Mbalame chitumbuwa: kubzala ndi kusamalira

Kwa anthu ambiri, mbalame yamtengo wapatali imakhala yogwirizana ndi kuyamba kwa kasupe, chifukwa ndi fungo lake lomwe limadzaza maluwa atsopano, komanso momwe mbalame yamaluwa imatulutsa maluwa., kumabweretsa maganizo ochititsa chidwi. Mtengo uwu ndi wosasamala kwambiri ku nthaka yosankhidwa, khalidwe lake, organic composition, komanso kuthirira ndi kuunikira. Chifukwa chaichi, chisamaliro chake chiri chophweka ndi chowonekera, ndipo zotsatira zake nthawi zonse zimakhala zosangalatsa.

Kubzala mbalame yamtengo wapatali, kuphatikizapo ubwino wodziwika bwino, umaloleza kukonza ndi kukhetsa nthaka kumbuyo kapena nyumba ya chilimwe, chifukwa chake ambiri wamaluwa akufuna kudziwa kukula kwa mbalame yamtengo wapatali ndi kuyisamalira. Sichifuna luso lapadera komanso nthawi yochuluka - tsatirani malamulo ndi ndondomeko zoperekedwa pansipa.

Mbalame ya Prunus: kufotokozera

Kutchulidwa koyambirira kwa mbalame yamtengo wapataliyo kunayamba m'nthaŵi za kafukufuku wakale wa Chigiriki Theophrastus. Mbalame yamtengo wa chitumbuwa imadziwika kwambiri kuposa momwe timachitira. Mwachitsanzo, ku Africa, Asia ndi Europe, imatengedwa kuti ndi imodzi mwa zomera zokongola kwambiri, zomwe zimakhala zokongola kwambiri. Mitundu yonse ya mbalame yamatcheri ndi yovuta mitengo (kawirikawiri zitsamba) za Pink. Mbalame yamatcheri ndi chipatso chokongola mbewu. Mitundu khumi ndi iwiri ya mbalame za chitumbuwa zimapezeka m'madera athu.

Mukudziwa? Mtengo uwu unalandira dzina lake chifukwa chakuti atatha kudya zipatso m'kamwa mwa munthu, padakali patina wofiirira wofiira.

Mtengo umayamba kufalikira mu April-May, kutaya maburashi oyera onunkhira. The inflorescences ndi zipatso za mbalame chitumbuwa zimasiyana muzing'ono kukula, koma pa nthawi yomweyo iwo ali kwambiri thanzi ndipo amadzaza ndi shuga mankhwala ndi glycosides. Mbalame yamtengo wa chitumbuwu imadzaza ndi zinthu zothandiza, chifukwa nthawi zambiri zimagwiritsidwa ntchito mu mankhwala ndi cosmetology mwa njira ina.

Mukudziwa? Mitundu ya dziko lapansi imatulutsa chitumbuwa ku mtundu wa Plum. Ndipo chifukwa chotha kupirira nyengo zovuta komanso nthawi yaitali chisanu cha mbalameyi chimatchedwa "Siberia".

Chofunika ndi pamene mbalame yamatumbu imakula.. Chomera ichi chimakonda chinyezi nthawi zonse. Kumtunda mungathe kukumana ndi mbalame yamtengo wapatali mu malo ozizira. Amamera m'nkhalango zazikulu, m'madera otsetsereka kapena m'mphepete mwa mitsinje. Ndizodabwitsa kuti panthawi yoyenera komanso kusamalidwa bwino, mbalame yamtengo wapatali yamakono imatha kubzalidwa ku dacha ndi kumbuyo kwa dziko lathu.

Nkhuku yamatcheri ndi chitsamba kapena mtengo womwe ungakhoze kufika kutalika kufika mamita 10-15. The awiri a korona wa mbalame chitumbuwa akhoza kufika 5-7 mamita. Chomera ichi ndi chodzichepetsa kwambiri, chomwe chimapangitsa kuti chikula pamtunda uliwonse, mosasamala za momwe zimapangidwira komanso mlingo wa acidity. Nthaŵi zina, mbalame yamatcheri imapezeka pamtunda wa mchenga.

