Mmene mungasamalirire gloxinia kunyumba: matenda ophera tizilombo ndi mankhwala a matenda

Gloxinia ndi chomera chofewa chokhala ndi maluwa okongola okongoletsera mapira, masamba a velvet ndi tsinde lafupika, lomwe ndi membala wa banja la Gesneriyev. M'chilengedwe chake, zimapezeka m'nkhalango zam'mvula za ku Peru ndi Brazil.

Gloxinia ndi wodzichepetsa, koma kuti akule ndikukula bwino panyumba, wolima ayenera kuyesetsa.

Zolakwitsa zapadera

Kukula kwa gloxinia sikumayambitsa vuto lililonse kwa alimi ogwira ntchito omwe ali odziwa bwino komanso osamva, koma ngati malamulo oyang'anira chisamaliro akukwaniritsidwa. Kuti chomeracho chikondwere ndi maluwa ake opatsa, chiyenera kulandira kuwala kokwanira, chinyezi ndi chakudya. Kuphwanya kwakukulu sikungakhoze kumupha iye, koma zimakhudza kwambiri khalidwe la maluwa ndi zokopa.

Bwanji mukuchoka ku Gloxinia curl

Ngati mukufuna kudziwa chifukwa chake gloxinia inayamba kukulunga masamba mkati, yankho la funso ili ndi losavuta kuposa momwe mukuganizira. Masamba a gloxinia amawombera ngati mpweya m'chipindacho ndi wouma kwambiri kapena umakhala wozizira. Komanso, alimi amapanga nthawi zina amakumana ndi mfundo yakuti, chifukwa china, masamba amayamba kuuma mu Gloxinia.

Chifukwa cha mavutowa ndi chifukwa cha kusowa kwa chinyezi m'mlengalenga komanso kutentha kwambiri. Chomeracho chimakhala bwino pokhapokha ngati chimakhala chinyezi ndi kutentha koyenera, choncho kusamalira kwawo n'kofunikira kwa iye. Nthawi zina vuto limathetsedwa ngati Dyetsani zomera ndi fetashi-phosphate feteleza. Komanso, masamba a Gloxinia curl, ngati amakhala ndi kangaude.

Kupanda kapena kupitirira zovala

Kupanda feteleza - vuto lalikulu pa gloxinia yomwe imakula mwachibadwa mu malo okhala ndi zakudya. Kuperewera kwa kashiamu kumapangitsa kuti masamba ake onse a zomera asaphonye mtundu wawo ndipo akhoza kupota komanso kutha. Kuchuluka kwa chinthu ichi kumawonetseredwa ndi maonekedwe owala, osasunthika pamphuno pamasamba kapena m'mimba mwa chlorosis.

Mukudziwa? Pofuna kukonza mpweya wamkati, asayansi amalangiza kukhazikitsa matchire angapo a gloxinia m'chipindamo, chifukwa chomeracho chimapangitsa kuti mpweya uzikhala wochuluka, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti zizindikiro zosaoneka bwino za mpweya wa mpweya zisamafe.

Kuti chomera chimachokera kuperewera kwa phosphorus, adzauza mtundu wobiriwira wamdima wobiriwira ndi utoto wabuluu, komanso maonekedwe a bulauni kapena ofiira. Kusintha kwa chifuwa kumayambira koyamba pa masamba apansi, koma pang'onopang'ono mbewu yonse ikukhudzidwa.

Kukula kwa chitsamba kumachepetsa kwambiri. Ngati pali masamba atsopano, amakhala ochepa, maluwa sangakhalepo konse, kapena amachedwa kuchepa. Ngati chomera chimakhala ndi mdima wakuda, ichi chikhoza kukhala chizindikiro chakuti chimakhala chowombera pamunsi kutentha, chosowa zakudya komanso kumwa madzi okwanira. Kaŵirikaŵiri kufulumira maluwa kumathandiza baka feteleza ndi phosphate feteleza ndikukweza ubwino wa kuyatsa. Phosphorous yochuluka imayambitsa kusokonezeka kwa kuyamwa kwa chitsulo ndi chomera, chimene chimayambitsa interstitial chlorosis pa masamba ake.

Palibe choopsa ndi gloxinia ndi kusowa kwa nayitrogeni. Zomera zimagwiritsa ntchito nayitrojeni ngati chinyumba cha mapuloteni, kuphatikizapo, chinthucho ndi mbali ya chlorophyll. Ndi kusowa nayitrogeni mu chomera pamakhala choletsa kwambiri kukula kwa kukula, ndipo mphukira zake zimakhala zochepa, kukula kwa inflorescences kumachepa. Kawirikawiri, chitsamba chimawoneka chofooka ndipo sichikhala ndi moyo, ndipo masamba ake amakhala ndi mtundu wobiriwira.

