Kusamalira ndi kulima jujube

M'madera a nyengo zam'chilimwe zamakono, zimakhala zotheka kuona zomera zachilendo ndi zachilendo zomwe zimangokhala zokongoletsera, komanso zimabweretsa zokolola zothandiza. Choncho, m'nkhani ino tikambirana za imodzi mwa zomerazi, zomwe zimadziwika mwamsanga pansi pa "mayina" angapo: zizifus, unabi ndi Chinese.

Jujube: Kufotokozera Kwambiri

Mofanana ndi mbewu ina iliyonse, unabi ali ndi zodziwikiratu za kulima ndi kusamalira, komabe, musanayambe kuiganizira, muyenera kudziŵa bwino tsiku lachi China.

Jujube ndi chipatso cham'munda chomwe chakhala chikukula ku China kwa zaka zoposa 6000. M'deralo, mitundu yoposa 400 ikukula kumalo okwana mahekitala 200,000, omwe ndi ochuluka kwambiri kuposa gawo lomwe likukhala ndi zipatso zonse ku Ukraine.

Mukudziwa? Zipatso zamtengo wapatali za unabi ndizoyenera kuti zimamera m'mapiri, kumene nthaka sizachuluka kwambiri.
India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Algeria, Israel, Egypt ndi mayiko a Caucasus akhoza kudzitamandira m'madera akuluakulu ndi masiku otere. Kuwonjezera apo, posachedwapa akhala akuwakonda iwo ku USA, Italy, Spain, France, Russia ndi Ukraine.

Jujube woimiridwa ndi mtengo wawung'ono (kapena chitsamba chamtali) ndi kutalika kosaposa mamita asanu. Korona ndi yayikulu, kufalikira ndipo ili ndi mawonekedwe okongola kwambiri. Zowonjezera, mphukira zofiira zofiira zimakhala ndi mawonekedwe a mawondo a mawondo, ndi zofiira zochepa zomwe zimakhala pamtunda kufika masentimita atatu m'litali.

Zipatso za Unabi zimakhala zozungulira, zozungulira kapena peyala, 1.5 masentimita m'litali ndikulemera mpaka 50 g. Mtundu wawo ukhoza kukhala wosiyana kwambiri: kuchokera ku bulauni tofiira. Mankhwala a drupe (omwe ndi drupe ndi chipatso cha zizifus) ndi owopsa ndipo ali ndi kukoma kokoma kapena kokoma. Kawirikawiri, m'chilakolako ndi mtundu, zipatso za exotus zikufanana ndi zomwe zimawidwa apulo, ngakhale kuti zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi zinthu zambiri zomwe zimapangidwa (makamaka potaziyamu ndi magnesium ziyenera kudziwika).

Zingagwiritsidwe ntchito mwatsopano komanso zopangidwa kuchokera ku zizifus: kukonza mbatata yosakanizidwa, marmalades, compotes kapena zipatso zosakanizidwa. Amagwiritsidwanso ntchito kwambiri m'makampani ogulitsa nsomba. Mu chipatso chodetsedwa cha chipatso chingakhale zoposa chaka, popanda kutaya katundu wake wonse.

Komabe, kuti muwonjezere njirayi, muyenera kudziwa momwe mungasungire bwino zipatso za zizifusa. Mwachitsanzo, njira yosungirako yosungiramo mbeu inayake ndi yowuma kapena zipatso zouma zomwe zimayikidwa mu mtsuko wamagalasi wotsekedwa bwino, zimasiyidwa m'chipindamo ndi kutentha kwapakati (25 ° C). Mwatsopano, iwo amatha kuchoka mwakachetechete m'firiji kwa mwezi wathunthu.

Ndikofunikira! Popeza zipatso za unabi zilibe sera, zimakhala zosavuta kuuma dzuwa popanda kukonzekera kwina. Mu mawonekedwe amenewa, ali ndi 5% ya ma acid, 15-25% a shuga, 1.5-3% a mapuloteni, mpaka 2% ya wowuma, 3-4.5% mafuta ndipo mpaka 1.1% ya pectins.
Zipatso zouma ndi zatsopano za jujube zimagwiritsidwa bwino ntchito pochizira chimfine, mavuto a impso, chiwindi, m'mimba ndi mtima.

Kusintha nthawi komanso kusankha malo otsetsereka

Pambuyo pozindikira zomwe ziziphus ndi, ndikuganiza mwakukula kuti muzitha kumera kumudzi wanu, muyenera kudziwa zomwe zingakhale bwino kuti mufike kumayambiriro a masika, chifukwa nthawi ya kumayambiriro kwa autumn pali kuthekera kosavuta kwa unabi ndi kuyamba kwa chisanu.

Ndikofunikira! Mbali yodziwika bwino ya tsiku la Chitchaina ndi kukula kwake kochepa chaka choyamba mutabzala, motero, mapangidwe a korona sangayambe kale kuposa chaka chimodzi.
Zizifus amakonda kuwala kwambiri ndipo amakula bwino mderalo, ndipo maluwa nthawi zonse amakhala maluwa opanda kanthu. Ndicho chifukwa chake mbande za unabi ndizothandiza kusankha malo osabisika kuchokera kumalo osungira, koma kuyandikira kwa dzuwa.

