Mukamadzala nkhaka pamtunda, amalangizi amaluwa

Nkhaka anabzala pafupi chilimwe wokhalamo. Komabe, sikuti aliyense amadziwa nthawi komanso momwe angayesetse bwino kuti apeze zokolola zabwino. Ndipo nkhaka ndi masamba ophika omwe amapereka zofunikira zambiri zofesa ndi kusamalira. Patsiku labwino lodzala ndi kulingalira bwino, chomeracho chikhoza kukula ndi kubereka zipatso zonse m'mabotchi ndi kunja. Malangizo pamene kuli bwino kubzala nkhaka pamtunda, mudzapeza mu nkhaniyi.

Zomwe zimabzala nkhaka pamalo otseguka, kusankha malo oti mubzala

Mukamabzala nkhaka muyenera kuganizira mfundo zingapo. Choyamba, ndikofunikira kusankha malo kuganizira zokonda za zomera. Chachiwiri, muyenera kutsata ndondomeko za masiku odzala. Chachitatu, nthaka ndi mbeu isanayambe kufesa zimayenera kukonzekera bwino.

Nkhaka ingabzalidwe m'njira ziwiri: mbewu ndi mbande. M'nkhani ino tidzakambirana za poyamba.

Mukudziwa? Njira ya mmera imakulolani kuti mupeze chipatsochi milungu iwiri isanafike mbewuyo. Kufesa pa mbande zopangidwa mu Meyi. June 7-10 ndi nthawi yomwe kuli kofunika kudzala mbande za nkhaka pansi.
Musanadzalemo, m'pofunika kudziwa njira yobzala nkhaka. Zili ziwiri: zopingasa ndi zowoneka.

Popeza nkhaka imakhala ndi thermophilic zomera, malo awo ndi ofunika kusankha bwino, kutentha, kutetezedwa ku mphepo yamkuntho, makamaka kumpoto. Ndi bwino kuti bedi likhale kuchokera kumpoto mpaka kummwera - kotero lidzakhala pansi pa dzuwa tsiku lonse.

Pofesa nkhaka pamalo otseguka, tsatirani malamulo a kusintha kwa mbeu. Zikhoza kubzalidwa pamalo pomwe kabichi, letesi, nandolo, mbatata, ndi tomato zidakonzedwa kale. Sungakhoze kuikidwa pambuyo pa nkhaka, nyemba, zukini, kaloti, mavwende, chifukwa mbewu zonsezi ziri ndi matenda wamba ndi tizirombo.

Zomera zobiriwira zomwe zimafuna nthaka. Chomeracho chifukwa cha zokolola zabwino ngati ziyikidwa m'nthaka yachonde, yotayirira yopanda ndale.

Nthaka yobzala imakonzedweratu - yoyamba kugwa, ndiye kumapeto kwa nyengo, nkhaka zisanafesedwe pansi. M'nyengo yophukira, ngalande imakumba 20-25 masentimita kupitirira ndi masentimita 70. Chitsime 30-35 masentimita chimapangidwa pachimake. Masentimita 15, masamba, udzu, udzu ayenera kuikidwa pansi.

Zisanayambe kufesa, nthaka iyenera kukhala ndi feteleza yotupa, mullein kapena zitosi za mbalame. Mungagwiritse ntchito, mwachitsanzo, njira iyi: mu ngalande, anakumba kugwa, kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa May, adathira manyowa 25 sentimita. Kenaka nthaka imatetezedwa ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ndi manganese. Pazitsulo lotsatira, 5-6 makilogalamu a humus pa mita imodzi ya mita, imodzi imodzi mtsuko wa phulusa, 20 g wa superphosphate, 10 g wa potaziyamu mchere amalowetsedwa mu nthaka yachonde. Mcherewu umatsanulira pa manyowa ndi kutalika kwa masentimita 20. Chilichonse chimasakanizidwa, chimatsanulidwa ndi mankhwala otentha a manganese omwe ali ndi filimuyo. M'madera amenewa, nthaka iyenera kutenthedwa ndi kutentha kofunikira kuti ikamatere.

