Momwe mungamere anyezi: Malangizo pa kubzala ndi kusamalira

Malangizo a momwe mungakwirire anyezi, othandiza kwa alangizi wamaluwa ndi wamaluwa, ngakhale kuti angakhale ndi chidwi ndi enieni omwe ali nawo. Anyezi - chofunika kwambiri masamba patebulo lathu. N'zosatheka kulingalira mbale popanda iye.

Zimagwiritsidwa ntchito mwatsopano, zouma, zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga sauces, pickles, nyengo, kusungidwa. Kukula anyezi si kovuta, koma muyenera kutsatira njira zonse zotsatila ndikusankha malo abwino a anyezi, poganizira mbewu zomwe zapitazo.

Mukudziwa? Dzina "anyezi" limachokera ku kufanana kwa anyezi ndi masamba ena. - turnip

Anyezi: malongosoledwe ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana

Anyezi - masamba osatha a banja la anyezi. Chipatsocho ndi anyezi ophimbidwa ndi khungu lakuda (khungu). Pulopulo - filimu yokhala ndi mawonekedwe ofanana, owopsa kapena okoma-kukoma ndi khalidwe labwino. Ndipo mankhusu ndi zamkati malingana ndi zosiyanasiyana zimabwera mosiyanasiyana - chikasu, mchenga, amber, lilac, zofiirira, zoyera, zoyera.

Mukudziwa? Anyezi monga mbewu ya masamba akhala akudziwika kwa zaka zopitirira 4,000.
Mitundu yotsatirayi ndi yotchuka lero: Stardust, Rostovsky, Carmen, Kupido, Lugansky, Danilovsky, Myachkovsky, Odintsovsky, Shetana, Strigunovsky, Bessonovsky, Hiberna, Centurion, Stuttgarter Rizen. Pali mitundu yoyambirira ndi yotsatizana pakati pawo, ndipo musanayambe anyezi, musanayambe kukonza mitundu yambiri ya anyezi.

Kumene angabzalitse anyezi: zofunika kwa nthaka ndi kuunikira

Anyezi amafunika kubzalidwa pa nthaka youma, yotsika pansi, yotseguka, popanda kumeta nsomba. Anyezi ngati nthaka loamy, opindula ndi zinthu zakuthupi. Nthaka sayenera kukhala yowonongeka, pH yake ndi 6.5-7.8, ndipo nthaka yambiri ndi yaimu. Liming nthawi zonse imangokhala kugwa (!), Osati kumayambiriro usanayambe kubzala.

Otsatira abwino ndi oipa oyambirira

Kukula kwa turnips anyezi kumapita bwino pambuyo pa nandolo, dzungu, mbatata, tomato, kabichi, nyemba ndi sideratov. Simungakhoze kubzala anyezi mutatha kaloti, nkhaka, adyo ndi anyezi. Koma kaloti ndi adyo zomwe zinabzalidwa pakhomo padzakhala zothandiza pakukula - zina tizilombo ta anyezi timachita mantha ndi fungo la karoti nsonga ndi adyo.

Zapadera za kulima anyezi: nthawi, kukonzekera kubzala, ndondomeko ndi kukula kwa kubzala

Nthaŵi ya kulima anyezi imadalira kwambiri nyengo - imatha kukhala pakati pa chilimwe, mpaka kumapeto kwa chilimwe, ngakhale mpaka kumayambiriro kwa nthawi yophukira. Koma pafupipafupi, kulima anyezi pa mpiru ku mbande kumatha masiku 75-90.

Anyezi amafesedwa panthaka kutentha osati poyerekeza ndi 12 ... +13 ° С - izi ziri pafupi masiku oyambirira a mwezi wa April. Kulimala kumayambiriro kapena pakati pa mwezi wa April, mbeu imatha kukolola kumapeto kwa June - kumayambiriro kwa July. Kaye kawiri kawiri pamakhala masentimita makumi asanu ndi awiri kapena masentimita makumi asanu ndi awiri kapena masentimita 25, malingana ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya zipatso.

Ndikofunikira! Musanadzale anyezi, mbeu imayenera kukonzekera.

Teknoloji yaulimi ya kulima anyezi kumabzala

Mababu a anyezi, omwe amalimidwa kuchokera ku mbewu, amafuna kubzala ndi kusamalira mabedi omwe ndi osiyana ndi kubzala anyezi. Mbeu za babu, zomwe zimatchedwa Chernushka, musanafese onetsetsani kuti kumera. Chifukwa ichi tengani 1 tsp. nyemba, wothira madzi ndi kukulunga mu chinyezi, nsalu yotayirira. Pambuyo pa masiku angapo, amafufuzidwa ngati ziphuphu zawonekera, ngati zili choncho, mbewu zimatha.

