Processing kuchokera phytophthora polycarbonate greenhouses

Phytophthora ndi mawu owopsya kwa agronomists, wamaluwa ndi wamaluwa. Ichi ndi matenda owopsa kwambiri okhudza nightshade ndi zomera zina zomwe zimalima, monga strawberries kapena nkhaka. Monga lamulo, zomera zomwe zimakhala ndi vuto lochedwa sizitha kuchiritsidwa, njira yokhayo yotulukira ndiyo kuwaononga.

Kuwonongeka kochedwa: Kuopsa kwa matenda a fungal

Phytophthora ndi matenda a fungal okhudza zomera ngakhale polycarbonate wowonjezera kutentha. Mofanana ndi bowa lirilonse, mapuloteni otchedwa late spore ali ndi mycelium, conidia, ndi sporangia. Maonekedwe a mycelium amawoneka ngati akangaude oyera. Monga lamulo, imakhala ndi moyo ndipo imakula m'matumba. Kubereka kwa bowa kumachitika ndi kuthandizidwa ndi spores zopangidwa mu sporangia. Pambuyo poti spore yakula, sporangia chipolopolo chimatha, kumasula spores kunja. Pambuyo pake, amafalikira pamodzi ndi madzi, amagwera pa zomera, kumene moyo watsopano wa phytophthora umayamba. Spores wa phytophtora saopa ngakhale frosts. Kupititsa patsogolo kwa mkangano kumayambira kutentha kutakwera kufika madigiri 10 Celsius. Chizindikiro choyamba cha choipitsa chakumapeto ndi maonekedwe a bulauni pamayambira ndi masamba a zomera. Pamakhala chinyezi, mkati mwa masamba muli ndi maluwa oyera. Tizilombo toyambitsa matenda a mbatata ndi tomato, omwe amakhudzidwa ndi vuto lochedwa, amakhala ndi mdima wambiri, ndipo khungu limakhala lofooka. Ndi kudzera pakhungu lomwe zomera zimakhala ndi kachilombo koyambitsa matenda, nthawi yomweyo kufalitsa matendawa kumadera oyandikana nawo. Ngati processing tomato kuchokera pa phytophtora sikuchitika, chipatso minofu mwamsanga imavunda ndi kuwonongeka, kupereka kununkhira kosangalatsa.

Kawirikawiri, wamaluwa amayesa kusunga mbewu, mosakaniza chipatso chobiriwira ndikubisala kuti akwe. Koma pamodzi ndi zipatso zokhudzana ndi matendawa, bowa la phytophtora limalowa m'bokosi ndipo patapita kanthawi zimagunda zipatso zina zonse.

Mukudziwa? Mbatata ndi tomato zimakhudzidwa ndi bowa wa mitundu ya Phytophthora infestans, yomwe imamasulira kuchokera ku Latin monga "kuwononga zomera".

Kodi kukonza wowonjezera kutentha kuchokera phytophthora

Kukonzekera nyengo yodzala yatsopano kumapangidwa m'dzinja, mwamsanga mutatha kukolola. Mu wowonjezera kutentha, makamaka kuchokera ku polycarbonate, mwinamwake kuti spores ya phytophthora idzapitirira mu nthaka yosanjikiza, pa zotsalira zazomera kapena zomangira zowonjezera kutentha, ndizapamwamba kwambiri. Choncho, pamene mukukula zomera mu wowonjezera kutentha, ndikofunikira kuchita processing kuchokera ku phytophthora. Pankhaniyi, simungaganize za momwe mungapulumutsire tomato ku phytophtoras, koma kuti mupange zokolola zonse.

Kuwonetsetsa kwathunthu kwa wowonjezera kutentha kumathandiza kuwononga mavutowo a phytophthora, komanso kuteteza kuchitika kwa matendawa m'tsogolomu. Ndizotheka kugawa njira zothandizira kuchokera ku phytophtora ku:

  • zamoyo;
  • mankhwala;
  • kutentha.
Zowonongeka za wowonjezera kutentha zimatha kukonzedwa ndi mankhwala. Njira zamagetsi ndi kutentha ndizoyenera kuwononga tizilombo. Tizilombo toyambitsa matenda timalola kuti tipewe njira zothandizira.