Mbewu zimafunikanso kukonzekera - kutupa kwa maola 10-12 amaika m'madzi (20-25 ° C). Pa nthawi yomweyo madzi amasinthidwa kangapo. Amalimbikitsidwanso miyezi iwiri isanayambe kufesa kuti ayambe kuyendetsa kutenthetsa kutentha pamwamba madigiri 20. Komanso, mbewuzi zimatha kuchepetsedwa mwa kulowa mu njira yothetsera potassium permanganate, ndipo imathandizidwa ndi kukula patsogolo.

Musanafese nkhaka yotseguka pansi, mzerewo uyenera kuthiriridwa bwino. Ngakhale kuthirira mobwerezabwereza kumaloledwa. Kenaka timafalitsa mbewu mumtsinjewu, kuchoka pakati pa 25-30 masentimita pakati pawo. Mizere pakati pa mizere iyenera kukhala 50 cm kutalika. Nkhaka zimakula bwino pamabedi a 25-30 masentimita, zimakhala zotentha kuposa momwe zimakhalira. Pewani mbewu pamwamba ndi nthaka, pang'onopang'ono ndizengereza ndi dzanja lamanja ndi kuthiranso.

Ndikofunikira! Kufesa bwino kumachitika masana, nyengo ya nyengo. Kubzala mbande - madzulo kapena pa tsiku lamdima.
Pofuna kuteteza chinyezi komanso kutentha kwa kubzala, ayenera kujambidwa ndi filimuyi. Mutha kubisala nthaka, koma ndibwino kutambasula filimuyi pamatope. Asanayambe kuphuka, madzi sakufunikanso.

Pamene mphukira ikudutsa, filimuyi iyenera kutsegulidwa nthawi ndi nthawi kuti mpweya uzilowa komanso kuti zisayambe kutenthedwa ndi kutentha kwa mafuta. Pogona yachotsedweratu pamene maluwa oyambirira akuwonekera.

Nthaka yobzala nkhaka pamalo otseguka: nyengo, nyengo yolima, kukonzekera nkhaka

Kudyetsa masiku a nkhaka kumadalira nyengo yomwe mukukhalamo, nyengo nyengo yamasika ndi chilimwe, komanso pa zosiyanasiyana zomwe mumasankha.

Kufesa koyambirira

Musabzale nkhaka mofulumira. Dziko lapansi liyenera kutentha bwino mpaka madigiri 15 usiku. Kutentha kwakukulu kwambiri kwa chitukuko cha mbewu iyi ndi 18 ... +26 ° ะก. Ngati mukufuna kudziwa kuti ndi angati omwe amadzala nkhaka pamtunda, ndiye kuti tikulimbikitsidwa kuchita izi kale kuposa June 5. Ngakhale kuti tsikuli lidalira nyengo ya dera limene mukukhala. Ngati dothi limatha kutentha kale, ndipo kumapeto kwa May - mu June, palibe usiku wa chisanu, zomwe zimafalikira kuyambira May 15 mpaka 25.

Ndikofunikira! Ngati nkhaka idabzalidwa kutentha (10-15 ° C), amatha kukula ndi kufa.
Chinthu china chomwe chimatsimikizira kuti masiku oyambirira a chilimwe idzakhala nthawi yabwino yobzala nkhaka, ndikuti nkhaka ndi tsiku lalifupi lodzala. Kuti chikhale chitukuko chokhazikika, chimafunikira maola 10-12 okha. Choncho, ngati mubzala nkhaka Mwachitsanzo, kumapeto kwa June, ndiye kuti tsiku lotalika komanso kutentha sikudzakhudza kukula, chitukuko ndi zokolola za mbewu.

