsa kutalika kwake kwa kotala.

Kudulira ndi kupanga chitsamba chachikulu

Chitsamba chokhala bwino cha irgi chimapatsa zipatso zambiri mobwerezabwereza kuposa zomera zomwe sizinadulidwe. Ngati irgu yakula ngati zokongola za munda, korona yake ifunikanso kukhala "wokongola". Koposa zonse, ndondomekoyi ikufunika nthambi zokhutira. Ndikofunika kudula chomera bwino kuti asamavulaze kwambiri kuposa zabwino.

Ntchito yaikulu ndi kubwezeretsa irgu. Pali mitundu iwiri ya mankhwala: kupatulira ndi kufupikitsa. Pamene kupatulira, korona wofooka, wodwala ndi wakukula kwambiri wa nthambi zimachotsedweratu. Kupukuta kumafunika chaka chilichonse. Pofupikitsa, nsonga zokhazokha zimachotsedwa, ndipo masamba angapo amakhala osagwirizana. Choncho, n'zotheka kusintha maonekedwe a korona, umakhala wochulukirapo komanso wambiri chifukwa cha mphukira zazing'ono.

Ngati mukufuna kudzaza chosowa pakati pa korona, muyenera kuchotsa kuthawa, ndikusiya impso zokhazokha, zomwe zimayikidwa mkati mwa shrub. Pambuyo pake, mphukira yowonongeka idzaphuka kuchokera ku Mphukira iyi. Fufuzani irgu kangapo: Pa nthawi yoyamba yothandizidwa, panthawi yopanga korona wachinyamata, komanso pamene chomera chikukwera mwamphamvu ndipo zokolola sizili dzanja.

Ndikofunikira! Zipatso za Berry zili ndi mavitamini a B, ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, pectin ndi beta-sitosterol, yomwe imakhala yotsutsana kwambiri ndi mafuta m'thupi.
Nthambi zoposa zaka zisanu ndi chimodzi zachotsedwa popanda kudandaula. Adzasinthidwa mwamsanga ndi mphukira zamphamvu. Kwa irgi kukula kwa zokongoletsa, korona amapangidwa pa maziko a ntchitoyo. Mwachitsanzo, ngati mpanda ukufunidwa kuchokera ku chomera, nthambi zimfupikitsidwa m'litali ndi m'lifupi.

Kudulira shrub irga yomwe imapangidwa kumapeto kwa kutupa kwa impso kapena kugwa, pamene masamba akugwa.

Momwe mungalengezerere moyenera

Pali njira zingapo zoberekera shadberry:

  • mbewu;
  • kulumikiza;
  • zosokoneza;
  • Kusiyana kwa chitsamba.
Mitengo yomwe imakula kuchokera ku mbewu imakula bwino komanso mofulumira. N'zotheka kufalitsa zitsamba za irgi mwa kugawaniza mphukira muzu, koma osati kale. Pofuna kupeza mbola, cuttings inoculate katundu. Kubereketsa irgi ndi njira yokondedwa ya alimi amaluwa. Yabwino ndi yophweka chodzala zakuthupi ndi zaka zitatu mbande zokhala ndi mizu yokwanira.

Cuttings

Odziwa munda wamaluwa amakonda kukula irga mwa kudula, chifukwa izi zimafuna kudziwa zina ndi zina. Kudula kuchokera ku chaka chatha kukudulidwa mu kugwa, ndiyeno kusungidwa kubzala mpaka masika, kukumba mu mchenga kapena dziko lapansi. Pakuti chitsa chigwiritse ntchito zaka ziwiri. Pamene kasupe imadzuka, zidutswazo zimakumbidwa, mizu imatsukidwa ndipo mitengo ikuluikulu imayikidwa: pamwamba pa impso ndi pansi pake. Pansi kumapeto kwa nyemba shadberry ndi lakuthwa ndipo amalowetsedwa muzitsulo. Malo awa ndi otetezedwa kwambiri ndi pulasitiki. Pambuyo pa kumtengowo, zomera zimayikidwa mu wowonjezera kutentha mpaka zitakula palimodzi. Zitsamba za Irgi zingakhale ngati katundu wa maapulo ndi mapeyala. Chomerachi chimapangitsa maluwa oyambirira ndi chisanu kukana mitengo ya zipatso.