Pofuna kutulutsa kasupe ka tsiku lachi China, kumtunda ndi kumunsi kwa mapiri a kum'mwera ndi kummwera chakumadzulo, komanso malo otetezeka ndi otetezedwa ndi abwino. Mtunda pakati pa zomera zoyandikana sayenera kukhala pansi pa 2-3 mamita.

Ntchito yokonzekera musanafike

Ngakhale kuti unabi ndi mbewu yachilendo kwa ife, kukula sikungakhale kovuta ndikusamalira bwino. Unabi ndi wodzichepetsa kwambiri pa nthaka, komabe amayankha feteleza yowonjezera ndi zokolola zambiri. Choncho, musanadzale zomera, m'pofunika kukonzekera maenje ndi kukula kwa mita kufika mita ndikuyambitsa mineral feteleza pamodzi ndi manyowa omwe amadzipangidwira (akhoza kuphatikizapo nthaka).

Ndikofunikira! Musanabzala mbande zizifus, nkofunika kukumbukira kuti korona ya unabi imakhala ikukula panthawi yomwe ikukula, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti ndibwino kutsatira ndondomeko yolima 3x4.

Kudzala mbande za jujube pa webusaitiyi

Posankha mitengo ya Chitchaina, perekani mitundu yoyamba ya chisanu yomwe idabzalidwa kuyambira March mpaka May kapena kuyambira October mpaka November. Mbewu zazing'ono zimayikidwa m'menje osapitirira 10 masentimita, ndipo mutabzala zimamwa madzi ambiri.

Ndikofunika kukumbukira kuti kuti tsiku la Chitchaina likhale labwino kwambiri, zizyphus zogwiritsira ntchito zamoyo zimaphatikizapo kulumikiza nthaka pansi pa zomera zazing'ono, zomwe zimalowetsedwa ndi kukumba. Mukamapanga mulching, zinthu zakuthupi zimapezeka pansi nthawi zonse.

Pambuyo poika mmera mu dzenje la umuna, mwalitseni bwino ndi dothi ndikudumpha. Pambuyo pake, mitengo yonse ikuluikulu iyenera kuthiridwa mosamala.

Mutha kugwiritsa ntchito mmera umene unali wamkulu mwachitsulo kuchokera ku mwala, koma pokhapokha mutha kuzindikira kuti njira yoswanayi ndi yovuta komanso yovuta.

Zizyphus Pollination

Zizifus ndi chomera chomera mungu womwe sungathe kubala zipatso zokha. Choncho, kuti mupeze mbewu, m'pofunika kudzala mitundu yambiri ya unabi nthawi yomweyo pa chiwembu chanu. Zomwe zimayandikana kwambiri (zowona, kuganizira zofunikira zonse), zimakhala zophweka kwambiri kupititsa mungu.

Kusamalira Jujube

Kudyetsa bwino ndi theka la kupambana, komabe mukufunikira kupereka chisamaliro choyenera cha zizifus. Ndipotu, izi sizowopsya, koma chinthu chofunikira ndikutsimikizira mbewuyo kuthirira nthawi yake, feteleza ndi udzu kuchotsedwa.

Kuthirira kumayenera kumachitika kawirikawiri komanso pang'onopang'ono, makamaka ngati kulibe mvula kwa nthawi yaitali. Kuyanika nthaka ndi koipa kwa unabi ndipo kumatha kukolola pang'ono.

Chifukwa cha mchitidwe wa mizu yake, ziziphus zimangokhala ndi mphepo yamkuntho, komanso zimakhala zosavuta kuti zipirire chilala. Pa nthawi yomweyi, sitiyenera kuiwala kuti chinyezi chochulukitsa chimavulaza chomera, kotero kuti kuthirira kuyenera kuyesedwa. Komanso, mu June, pamene chipatso chimayamba kukula, zomera zimakhala zouma, kotero madzi okwanira ayenera kuchotsedwa kwathunthu. Poyamba nyengo yokula, mukhoza kuyamba kudyetsa zizifus. Amachitidwa kawiri pa nyengo ndipo nthawi zambiri amagwiritsa ntchito "Crystal", amasungunuka mumadzi pamtunda wa 15-20 g pa 10 malita a madzi. Ndi kuyamba kwa full fruiting, chiwerengero cha kuvala chikuwonjezeka ndi kuwonjezera okonzeka kupanga mchere feteleza.

Kukula kwa Zizyphus kumakhala kovuta kwambiri, ndipo nthawi zambiri mbewu zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga mbeu pamunda wawo, zomwe zimamera ndikumera bwino. Kuphatikiza apo, mungathe kupanga zokolola zosasangalatsa komanso mothandizidwa ndi budding, koma ndizovuta kwambiri. Chifukwa chake, ambiri wamaluwa akhala akugula kugula mbande zokwanira kuchokera kwa akatswiri ovomerezeka.