Mtengo uli ndi mizu yambiri yofulumira. Ndi chifukwa cha zinthu izi Anthu kawirikawiri anabzala mbalame zamtengo wapatali yamatabwa kuti apange chilengedwe cha nthaka pafupi ndi malo okhalamo. Komanso, mbalame yamtengo wapatali imatha kusintha nthaka, ndi masamba ake ogwa - kuchepetsa acidity ndi kuonjezera zokolola za dziko lapansi.

Kusankha malo kubzala mbalame chitumbuwa

Kusankha malo oti mutenge mbalame yamtengo wapatali yamakono osakokera kungayesedwe kuti ndi imodzi mwa magawo ofunikira kwambiri, omwe amatsimikizira zotsatira za kukula kwa mtengo. Ndicho chifukwa chake muyenera kutsatira mosamala malangizowo okhudzana ndi zokonda za mbalame yamtengo wapataliyo poyerekeza ndi kuwala ndi nthaka.

Momwe mbalame yamatcheri imafunira dzuwa

Chifukwa cha kukula kwakukulu kwa mbalame yamatcheri, chifukwa chokula bwino ndi zakudya zokwanira ayenera kulandira kuwala kwa dzuwa.

Choncho, chomera mtengo makamaka m'malo abwino.

Ndikofunikira! Monga lamulo, mitengo ya mbalame yaing'ono imakhala yotsutsa, yomwe imawathandiza kuti athe kulimbana ndi mthunzi wa kanthawi kochepa.

Kodi nthaka imakonda mbalame yamatcheri?

Chomera ichi ndichabechabe ndipo chimatsutsa kulima mu nthaka ya khalidwe lochepa, ngakhale mosasamala za acidity. Komabe Mbalame yamatchire imakula bwino ndipo ikukula mofulumira mu nthaka yowonongeka, yowonjezera yomwe imakhala ndi madzi ochepa. Kuti muchite izi, musanadzalemo ndiyenera kuchitira nthaka, ndipo mutatha kutsika, onetsetsani kuthirira nthawi zonse.

Zowona za kubzala mbalame chitumbuwa m'munda

Kusadziwika kwa mbalame yamtengo wapatali muchisamaliro ndi kulima kumakopa anthu, koma zotsatira zomaliza zimatsimikiziridwa pa malo odzala. Zolakwitsa ndi zolakwika zingakhale zovuta kwa mmera. Kuti bwino chomera mbalame chitumbuwa m'chaka, imalimbikitsidwa kutsata malangizowo osavuta koma ogwira mtima pa magawo akulu a kukonzekera ndi kuchoka.

Momwe mungakonzekeretse dzenje lakukwera mbande

Kukonzekera kwa dzenje lakutsetsereku kumachitika m'magulu angapo. Kukula kwake kuyenera kukhala osachepera 50 × 50 × 50 centimita.

Izi zimachitika chifukwa cha kukula kwa mizu ya mtengo, nthaka yomwe imayenera kukhala umuna ndi kumasulidwa, yomwe imachitika pokonzekera. Mthunzi wakumbidwa umathiriridwa mochulukirapo, kenako umayenera kupukutidwa motere: dziko lotayirira (5-7 cm), utuchi (3-5 masentimita), lotayirira lapansi (15-20 cm). Pambuyo pazigawo zotsatizana, ndi zofunika kuwonjezera madzi m'dzenje, mwinamwake ngakhale ndi zakudya zowonjezera, feteleza.

Technology ndi ndondomeko ya kubzala mbalame chitumbuwa m'munda

Sayansi ndi chiwembu cha kubzala mbalame yamatcheri ndi zophweka ndipo zimaphatikizapo kutsatira malamulo ochepa chabe.

Choyamba, muyenera kukonzekera bwino dzenje, kuti mchenga usalowe mmenemo, chifukwa mbalame yamtengo wapatali yamakono imakula bwino mu nthaka yachinyontho. Kuwonjezera apo, malo okwera malo ayenera kuyatsa bwino patsiku, kuti sapling ipeze kuwala kokwanira. Mtunda wa pakati pa mitengo uyenera kukhala mamita awiri m'lifupi.