Mukudziwa? Zimalangizidwa kufesa chernushka chaka chimodzi. Ngakhale amakhulupirira kuti mbewu ya anyezi imapitirizabe kumera kwa zaka ziwiri.
Zipangizo zamakono za mbewu anyezi: Asanayambe kubzala mbeu, chernushka imatenthedwa kwa mphindi 20-30 m'madzi pa kutentha kwa 40-50 ° C, kenako imanyowa madzi kutentha kwa masiku 2-3, ndipo madzi amasinthidwa kamodzi patsiku kuti asapezeke.

Pambuyo pa madziwa, mbewuzo zimakhala muzitsulo imodzi pakati pa mapepala awiri ophika, nsapato zoonda, ndipo patatha masiku 2-3, pamene nsomba zimagwedeza, zimayamba kufesa. Bzalani mchenga wokonzedwa bwino kwambiri mmbuyo mwa mizere ya 1-1.3 masentimita, koma osapitirira 1.5 masentimita, pamtunda wa mbewu kuchokera kwa wina ndi mzake - 2 cm, ndikuzaza dziko lapansi ndikupanga pang'ono.

Akamaliza kugona, amathira (ndi humus, peat) ndikuwatsanulira bwino kuchokera pamadzi othamanga ndi sprayer, ndipo kuchokera pamwamba amakhala ndi filimu, yomwe imachotsedwa pamene mbande (mbande) ikuwoneka. Pamene masamba awiri enieni amakula ndikuwoneka mu anyezi, amafesa masamba, amasiya mtunda wosapitirira 2 masentimita pakati pa zomera. Chotsitsa chotsatira chimachitika pambuyo pa masamba 4 enieni - tsopano akuchoka mtunda wa 5-7 cm.

Ndikofunikira! Kupatulira nthawi kumatsatiridwa. Pakutha kupatulira, mbeuyo idzakhala yopanda kanthu.
Anyezi anamwezi mumwezi woyamba pambuyo kumera - kamodzi pa masiku 6-7. Pambuyo kuthirira - kuvomereza kuvomerezedwa.

Momwe mungamere anyezi kupyolera mu sevok

Kukula anyezi, muyenera kudziwa chomwe chiri maselo anyezi. Izi ndizing'onozing'ono pachaka - 1.5-2 masentimita, zimakula kuchokera ku mbewu. Sevok imagwiritsidwanso ntchito popanga zipatso zazikulu.

Kuti mukhale ndi anyezi abwino, choyamba muzikula mmera, zomwe zimamera zomwe zingatheke kutseguka (anyezi amabzalidwa m'nyengo yozizira) komanso kunyumba - muzitsulo zing'onozing'ono pawindo.

Agrotechnics wa anyezi kulima kuchokera sevka: musanabzala, anyezi amatha kutentha kangapo, amasiya pafupi ndi chipangizo chilichonse chotentha, kufikira kutentha kwa 20 ... +22 ° С, mpaka kufika 35+ +40 ° С - amakhala otentha masiku 3-6. Kapena madzi otentha osapitirira 45 ^ +50 ° С ayenera kudzazidwa kwa mphindi 20 mpaka 25, kuchotsani anyezi ndi kutsanulira madzi ozizira ndi kutentha kwa 10 ... + 12 ° С, kenaka muumire ndi chopukutira ndi kuuma pa firiji.

Ndikofunikira! Kutentha kuli kofunikira kwa mababu - chifukwa cha izi, n'zotheka kupeŵa kupanga mapangidwe mu uta.
Posakhalitsa musanadzale kuyanjanitsa mabedi. Ngati nthaka yayuma, imadonthozedwa pang'ono. Kenako amagona grooves-grooves ndi akuya 4.5-5 masentimita ndi kumamatira sevok, amene kwathunthu owazidwa ndi nthaka ndi mopepuka rammed. Kuthirira bedi poyamba sikofunika.

Momwe mungasamalire anyezi m'munda

Chisamaliro chapadera - Ndikupalira, kuthirira, kumasula. Sitifunikira kupopera kwa sevok, monga poyamba idalidwa pamtunda wokwanira wa mababu kuchokera kwa wina ndi mnzake.

Mukudziwa? Anyezi mu mawonekedwe awo owopsa akamadya amadzitcha kuti mankhwala oteteza mthupi, amathandizira kuonjezera chitetezo, kuteteza matenda a mtima.

Kusamalira dothi ndi kulamulira udzu

Namsongole amathira pakati pa mizere, ndipo atamera ndi kuzungulira chitsamba cha anyezi. Tulutsani nthaka pambuyo pa ulimi wothirira mpaka masentimita asanu.

Kuthirira ndi kudyetsa anyezi

Pa funso la anyezi babu momwe mungamere bwino - ndi madzi okwanira kapena kunja? Anyezi - chikhalidwe chomwe sichisowa madzi. Kumwa madzi, ndithudi, n'kofunikira, koma moyenera - nyengo yotentha, onetsetsani kuti kamodzi pakatha masiku asanu ndi limodzi. Masiku ena - nthawi 1 m'masiku 8-10. Nthawi zina anyezi amatha kukula popanda kuthirira konse - ngati chilimwe chimakhala chotentha komanso nthawi zina chimvula.