Kusamalira unabi kumapangitsanso kuyeretsa kwachangu malowa kuchokera kwa namsongole omwe akufalikira, omwe ali oyandikana nawo kwambiri a zomera.

Asanafike nyengo yozizira ozizira mbande zazing'ono, ndi nsonga zawo zitakulungidwa muzosavala nsalu. Mitengo ya anthu akuluakulu imatha kutenthetsa mmadera okhawo kumene kutentha m'nyengo yozizira imagwera pansi -35 ° C.

Kukonza ndi kupanga korona unabi

Mofanana ndi zomera zina zambiri, tsiku la China liyenera kupanga korona, koma ndibwino kuti tichite njirayi 1-2 patapita zaka zowonjezereka, zomwe zingathandize kupeŵa kuvulala kwa unabi.

Kawirikawiri, korona imapatsidwa chikho chachikhomo mothandizidwa ndi nthambi zazikulu 4-5, zomwe zimayikidwa kuzungulira thunthu. Pankhaniyi, mphukira yaikulu iyenera kudula 15-20 masentimita, ndipo nthambi zina zifupikitsidwa pa msinkhu womwewo. Pa kukula ndi kupanga mapuloteni a zizyphus, kudulira kwadongosolo kwa nthambi zomwe zimakula mkati zimapangidwa nthawi ndi nthawi. Chomera chokongola ndi chokongola chidzakometsera munda uliwonse ndipo chidzakondweretsani ndi maluwa ake kwa nthawi yaitali.

Fruiting: kukolola jujube

Nthawi ya fruiting mu mbande za unabi imayamba zaka 4-5 pambuyo pofesedwa mbewu, ndipo nthawi yopangira zomera imayamba zaka 10-15 zokha. Komabe, mosamala, ngakhalenso "mabulosi a pectoral" omwe amachokera ku fupa adzayamba kupanga ovary kumapeto kwa chaka cha 2-3, pamene mbeu zosiyanasiyana zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri, zimatha kubweretsa zipatso chaka choyamba mutabzala.

Zizifus amasungunuka mochedwa, zomwe zimalola kuti zisawonongeke zakasupe zachisanu. Pali maluwa ambiri, ndipo kuchokera mwa iwo mumakhala fungo lokoma, lokoma kwambiri lomwe limakopa chiwerengero cha tizilombo. Nthawi ya maluwa ndi masiku 60. Ngakhale kuti maluwa ena amakhalabe osadziwika, pamene fruiting, unabi akhoza kupanga makilogalamu 60 a zipatso (kuchokera ku chomera chimodzi chachikulu).

Maluwa osabvundiwa omwe amawonekera nthawi yomweyo amakhudza kukolola kwa zipatso, zomwe ziri zosiyana. Chabwino, kutolera zipatso zam'masika kumatentha nthawi zambiri mpaka kumapeto kwa October (kumayamba mu September).

Mukudziwa? Kulemera kwa chipatso cha zizifus kumatha kusiyana ndi 3 mpaka 20 g.
Ngati mumadya mwatsopano muyenera kuyembekezera kukolola kwathunthu zipatso za zizifus, ndiye kuti ntchitoyi imachotsedwa ku nthambi pamene kuwala kofiira pamwambako kumawonekera pa gawo limodzi mwa magawo atatu a pamwamba. Kawirikawiri, zipatso za unabi sizingathetsedwe motalika, ndikuzisiya zimapachikidwa pamtengo.

Kuchotsa kwabwino, "chisa" chapadera chimagwiritsidwa ntchito, ndi mano kupyola 1 masentimita. Ndi "chisa" ichi, zipatso za zizifus zimayaka pa filimu, kenako zimasiyanitsidwa ndi mphukira ndi masamba. Mpaka 30 kg za zipatso zimasonkhanitsidwa kuchokera ku mtengo umodzi. Zomera zouma zikhoza kusungidwa kwa zaka zoposa ziwiri.

Inde, chifukwa chodzala pa malo muyenera kukhala ndi mbeu zosiyanasiyana, ndipo ndi bwino kugula Zizyphus, pakati pa zikuluzikulu zomwe zalembedwa ndi kusamba msanga. Ndibwino kuti mukuwerenga Unabi okha osati kukula wathu nyengo, komanso amatha kubereka zipatso pamaso woyamba ozizira autumn. Mitunduyi ndi mitundu yambiri yomwe ikuphatikizapo mtundu wa Moldavia wotchedwa Mori Jer. Zoperekera ziyenera kulipidwa kwa mitundu yosiyanasiyana yomwe imakhala yokolola zipatso yotchedwa Vakhsh (kulemera kwa zipatso zake kufika 14-16 g). Komabe, mosasamala kanthu za mbeu yomwe mumasankha, muyenera kukumbukira nthawi zonse malamulo ofunika kuti mukhale ndi zomera zosasangalatsa.