Kusinthanitsa mbewu

Mu June kapena July, cuttings amadulidwa kuchokera pamwamba pa mphukira wazaka zisanu zakubadwa zitsamba. Kutalika, sayenera kukhala oposa 15 masentimita. Kuchokera ku phesi lirilonse, chotsani masamba apansi, kusiya masamba apamwamba. Mapiritsi okhala ndi zigawo zochepa amaikidwa maola 12 mu nthumwi yopanga mizu, kenako mizu imatsukidwa m'madzi oyera. Pambuyo pake, mukhoza kulima irgu ku dothi loyera mumadzi ozizira. Amachichita motere komanso pamtunda wa masentimita 4 kuchokera pamwamba pa nthaka ndi mchenga wolemera masentimita 10. Ndibwino kuti zidutswazo zikhale 20 cm pansi pa denga la wowonjezera kutentha.

Kudzala cuttings, kutsanulira iwo kuti madzi apulumuke. Kutentha mkati mwa wowonjezera kutentha sikuyenera kupitirira 25 ° C. Kuti muchite izi, nkofunika nthawi ndi nthawi kuchotsa pamwamba pa wowonjezera kutentha ndi mpweya. Yang'anani nthaka - iyenera kukhala yonyowa. Pambuyo pa zidutswa za cuttings, mutenge kuchotsa dome la wowonjezera kutentha masana, ndipo atatha kukhala amphamvu, musayambe kuvala ngakhale usiku.

Pakatha masabata atatu, tizidulidwe timakhala ndi mizu yolimba, ndipo tidzakhala okonzeka kubzala ku bedi laling'ono. Pano iwo amafunika kukhala ndi feteleza ndi manyowa osakanizidwa ndi madzi mu chiŵerengero cha 1: 8, kapena ammonium nitrate kusungunuka m'madzi mu chidebe. Kusamalira cuttings kuli kosiyana ndi kusamalira wamkulu shrub, ndi kugwa kwotsatira iwo amaikidwira ku malo osatha.

Kubalanso poyika

Kwa njira iyi yobalera yoyenera chaka chimodzi chokha mphukira kapena nthambi za biennial zokhala ndi kukula kwakukulu. Akanike m'nyengo yachisanu, dzuwa litangoyamba kumera pang'ono. Pamwamba pamwamba pa tchire, zomwe zidzatengedwera, muyenera kukumba, kutsanulira fetereza ndi msinkhu. Pambuyo pake, pangani dothi ndikukhazikitsa mphukira zomwe zimakhala zochepa m'mitsempha. Matabwa amafunika kutsina. Pamene masamba akukula amawombera 12 cm mu msinkhu, ayenera kukhala theka ataphimbidwa ndi humus. Pamene mphukira imakula wina masentimita 15, ndondomeko iyenera kubwerezedwa. Zigawo zomwe zazika mizu zimabzalidwa potsatira kugwa kumalo osatha.

Kukula mbewu za shadberry

Izi ndi zabwino kwambiri, koma panthawi imodzimodziyo ndiyo njira yaitali kwambiri yolekerera irgi. Mbewu ingagulidwe kapena kusonkhanitsidwa pamodzi kuchokera ku zipatso zabwino. Sizouma, osasakanizidwa ndi mchenga ndikusungidwa pamalo ozizira (pansi, firiji) musanafese.. Ngati nyemba zimakonzekera, zidzakula bwino. Ikani pakati pa ubweya wa thonje wothira mu hydrogen peroxide ndi kukulunga chirichonse mu pulasitiki. Pitirizani kutero kwa miyezi inayi.

Mu kasupe, nyembazo zimabzalidwa pang'onopang'ono wowonjezera kutentha kwa mtunda wa masentimita 20 kuchokera kwa mzake. Kuwombera kudzawoneka masabata awiri kapena atatu. Mukhoza kubzala mbewu mu mabedi okonzekera bwino. Izi zidzakulitsa irgi panja. Mbewu idzakula m'chaka.