Anabzala cuttings kumizidwa mu okonzeka dzenje zakuya 20-30 masentimita ndi wogawana kumbali zonse wodzazidwa ndi lotayirira nthaka.

Pakati pa 10-15 masentimita ambiri a nthaka akhoza kuthiridwa ndi utuchi ndi madzi ambiri. Pambuyo pake, dzenje liyenera kukhala losavuta.

Ndikofunikira kupitiliza kubwezeretsa kwa dzenje kufikira mutatsimikizidwe kuti mbalameyi imadula chitumbuwa ndi kupanga mapiri aang'ono, omwe ayenera kutsanuliridwa ndikukwera ndi utuchi ndi peat.

Mbali za kulima mbalame chitumbuwa, kusamalira chomera

Kulima mbalame yamatcheri kumakhala kosavuta komanso kosavuta, ndipo, mofanana, sikufuna nthawi yambiri.

Kuti mupeze zotsatira zomwe mukufunayo komanso kulima msanga kwa mtengo, m'pofunika kukumbukira osati zokhazokha za dera lanu komanso malo a malo, komanso ndondomeko zokhudzana ndi chisamaliro cha mbalame yamtchire.

Momwe mungamwetsere chomera

Kuthirira kumayenera kuchitika pansi pazu wa mtengo, kumapereka kawiri pamwezi kufika 20-30 malita a madzi pa chomera chilichonse.

M'madera ovuta kwambiri, ndi kotheka kuwonjezera kutsuka masamba a mitengo ndi madzi oyera, motero amawateteza kuti asawume. Malingana ndi nyengo ndi kutentha, amaloledwa kuonjezera kapena kuchepetsa voli ya ulimi wothirira popanda kusinthasintha kwake.

Malamulo odyetsa mbalame yamatcheri

Prunus, kubzala ndi kusamalira zomwe kawirikawiri zimayambitsa mavuto, nthawi zina zimafunikanso kudyetsa. Mitengo ya feteleza siyenela, komabe imathandiza kupewa matenda a mbalame yamatcheri ndikuwonjezera moyo wake, kotero amaluwa ambiri amatha kufesa feteleza.

Ndizodabwitsa kuti mchere ndi organic feteleza ndi oyenera mbalame chitumbuwa. Mukhoza kuwapanga m'chaka ndi m'dzinja, koma m'pofunika kuziganizira nyengo. Choncho, m'chaka ndi bwino kugwiritsa ntchito saltpeter kapena urea, ndipo m'dzinja superphosphate ndi potaziyamu mchere.

Kuvala pamwamba kumayenera kubweretsedwa mwachindunji pansi pazu, kuteteza kugunda kwa feteleza pamasamba ndi kuthawa kwa achinyamata. Kusamalidwa ndi kuchulukitsa kwa feteleza ziyenera kulingalira za msinkhu ndi kukula kwake kwa mtengo, komanso chiwerengero cha mankhwalawo. Pachifukwa ichi, muyenera kutsatira mosalongosola malangizowo pazokweza feteleza.

Ndikofunikira! Pofuna kudyetsa bwino m'nthawi ya masiku 3-4 pambuyo pa umuna ayenera kupewa kuthirira mbalame yamatcheri.

Kusamalira dothi

Kusamalira nthaka imene mbalame yamakono imakula ikuwonekera ndipo ikugwiritsidwa ntchito ku mitengo ina. Choncho, choyamba ndikofunikira kuyang'anira namsongole, panthawi yake kuchotsa iwo. Ndikofunika kumasula nthaka 1-2 nthawi pa nyengo, kuteteza ming'alu ndikusunga nthawi zonse.

Mbalame yamatcheri yakudulira

Pamodzi ndi nthawi zonse kuthirira ndi kudyetsa nthawi, mbalame chitumbuwa, kusamalira m'chaka chimene chachepetsedwa kuti osachepera, nthawizina amafuna kudulira. Kudulira mbalame chitumbuwa mu kasupe ndi yophukira ikuchitika pambuyo mokwanira zithunzi kuyendera mtengo kuti kukhalapo kwa zilonda, matenda ndi tizilombo kudzikundikira malo. Nthambi zofooka ndi zoonongeka, komanso kukula kosafunika, zidzathetsedwa.