Kuyeretsa zobiriwira kuchokera ku zotsalira zamasamba ndi zina zowonjezera

Musanayambe kuwononga mankhwala kuchokera ku phytophthora mankhwala, m'pofunika kuyeretsa ku zotsalira zamasamba: nsonga, zosowa, mizu ndi namsongole.

Muyeneranso kuyeretsa wowonjezera kutentha kuchokera ku wakale twine ndi trellis.

Ngakhalenso zomera sizinapweteke, chifukwa cha kukula kwa mbeu, iwo adasiyabe tizilombo toyambitsa matenda osiyanasiyana. Ndichifukwa chake kusungirako zitsamba za polycarbonate ziyenera kutsatiridwa ndi kuwotcha zatsalira zonse za zomera ndi zipangizo zina. Ngati simukuchita izi, ndiye pambuyo pa nyengo yozizira, tizilombo toyambitsa matenda timayamba kugwira ntchito kwambiri ndipo tiyamba kudwala tizilombo toyambitsa matenda.

Ndikofunikira! Ngati vutoli "likadutsa" tomato ndi mbatata, kenaka ndikuwonongedwa kwa zotsalira zamasamba, muyenera kugwiritsa ntchito zipangizo zonse zamaluwa.

Wowonjezera kutentha mankhwala osokoneza bongo ndi mankhwala

Processing greenhouses ku phytophthora amalola inu kupulumutsa zomera ndi bwino kukolola. Zowonjezera kutentha zimatha kupanga mafelemu a zowonongeka, polycarbonate, kapena filimu yodziwika bwino. Musanayambe kupuma pogwiritsa ntchito mpweya wotsekemera, m'pofunikira kuyang'anitsitsa kutentha kwa kapangidwe ka wowonjezera kutentha ndikuphimba mipata yonse. Ma disinfection onse amagwira ntchito kutentha kosachepera madigiri 10 Celsius. Mukamagwiritsa ntchito mankhwala ophera tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, wowonjezera kutentha amafufuzidwa ndi oyang'anira sulfa kapena sulfure. Mlingo wokwanira mlingo ndi 50-80 g wa sulfuri pa mita imodzi, pamene uli ndi kachilombo ka kangaude, mlingowu umakula kufika 150 g Kuti uwonjezere chiwopsezo cha fungicide, ndibwino kuti uwononge malo onse a wowonjezera kutentha ndi madzi kale. Kusintha kwa wowonjezera kutentha kuchokera ku polycarbonate m'chaka cha phytophtoras kumachitika kwenikweni mu mpweya kapena mu mpweya wa maski. Mpweya wobiriwira uyenera kupukutidwa ndi kutentha kofiira pa trays, zomwe zimayikidwa pambali pa kapangidwe kake. Pambuyo pang'onopang'ono, sitirofu imatseka mwamphamvu kwa masiku atatu. Pambuyo pa nthawiyi, wowonjezera kutentha ayenera kumveka bwino.

Mwatsoka, njira iyi si yoyenera zitsulo zosungiramo zitsulo, chifukwa sulufule mwachangu mwamsanga imadya zitsulo zoteteza zitsulo. Choncho, mu greenhouses amayamba kukhala yonyowa kutaya matenda. Chofunika kwambiri cha njirayi ndi kupopera kwapadera kwa njira yothetsera bleach pamalo onse a wowonjezera kutentha, kuphatikizapo nthaka. Pofuna kuthetsa yankho, 400 g ya mandimu ayenera kuchepetsedwa mu chidebe cha madzi ndikuzisiya kwa maola 4. Mukhozanso kugwiritsa ntchito yankho la mkuwa wa sulfate (75 g ya mankhwala akutsitsidwa mu chidebe cha madzi).

Asanayambe kukonza wowonjezera kutentha m'chaka cha phytophthora, makamaka ngati chimango chake chimapangidwa ndi matabwa, m'pofunikira kuwononga zigawo zomangira Njira yothetsera laimu ndi Kuwonjezera kwa vitriol. Izi zimateteza nkhuni ndikuwonjezera kuwala kwa wowonjezera kutentha. Komanso, kuphatikizapo mankhwala, muyenera kuwononga mitsinje yonse yomwe imakula panthawi ya chilimwe pamapangidwe a wowonjezera kutentha.

