Zosakaniza feteleza feteleza kuposa kudyetsa kabichi kuti apange mutu wa kabichi

Kabichi ndizofala, koma zokolola za masamba. Pofuna kuonetsetsa kuti mitu ikuluikulu ndi yandiweyani imapangidwira, nkofunika kutenga njira yowathandiza kuti feteleza ndi feteleza.

Mfundo zoyenera kudya chakudya kabichi

Mbewu imeneyi imakonda nthaka yowuma komanso yosalala bwino. Kuti mumvetse mmene mungadyetse kabichi kuti mupange mutu wa kabichi, m'pofunika kulingalira mtundu wa nthaka ndi makhalidwe a mitundu yosiyanasiyana.

Ndipo ngati kale mankhwalawa amagwiritsidwa ntchito makamaka, tsopano feteleza zamchere zimatchuka kwambiri komanso zogwira mtima, chotero kuti zithe kupeza zotsatirazi zomwe zimalimbikitsa kuphatikiza mitundu iwiriyi.

Mukudziwa? Kabichi adzathetsa mutu. Ndikofunikira kuti izi zigwirizanitse masamba atsopano kumkachisi ndikugona kwa kanthawi.

Mitundu ya feteleza (nayitrogeni, potashi, phosphate)

Pali mitundu itatu yaikulu ya feteleza:

  • potashi;
  • phosphoric;
  • nitrogen.

Mitundu yotsirizirayi imadzipiritsidwa bwino ndi madzi ndipo imagwiritsidwa ntchito kufesa kabichi m'chaka, pamene masamba akuyamba kukula, chifukwa amathandiza kuti mbewu zamasamba zizikula bwino.

Ndipo awiri oyambirira amagwiritsidwa ntchito pamene mutu wayamba kale kupanga. Amathandizira kabichi kuti ikhale yovuta kwambiri ku matenda komanso kupirira nyengo yovuta. Sulfure ndi chitsulo zimaphatikizidwanso mu mndandanda wa mchere wothandiza kabichi, chifukwa amathandiza kuti mapuloteni awonjezereke ndi kupititsa patsogolo moyo wawo.

Malamulo oyambirira a kabichi feteleza

Yambani kukonzekera nthaka yobzala nyemba kabichi ikhale ngakhale kugwa. Ndi zothandiza kupanga organic fetereza kwa kabichi mutabzala pansi. Kabichi amakhudzidwa bwino ndi nthaka "acidic", choncho phulusa la malasha wamba kapena laimu likhonza kukhala mthandizi wabwino.

Ayenera kufalikira pansi pamene akumba, zimathandiza kuchepetsa acidity. Ngati maphunziro oyambirirawa alephera, mukhoza kuthirira munda wanu pafupi sabata umodzi musanabzala masamba. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwa kompositi iyi, yomwe imabalalika kuzungulira ponseponse ndikuwaza pamwamba pa dziko lapansi.

Mukudziwa? Madokotala nthawi zambiri amalimbikitsa kuti odwala ali ndi zilonda zam'mimba azigwiritsa ntchito madzi atsopano a kabichi, omwe ali ndi vitamini U, omwe amathandiza kubwezeretsa ntchito ya m'mimba.

Mmene mungakhalire kabichi woyera, chakudya chamakalendala

Manyowa a kabichi ayenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito mofanana muzitsamba zonse za chitukuko cha mbewu, kuyambira pa nthawi yobzala ndi kufikira nthawi yokolola.

Koma apa ndikofunika kuti musapitirire, chifukwa zidzasokoneza maonekedwe a ndiwo zamasamba (ming'alu ingapangidwe pamitu) komanso mchere wambiri wa nitrates. Kupaka kwapamwamba kumaperekedwa pambuyo pakumwa kwabwino kuthirira mabedi madzulo, kapena pa tsiku lachisanu.

Mukudziwa? Ngati muponyera chidutswa cha mkate mumadzi komwe kabichi imaswedwa, fungo losasangalatsa limene limakwiyitsa okonda ambiri a kabichi yophika.

Top kuvala kabichi mbande

Kuti musadabwe chifukwa chake mbande kabichi imakula bwino, muyenera kudziwa nthawi ndi nthawi yodyetsa. Kamichi yoyera pakakula imadya chiwerengero chachikulu cha nthaka zomwe zimabzalidwa, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti nthaka imakhala "bland".

Choncho, m'pofunikira kudya chakudya cha kabichi nthawi zonse, kuti musamangomanga pokhapokha mutabzala, kuonetsetsa kuti mukukula komanso kukolola. Manyowa a kabichi mbande amagwiritsidwa ntchito akamabzalidwa mdzenje, koma ngati panalibe chisanafike chitsimikizo cha nthaka ndi organic matter kugwa.

  • Malembo 8-11 atatha kukweza mbande kabichi, chakudya choyamba chimapangidwa ndi madzi amchere. 3 g wa potaziyamu chloride, 7.5 g wa ammonium nitrate ndi 12 g ya superphosphate amasungunuka mu 3 l madzi.
  • Kenaka, masiku 8-11, kudya mobwerezabwereza kumachitika. Tengani 2-3 g wa ammonium nitrate mu madzi okwanira 1 litre.
  • Ndipo chakudya chachitatu chimachitika 3-4 masiku asanadzalemo mbande pamunda wamunda. Zomwe zimapangidwa zimakhala zofanana ndi kudya koyamba, 4 g wa kloride ya potaziyamu, 6 g wa saltpeter ndi 16 g ya superphosphate amatengedwa kwa 2 malita awiri a madzi.