Ndikofunikira! Ayenera kutsatira malamulo Kusamalira anyezi asanakolole. Pafupifupi masiku 30-35 asanayambe kukolola m'munda wamaluwa (komanso feteleza) anyezi amaletsedwa.
Olima munda nthawi zambiri amafunitsitsa kudziwa momwe angakulire anyezi wamkulu opanda zovala. Momwemo, inde, ngati dothi lili lachonde. Koma komabe nthawi zambiri anyezi amadyetsedwa kuti azikula bwino komanso atakula.

Pa dothi lochepa, anyezi amadyetsedwa 2-3 nthawi - nthawi yoyamba pa pepala kutalika kwa 7-9 masentimita, nthawi yachiwiri - pambuyo pa masabata 2-3, lachitatu - pambuyo pa milungu itatu. Pofuna kuvala, manyowa a nkhuku amadzipatulira ndi madzi, mullein (100 g / 5 l madzi pamtunda wa 2.5 l / 1 sq. M), urea, potassium chloride, superphosphate (10-15 g / 2 sq. M) ndi abwino.

Kukula, mavuto akuluakulu ndi matenda a anyezi

Waukulu wadzu wa anyezi - mazira anyezi, mphutsi zomwe zimadya thupi la chipatso kuchokera mkati, kenako mazira anyezi ndi nthenga za anyezi zimafota. Pa zizindikiro zoyamba za kuwonongeka, zomera za matenda zimatulutsidwa ndikuwonongedwa.

Kupewa ntchentche ntchentche yambani kuyang'ana sevka musanayiike yosungirako ndi kutsika (anyezi awonongeke), kubzala kaloti ndi adyo pafupi ndi anyezi, ndikumba pansi mozama - mpaka 30 cm kupha mafinya m'nyengo yozizira. Zimalimbikitsanso kupewa kuthirira mabedi ndi madzi amchere - 300-400 g mchere / 10 malita a madzi kapena kutulutsa nthaka muyeso la 2: 1 ndi chisakanizo cha mpendadzuwa phulusa ndi fumbi la fodya.

Chinyama china ndi kachilomboka kakang'ono. Mphungu zonsezi zimadyetsa nthenga za anyezi, zilonda zomwe zimayambitsa zimayambitsa kuuma kwa masamba ndi kuchepa kwa zokolola za anyezi.

Kuteteza matenda ndi chivundikiro - nthawi zonse amasula (mphutsi zake, zikuwoneka pamwamba, zimafa). Kufika kwa anyezi a pafupi ndi nyambo, yomwe imayambitsidwa ndi weevil ndipo yomwe imawonongedwa pamodzi ndi mavitamini, ndi othandiza.

Parasitic anyezi fodya ndi anyezi ambiri ndi mafosholo. Kuteteza zochitika zawo - kukumba m'nyengo yozizira ya nthaka masentimita 30, kumasula nthawi zonse, kuchiza masamba a anyezi ndi infusions wa celandine, tsabola wowawa, mpiru woyera, fodya, ndi chowawa. Kapena mungagwiritse ntchito tizilombo toyambitsa matenda (agrochemicals), opangidwa motsutsana ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda.

Anyezi: kukolola

Musanayambe anyezi kuchokera pansi, onetsetsani kuti yayamba. Ndi zophweka kuti zikhale - masamba ake ayenera kuti adzidzidzimire ndi kutsika, ndi ziphuphu zapamwamba za babu. Dulani uta pamodzi ndi akavalo ndi masamba (mchira), osaswa.

Ndikofunikira! Anyezi a babu, omwe amalandira kuchokera ku sevka, pa yosungirako yosungirako bwino amakhala ndi mphamvu yosunga - mpaka masiku 220.
Omwe anasonkhanitsa anyezi anasiyidwa pansi pa denga kapena ali ndi mpweya wokwanira wokhala m'nyumba kwa milungu 2-3. Ndipo zitatha izi, chotsani mizu ndi miyeso, kapena yokhotakhota uta mu nsalu (bwalo). Kuyika yosungirako, ndi bwino kupatula anyezi ndi kukula kwa mababu. Sungani pa 16+ +22 ° C (pafupifupi pafupifupi kutentha kwapakati) kuyimilira m'mabokosi kapena mabokosi ndi madengu. Anyezi akhoza kusungidwa pamunsi kutentha mpaka +1 ° C - m'chipinda chapansi pa nyumba, pansi, chapansikati, chinthu chachikulu - Musalole kuti nthawi yosungirako madzi ndi kuzizira.

Zonsezi ndi za anyezi, zomwe zikadakula ndi njira yoyenera siziyenera kuyambitsa mavuto alionse.