Chosankha chosiyana ndi kupanga chomera. Pali njira ziwiri zopangidwira: mwa mawonekedwe a mtengo wambiri shrub ndi mtengo pa mtengo waukulu. Kuti mupange chitsamba, muyenera kudula chigawo choyamba pamtunda wa masentimita 70 mpaka 80. Pambuyo pa mphukira yoyamba ikuwonekera, ndizo zatsalira kwambiri. Ndizodabwitsa kuti kuti mukhale ndi malingaliro abwino, ndibwino kusiya nthambi zogwirizana kwambiri. Mofananamo, ndi nthawi ya miyezi sikisi kapena chaka, gawo lachiwiri ndi lachitatu limapangidwa.

Kupanga a high bole kumachitika molingana ndi mfundo yomweyi, koma pakali pano nthambi ndi mphukira zapafupi zimachotsedwa. Nkofunika kuzindikira kuti kudulira mbalame chitumbuwa mu kugwa ndi kasupe ayenera kutha ndi mankhwala a log log cabin ndi munda phula.

Kodi kufalitsa mbalame chitumbuwa m'munda

Kuti mupeze zotsatira zovomerezeka ndi kudzipangira nokha mtengo wa mtengo uwu, muyenera kudziwa ndi kumvetsa mmene mbalame yamatcheri imabala.

Kubereketsa mbalame yamtengo wapatali yamatcheri imatheka m'njira zambiri: mbewu kapena vegetative (cuttings, layering, ana, kukulumikiza). Aliyense wa iwo adatsimikizirika yekha ndikuwonetsa bwino.

Kufalitsa ndi mbewu kumagwiritsidwa ntchito mwakhama kwa mitundu ya mbalame yamatcheri. Pachifukwa ichi, mbewuzo zimayendetsedwa, mosamala kufotokoza chipatso chokoma cha mbalame yamatcheri, ndiyeno kuphatikiza ndi mchenga wouma ndi kusungidwa pamalo ozizira. Mbeu zafesa zimabzalidwa m'dzinja kapena kumayambiriro kwa kasupe mu nthaka yonyowa. Kuzama kwa kufesa 1-3 cm, malingana ndi dothi looseness.

Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti mbeu za kufesa kumayenera zikhale zisanayambe.

Ndikofunikira! Stratification ya mbewu imapangitsa kuti ayambe kulimbana ndi nyengo yovuta ndi matenda, komanso kuwonjezera mwayi wa kumera. Mmodzi sayenera kunyalanyaza stratification, chifukwa ndizozimenezi zimatsimikizira kupambana kwa kubzala kasupe kwa mbewu zakuda za chitumbuwa.

Stratification iyenera kuchitika kwa miyezi 3-4 mu mchere wambiri, moss, mchenga kapena chisakanizo cha iwo pa kutentha kwa 0 mpaka +5 ° С. Nthawi yonseyi gawolo liyenera kusungidwa. Kusamalira mbande ndi kophweka ndipo kumakhala kuthirira nthawi yake, kuchotsa namsongole ndi kupatulira mtunda wa masentimita 5 mpaka 10. Pa nthawi ya stratification, zomera zimakhala ndi nthawi yokwana 40-50 masentimita mu msinkhu, pambuyo pake zikhoza kubzalidwa pamalo otseguka pamalo osatha.

Kwa mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mbalame yamatcheri, nthawi zambiri amagwiritsa ntchito budding ndi diso (yomwe inachitikira mu theka lachiwiri la July) ndi kusintha kwabwino (nthawi ya masika), pogwiritsa ntchito wamba mbalame yamatcheri mbande ngati katundu.

Mukudziwa? Akatswiri ndi wamaluwa odziwa ntchito amagwiritsa ntchito masamba a mbalame chitumbuwa kuti azitsamba nthaka payekha. Kutengedwa m'nthaka ndi masamba ovunda kumathandiza kuchepetsa acidity ndi kuchulukitsa zokolola.