Ngati mukufuna nkhaka kuti mukolole mofulumira, pakadali pano, mulibenso kanthu kalikonse, mwina kubzala nkhaka pamalo otseguka mothandizidwa ndi mbande kapena kukonda kulima mu wowonjezera kutentha. Mbande, monga mbeu yobzala mbewu, iyenera kusunthira kumunda mpaka June 10, koma zokolola zidzakhala zokonzeka masabata 2-4 asanayambe - mpaka m'ma July.

Kusankha mitundu yamayambiriro, imani pa "Wopikisana", "Cascade", "Universal", ndi zina zotero. Kubzala panthawiyi, musasankhe mitundu ya pickling.

Avereji kufesa

Kufesa kachiwiri kwa nkhaka, sing'anga, kuchitidwa mu June. Mwinamwake mitundu yonse ili yoyenera kufesa. May 25 - June 10 ndi nthawi yachiwiri yomwe mungathe kubzala nkhaka pamtunda. Mukamabzala mu June kudzatha kukolola kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa August. Ngakhale kuti mawuwa amasiyana malinga ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana imene mumabzala: oyambirira, osakaniza kapena okuthwa.

Kufesa kochedwa

Kwa kufesa mochedwa kusankha makamaka yapangidwa kuti izi zosiyanasiyana, pickling yabwino. Mitengo yoyamba yakucha, nyengo yomwe ikukula imatenga masiku 45-50, imakhalanso yabwino kwa iye. Zokolola zawo zimagwirizana nthawi ndi fruiting ya tomato. Ubwino wa mbeuyi ndikuti nkhaka zatsopano zidzafika pa tebulo lanu mpaka chisanu choyamba.

Kodi kudzala nkhaka yotseguka nthawi yotentha yotentha? Nthawi idzadalira nyengo ndi nyengo, zomwe zikuwonetsedwa mu nyengo ino. Komabe, ndithudi, ziyenera kukhala July.

M'madera ozizira, mungathe kugwiritsa ntchito njira yobzala. Ngati ziwotenthe, mbewuzo zimayikidwa pamalo otseguka, komabe, zomerazo ziyenera kukhala ndi mbewu zazikulu kapena zophimbidwa ndi agrofibre.

Mitundu yotchuka yobzala pamalo otseguka

Imodzi mwa mafungulo opambana a high fruiting nkhaka kutchire ndi kusankha kwa mitundu yosinthidwa kwambiri kuti kubzala. Ena mwa iwo ndi osadziletsa komanso odzichepetsa, omwe amatha kupirira nyengo yovuta. Izi ndizo, "F1 Adamu", "F1 Carolina", "F1 Christina", "F1 Sweetheart", "F1 Cappuccino", "F1 Abwenzi Owona".

Ndikofunikira! Pofesa nkhaka yotseguka pansi, yesetsani kusankha mitundu yosagonjetsedwa ndi matenda ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda.
Tchire tating'onoting'ono, kusakhala kwa nthawi yayitali ndi zinyenyeswazi, kukhazikitsidwa kwa chiwerengero cha zipatso zosiyana siyana "Kid", "Kustovoy", "F1 Puccini".

Zipatso zamakono ndi zonunkhira zidzasangalatsa F1 Athos, F1 Porthos, F1 Murashka, F1 Shchedryk, F1 Southern Emerald.

Ngati mumakonda nkhaka zamzitini, tikukulangizani kuti mumvetsere "F1 Zodiac", "F1 Perseus", "F1 Nord". Pakuti salting ndi abwino "F1 Dasha", "F1 Spring", "F1 Crane", "Salting", "F1 Zanachka."

Mukudziwa? Mark "F" pamutuwu akuimira mbewu za hybrids.

Maziko a chisamaliro osamalidwa panja

Mutabzala mutseguka, nkhaka imafuna kusamalidwa mu mawonekedwe a nthawi zonse kuthirira, kupalira, kumasula nthaka, mulching, hilling ndi fetereza.