Top dressing kabichi atabwera pansi

Mbewu zitabzalidwa m'malo osatha, funso limabwera, momwe mungadyetse kabichi mutabzala pansi.

Ngati feteleza sagwiritsidwe ntchito pazitsime, kudya koyamba kabichi woyera kumatenga pafupifupi masiku 16 mutabzala. Monga tadziwika kale, choyamba muyenera kukhuta nthaka pansi pa kabichi ndi nayitrogeni.

Zidzakhala ngati mawonekedwe a feteleza kapena mineral form - osati zofunikira kwambiri. Mu malita 20 a madzi, mukhoza kuchepetsa 1 lita imodzi ya madzi mullein ndi kuwonjezera 0,5 malita pa chomera chilichonse. Pa madzi omwewo mutha kutenga 40 g ya saltpeter, yomwe imameretsanso nthaka bwino.

Komabe pali mwayi wa chakudya cha foliar. Mu malita 20 a madzi, onjezerani mabokosi awiri a mchere wa mchere ndi kutsanulira masamba ndi masamba.

Kuvala kawiri kabichi kotseguka kumachitika kumapeto kwa June, kapena kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa July. Popeza tikulimbikitsidwa kuti tipeze mineral ndi feteleza timene timapanga feteleza, nthawi ino mungathe kukhalabe ndi zinthu zofunika.

Manyowa, manyowa a nkhuku, kutsekedwa kwa phulusa amagwiritsidwa ntchito (2 makapu a phulusa amatengedwa 2 l madzi, pambuyo pa masiku 4-5 atakanizidwa, kupsyinjika ndikutsanulira kabichi).

Ndikofunikira! Phulusa imathandiza kuteteza masamba ku tizirombo. Madzi atatha kuthirira kapena kumvula masamba otsukidwa ndi phulusa kotero kuti "amamatira" kubiriwira.

Yisiti ya Brewer yatsimikiziranso bwino. Musanayambe kudya kabichi lotseguka pansi, konzani madzi njira yothetsera madzi. Kuti zitheke, ziyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito pa nyengo yofunda, kuti nthaka iyambe.

Zovala zotsatirazi zimagwiritsidwa ntchito mochedwa mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya kabichi. Tengani 60 g wa superphosphate ndi mullein kulowetsedwa.

Masabata awiri musanayambe mutu, chovala chachinayi chiyenera kuchitika, chomwe chiyenera kuchititsa kuti mbeuyo isungidwe nthawi yaitali. Kwa malita 20 a madzi, 1 lita imodzi yopangira phulusa kapena 80 g ya potassium sulfate amatengedwa.

Ndikofunikira! Pambuyo popereka chakudya, masamba a kabichi woyera amatsukidwa ndi madzi kotero kuti palibe feteleza patsiku.

Mitundu yapadera ya kuvala

Ngati dothi silinali feteleza panthawi yobzala chifukwa chache, kukula kwa pang'onopang'ono kwa mbeu kungathe kuonedwa. Choncho, muyenera kudziwa momwe mungadyetse mbande za kabichi kuti mukhale ndi thanzi labwino komanso likuyenda bwino.

Zovala zapamwamba zothandizira kukula koyera kabichi

Pambuyo pa masabata 2 mpaka 2.5, mungagwiritse ntchito njira zosiyanasiyana kuti mudyetse kukula kwa kabichi woyera. Kawirikawiri nkhuku kapena manyowa omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito (2 makapu amadzipiritsa mu malita 20 a madzi), urea (15 g pa 10 malita), ammonium nitrate.

Mwa njira, saltpeter ingagulidwe pa mtengo wotsika mtengo, ndipo imabweretsa madalitso aakulu. Chinthu chachikulu sichiyenera kupitirira ndi nitrate feteleza, popeza kuchuluka kwa nayitrogeni, komwe kumapindulitsa, m'tsogolomu kumayambitsa poizoni ndi nitrates.

Kodi kudyetsa kabichi kupanga mutu wa kabichi

Oyambirira kabichi kucha kumafuna kudyetsa kuti apangitse mapangidwe mutu wa kabichi. Pakadutsa masiku 14 mutadya chakudya choyamba, mukhoza kugwiritsa ntchito nitrophoska (100 g pa madzi okwanira 20), phulusa (1 chikho pa 1 lita imodzi ya kulowetsedwa), kulowetsedwa kwa zitosi za mbalame kapena manyowa a ng'ombe.

Pakuti feteleza oyambirira kabichi mu wowonjezera kutentha adzakhala opatsa komanso phosphate feteleza. Ndipotu, zidzathandiza masamba kusonkhanitsa zakudya kumapeto kwa nyengo yokula kuti apange mutu wa kabichi. Njira yoyenera ndi superphosphate, yomwe pafupifupi 16 mpaka 18% ya phosphorous ilipo.

Zoona, mu nthaka ya acidic, phosphorous sichidzayamwa bwino. Koma, monga momwe zadziwira kale, kabichi kawirikawiri sivomerezedwa kuti abzalidwe mu nthaka "yowawasa".

Ndikofunikira! Kukula kabichi woyera mu wowonjezera kutentha, feteleza ziyenera kupangidwa ndi mchere, osati mankhwala.

Kudziwa kudyetsa kabichi kutchire sikukwanira. Kuwonjezera pa kuthirira nthawi zonse, feteleza, kumasula nthaka, m'dera limene kabichi limakula, sipangakhale namsongole. Sikuti amangoletsa khungu ndi kutentha kwa zomera, komanso amadya mchere ndi zakudya zamchere m'nthaka, zomwe zimasokoneza chikhalidwe cha mbeu.