Mbalame yamatcheri imayenera kubzalidwa pamene nyengo imalola kuti ikhalepo - posakhalitsa kutentha kotsika (pamwamba pa 10 ° C) ndi msinkhu wokhazikika wa chinyezi. M'chaka, cholondola kwambiri ndi kubzala kwa mbalame yamatcheri mu May. Pa nthawi yomweyi, nkofunika kuti malo okonzeratu okonzeka kukhale okwanira kuti agwirizane ndi mizu ya mtengo popanda kupumula ndi kugwa. Kuonjezera kukula, musanadzale mbalame yamatcheri, mchere ndi organic feteleza zingagwiritsidwe ntchito ku nthaka ya dzenje, koma osaposa 20-30 g aliyense.

Ndikofunikira! Mzu wa mbalame yamatcheri imatenga zinthu m'nthaka mofulumira, choncho feteleza owonjezera akhoza kukhala owopsa. Sikoyenera kudyetsa mtengo mopanda malire kumayambiriro oyambirira.

Mtunda pakati pa mbalame cherry mbande umatsimikiziridwa pa aliyense payekha, koma, monga lamulo, sayenera kukhala osachepera 3-4 mamita. Musanabzala, korona wa mtengo iyenera kudulidwa mpaka masentimita 65 mpaka 75. Pakulima, mizu yodzala ndi nthaka yonyansa ndipo ngati ilipo, utuchi. Nthaŵi zambiri, mbiya iyenera kugwedezeka, ndipo nthaka yoyandikana nayo imawomba bwino. Pomalizira, mbalame yamtengo wapatali iyenera kukhala yambiri madzi, ndipo mulch ayenera kukhala ndi mulinganizo wa peat ndi utuchi.

Matenda aakulu ndi matenda omera

Mbalame-chitumbuwa ndi chomera chodzichepetsa kwambiri chomwe chimapirira mavuto onse ndi nyengo zovuta za dera lathu. Pankhaniyi, milandu ya mbalame yamtengo wapatali yamtundu wa chitumbuwa kapena tizilombo ta tizilombo tizilombo toyambitsa matenda sizinalembedwe. Komabe ngakhale ngakhale izi, akatswiri amadziwa mitundu yambiri ya tizirombo ndi matenda omwe angakhudze chomera ichi.

Pakati pa matenda akulu a mbalame chitumbuwa ndi tsamba tsamba ndi chipatso cha matenda, chomwe chimayambitsidwa ndi marsupials.

Pankhani ya matenda a chomera, malo onse okhudzidwa a mtengo ayenera kuchotsedwa nthawi yomweyo, ndipo mfundo zochepetsedwa ziyenera kuperekedwa ndi phula la munda.

Zowonongeka kwambiri ndi njenjete, silkworm, ntchentche, nsabwe za m'masamba ndi tizirombo tina. Polimbana nawo kumayambiriro kwa masika m'pofunika kuchitira mbalame chitumbuwa ndi mchere wofiira kapena sopo. Pamapeto pake maluwawo ayenera kubwerezedwa mobwerezabwereza.

Kupititsa patsogolo maluwa, ndi bwino kupopera mbewuyo ndi njira yothetsera chigawo cha "Orgis" kapena "Sherpa".

Ndikofunikira! Zimachokera pa nthawi yoyenera ndi yoyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa mbalame yamatcheri kuchokera ku tizirombo ndi matenda omwe kuchuluka kwa mbalame yamtengo wapatali. Poganizira izi, ndikofunikira kwambiri kuti muyambe kuyang'ana chomera kamodzi pa nyengo.

Mbalame yamatcheri imatengedwa kuti ndi yabwino kwambiri kuti ikamatuluke pamalo ake okha. Pamodzi ndi katundu wothandiza, chomerachi chimakhalanso ndi maonekedwe okongola. Komanso, mbalame yamtengo wapatali yamtengo wapatali, yomwe kulima ndi kusamalidwa kwake sikungakhale kovuta, ingabzalidwe pamtunda uliwonse, kubwereketsa ndi kuthira feteleza.