Nkhaka ndi zofuna za chinyezi. Ngati nthawi zonse sizitsuka ndipo zimayanika kuti ziume, ndiye kuti zomera zoterezi zimatha kukhala mdima komanso kukhala masamba osweka. Pamene madzi okwanira ochulukirapo amawunikira, kutupa kumasiya kukula, zipatso zowonongeka. Ngati kwa nthawi yaitali padzakhala madontho akuluakulu mu chinyezi ndi kutentha, izi zikhoza kupweteka zipatso. The mulingo woyenera kwambiri chinyezi ndi 80%. Mbali ya 30% ndi pansiyi idzachititsa kuti chikhalidwe chichoke.

Analimbikitsa miyambo ndi ulimi wambiri wothirira:

  • pamaso maluwa - 3-6 malita pa 1 lalikulu. m masiku 5-7;
  • ndi fruiting - 6-12 malita pa 1 lalikulu. M masiku awiri.
Kutsekemera kwa nkhaka kuyenera kuchitika kokha ndi madzi otentha (osachepera 18 ° C), mwinamwake pangakhale mavuto ndi chitukuko chawo. Njirayi imapangidwa bwino ndi kuthirira kumadzulo kapena m'mawa, kutentha kusanafike. Pamene kuthirira kuonetsetsa kuti madzi sagwera pa masamba.

Ngati mutabzala palibe feteleza akugwiritsidwa ntchito, nkhaka iyenera kudyetsedwa nthawi yonseyi. Kudyetsa koyamba kumachitika pamene oyambirira 2-3 woona masamba akuwoneka. Kenaka, manyowa panthawi yonse ya fruiting ndi masiku khumi ndi asanu ndi limodzi. Bweretsani nitrogen, phosphorus ndi potaziyamu. Ndi bwino kusinthana ndi zinthu zopangidwa ndi mineral feteleza.

Njira yofunira yosamalira nkhaka imamasula nthaka. Mizu ya nkhaka imakhala yakuya masentimita 40. Komabe, misa yawo imakhala pafupi ndi nthaka - pafupifupi masentimita asanu 5. Choncho, kumasula muzu woyenera kuyenera kuchitidwa ndi chisamaliro chapadera kuti asawononge mizu. Mutha kusintha njirayi ndi mulching.

Ndiponso, pamene mizu imaonekera, nkhaka iyenera kukhala yochuluka. Izi zidzateteza ku matenda a fungal ndipo zidzawalola kuti akule mizu yatsopano.

Kuwonekera mbali kumapsa, chomera chomera. Njirayi imagwiritsidwa ntchito pamtengo waukulu pamwamba pa tsamba lachisanu kapena lachisanu ndi chimodzi. Izi zidzathandiza kusintha fruiting.

Ngati mwasankha njira yowunikira, ndiye kuti pamene mafinya amatha kufika masentimita 30, muyenera kuyamba kumangiriza. Ndi bwino kuchita izi ndi nsalu yayikulu kuti asawononge zomera.

Ngati nkhaka ikuyamba kubala chipatso, ndikofunika kuwasunga tsiku limodzi kapena awiri. Nthawi zambiri mukamachita izi, nkhaka zambiri mungathe kuzipeza. Ndipotu, nkhaka iliyonse yodetsedwa imalepheretsa mapangidwe atsopano. Ndi bwino kusonkhanitsa m'mawa, popeza zipatso zomwe zimakolola madzulo zimafota mwamsanga.

Ndikofunikira! Masamba okhwima ayenera kukonzedwa ndi mitsempha ya m'munda, popeza kuvuta ndi kuwasokoneza kungawononge mkwapulo. Kuwonjezera apo, zikwapu sizikufuna kutembenuzidwa ndi kusunthidwa kuchokera kumalo ndi malo.
Kotero, ife tinakuuzani inu momwe mungabzala nkhaka poyera pansi. Ngati mutasankha bwino malo ndi zosiyanasiyana, tsatirani malangizidwe pa zipangizo zaulimi, mutha kupeza zokolola zabwino komanso zokoma nthawi yomwe mukufuna.