Pambuyo pa mankhwalawa, ndizofunikira kusamba bwinobwino magalasi onse a wowonjezera kutentha. Pochita izi, njira yowonongeka yachitsulo chilichonse cha khitchini chomwe chimagwiritsidwa ntchito pamwamba pake ndi sprayer. Pambuyo pake, imangopukutira galasi ndi burasi ya nylon ndikutsuka ndi madzi oyera.

Mukudziwa? Kuwonongeka kochedwa kunali chimodzi mwa zifukwa za njala yaikulu ku Ireland mu 1845-1849. Chifukwa cha njala, chiwerengero cha anthu a dzikoli chinachepera ndi kotala zaka zingapo chabe.

Chithandizo cha nthaka mu wowonjezera kutentha

Pambuyo pomaliza njira zoteteza matenda a disinfection, chisamaliro chiyenera kutengedwa momwe mungachitire malo pambuyo pa phytophthora. Ndikofunika kuti mumve bwino pamwamba pa dothi ndipo onetsetsani kuti mcherewu ndi manyowa, peat, manyowa, chifukwa chowerengera hafu ya chidebe pa mita imodzi iliyonse.

Ngati simukudziwa momwe mungachitire tomato kuchokera ku phytophthora, ndiye kuti chitetezo chovuta chidzakhala choyenera mchenga phulusa losakaniza, omwe amagona mabedi. Komanso pofuna kuteteza tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tingagwiritsire ntchito njira yamadzimadzi ya fumibant "Carbation". Ndibwino kugwiritsa ntchito polima nthaka, pamene kutentha kwa nthaka ndi madigiri 10 Celsius.

Zima zikuwomba zobiriwira

Zima ndiyeso yayikulu kwa zomera, chifukwa kutentha kwake kumakhala kovulaza kwa mbewu zamtsogolo. Kutentha kwachisanu kwa wowonjezera kutentha kumawathandiza kwambiri momwe angatetezere tomato ku phytophtoras. Inde, ngati wowonjezera kutenthedwa ndi kutentha m'nyengo yozizira, ndiye kuti simungadandaule za kutentha.

Koma kutentha kwa zomera si chirichonse. Zomera zimafunikira kupuma, koma monga lamulo, mu kugwa, wowonjezera kutentha ndiwowonjezereka kwambiri kuti athe kuchepetsa zotsatira za kutentha. Chifukwa chake, mlingo wa oksijeni umakhala wochepa. Njira yokhayo kutuluka ndi gulu la mpweya wokwanira, chifukwa chakuti oxygen idzaperekedwe mokwanira ku wowonjezera kutentha.

Pakati pa nyengo yotentha, tifunika kuganiza kuti pafupifupi 20% ya wowonjezera kutentha ndi mpweya wabwino.

Ngati izi sizinasamalidwe, ndiye kuti mkati mwa wowonjezera kutentha, padzakhala mpweya wouma, womwe ndi malo abwino kuti chitukuko chisafike.

Ndikofunikira! Nthawi yokhala ndi mpweya wokhala wowonjezera kutentha m'nyengo yozizira iyenera kukhala mphindi zisanu ndi ziwiri.

Kodi kuchiza phytophthora wa tomato mu wowonjezera kutentha

Funso la nthawi ndi momwe angagwiritsire ntchito tomato ku phytophtoras zimatengera zinthu zambiri: kukula kwa wowonjezera kutentha, mtundu wa masamba mbewu, nyengo ndi zina zotero. Kumbukirani chinthu chachikulu - nthawi zambiri musagwiritse ntchito mankhwala omwe ali ndi mkuwa, chifukwa akhoza kuikidwa mu mbewu yokolola. M'malomwake, ndibwino kuti mupite njira zotchuka, pakati pake:

  • Garlic kulowetsedwa. Chida ichi chimakhazikitsidwa bwino kwambiri pakati pa olima amadziwa. Kuti mupange, muyenera kupopera makapu a hafu ya peeled adyo, kuwonjezera hafu ya supuni ya supuni ya potaziyamu permanganate ndikutsanulira madzi awiri a malita. Pambuyo pake, muyenera kuphimba ndi chivindikiro ndikulolani pakamwa kwa mphindi makumi atatu, kenako pitirizani kuchepetsa ndi 10 malita a madzi. Kugwiritsa ntchito kumachokera pa kuwerengera kwa 0,5 malita a adyo njira iliyonse chitsamba.
  • Madzi okhala ndi ayodini. Iodini kuchokera ku phytophthora mu wowonjezera kutentha imakhala ndi mankhwala ophera tizilombo toyambitsa matenda. Kukonzekera yankho, kuchepetsa 10 ml wa wamba wodalirika 5% mu chidebe cha madzi. Musanagwiritse ntchito, chotsani masamba onse achikasu ndi masamba ndi mdima. Kutaya tchire ndi zipatso ndi njirayi, ndipo patatha masiku atatu njirayi ikulimbikitsidwa kuti ibwerezedwe.
  • Sirimu kapena mkaka njira. Sungunulani 100 ml mkaka m'madzi imodzi, ndiye perekani tomato ndi njirayi. Komanso, mkaka ukhoza kubwezeretsedwa ndi kefir. Mabakiteriya a Lactic omwe ali mu mkaka samalola phytophthora kukula. Poonjezera zotsatira mu mkaka wothetsera mkaka, mukhoza kuwonjezera madontho ochepa a ayodini. Kupopera mankhwala ndi njirayi kumateteza phytophthora, komanso kumameretsa nthaka ndi zomera. Pakati pa kupopera mbewu mankhwalawa ayenera kukhala masabata awiri. Ngati phytophthora imawonekera pa tomato mu wowonjezera kutentha ndipo simukudziwa momwe mungayigwirire nayo, yesetsani kuwaza zomera ndi njira yothetsera seramu. Amadzipukutidwa ndi madzi mu chiŵerengero cha 1 mpaka 1 ndipo amakhala ndi zotsatira zofanana ndi njira ya mkaka. Zomera zimachiritsidwa ndi njira iyi m'nyengo yachilimwe.
  • Njira ya mchere. Ndikofunika kuti mutenge mchere wokhazikika komanso kuchepetsa chikho chimodzi molingana ndi chidebe cha madzi. Njirayi imateteza zomera ku matenda osiyanasiyana, ndipo pambuyo poyanika amapanga filimu yotetezera pa chipatso.
Mukudziwa? Anthu ambiri a ku Ireland adachoka kudzikoli, ndikuyesera kuthawa njala yaikulu ya 1845-1849, yomwe inayambitsidwa ndi vutoli. Kufa pa zombo zonyamula othaŵa kwawo kunkafika 20-30%. Chifukwa chaichi, sitimayo idatchedwa "bokosi", kutanthauza "bokosi la boti".

Phytophthora mu wowonjezera kutentha: zochitapo kanthu

Mbewu wamkulu mu wowonjezera kutentha zinthu ali ndi mwayi kuteteza motsutsana phytophthora poyerekeza ndi zomera wamkulu lotseguka pansi. Mu wowonjezera kutentha kumakhala ndi microclimate yake, yomwe ikhoza kusinthidwa mosasamala kanthu kuti kuli kuzizira kapena kunyowa kunja. Kuti inu musadabwe momwe kusunga tomato phytophthora mu wowonjezera kutentha, tsatirani Malamulo osavuta oletsa kuchepetsa vutoli:

  • mulch nthaka;
  • musayambe kubwereka;
  • kumanga tchire;
  • Sankhani ana opeza komanso masamba ena mosamala.
Kuwonjezera apo, kuteteza tomato mu nyengo yotentha, musabzale tomato ndi mbatata kuthengo pafupi ndi wowonjezera kutentha kuti muteteze spylophyte kuti musagwe mu wowonjezera kutentha. Chithandizo cha wowonjezera kutentha mu kasupe phytosporin unachitikira kumapeto kwa June. Kutaya tomato ndi cholengedwera mankhwala, komanso nthawi zonse kuwachitira ndi nthaka pansi pa tomato.

Ndikofunikira! Ndi bwino kuchita mochedwa blight chitetezo mu youma ndi bata nyengo.
Phytophthora ndi matenda owopsa omwe angapangitse kuti mbeu yonse ya tomato ikhale yosayenera kumwa. Chitani njira zowononga nthawi zonse zowonongeka ndikumakumbukira: Ngati mbeuyo imakhala yovuta kwambiri, zimakhala zovuta kwambiri kugunda matendawa.