Ngati gloxinia ikudwala kusowa kwa nayitrogeni chikasu ndi kuwala kumayamba ndi mitsempha ndi mbali zina za masamba. Mbali za masamba omwe ali kutali kwambiri ndi mitsempha, ngakhale ndi kusowa kolimba kwa nayitrogeni, akhoza kusunga mtundu wawo wachilengedwe. Ngati chitsamba sichipezeka ndi nayitrogeni yokwanira, ndiye kuti masamba ake sapezeka ndi mitsempha yobiriwira.

Komabe, zizindikirozi siziyenera kusokonezeka ndi ukalamba wa masamba, popeza kuwonongeka kwa tsambali kumayambira ndi malo osakanikirana. Kuperewera kwa njira yoyamba kumakhudza masamba akale apansi, koma pakapita nthawi, kusintha kumawonekera m'madera onse a zomera. Nthaŵi zina ndi kusowa kwa nayitrogeni kosatha, pang'onopang'ono zimayamba kuuma ndi kugwa masamba onse ku gloxinia.

Mukudziwa? M'zaka za zana la 18 ku Ulaya, Mfumu Charles II ya ku Sweden inakhazikitsa "chilankhulo cha maluwa", momwe gloxinia imatanthauza "chikondi poyamba".

Mukaona kuti gloxinia ndipamwamba kwambiri, izi zikhoza kukhala chizindikiro kuti chomeracho chikudwala overfeeding ndi nitrogen kapena kusowa kuwala. Pankhaniyi, m'pofunika kuti nthawi yomweyo perekani gloxinia ndi kuwala kokwanira ndikusiya kudya ndi feteleza.

Ngati masamba a gloxinia adapeza mtundu wobiriwira ndi kukhala wamkulu ndi wowometsera madzi, ndipo maluwa akuchedwa, ndiye ichi ndi chizindikiro chotsimikizika kuti chomera overfed ndi nitrogen ndipo ziyenera kukhala nthawi yambiri kuyimitsa kuyambika kwa gawoli.

Kuwongolera komanso kugonjetsa pansi kumakhudzanso chitukuko cha chitsamba: ndi kusowa kwa zinthu zothandiza ndi zomera, kuchepa kwakukulu kwa kukula kwake kumachitika, kuphatikizapo kuchedwa kapena kusowa kwa maluwa. Choopsa chachikulu cha kuwonongeka kwa mbeu ndi chakuti pakali pano chomera chikhoza kuvutika ndi mankhwala oyaka. Ndipo ngati panthawiyi musamupatse thandizo lothandizira (yambani bwino nthaka kapena muiike mu nthaka yatsopano), ndiye izi zingawononge kwathunthu gloxinia.

Gloxinia imayamba kuvunda

Kuthirira mopitirira muyeso, kumwa nayitrogeni ndi kuchuluka kwa nthaka acidity - Zomwe zimayambitsa matenda a gloxinia. Ngati chomeracho chimafota, masamba amayamba kuuma ndi kugwa, ndiye ichi ndi chizindikiro chotsimikizira kuti gloxinia ali ndi tuber. Pa nthawi yoyamba ya matendawa amadzimva ngati kutayika kwa masamba a turgor, osabweretsedwe pambuyo kuthirira.

Ndikofunikira! Gloxinia iyenera kutetezedwa ku hypothermia, popeza ngakhale kutentha pang'ono kumayambitsa zowola za mbeu, ndipo ngati simuthandiza nthawiyi, idzafa mofulumira kwambiri.

Pamene kutupa kwa tuber, Pofuna kusunga chomeracho, m'pofunika kuchiyeretsa bwinobwino, kudulira masamba ake onse ndi kutsekemera kwa mphindi 20 mu njira yothetsera potassium permanganate, kenaka youma, chitani malo owonongeka ndi makala ophwanyika ndi nthaka mu nthaka yochepa. Pambuyo pake, chomeracho chiyenera kulandira kuchuluka kwa kuchuluka kwa chinyezi.

Gloxinia sizimafalikira

Kawirikawiri, obereketsa osadziwa zambiri, akufunitsitsa kupereka gloxinia ndi zakudya zonse zofunika, amadyetsedwa ndi nayitrogeni. Komabe chifukwa cha kufotokoza koopsa kwa tsatanetsatane wa chomera, M'malo mwake, amakana kwathunthu kuphuka. Zoona zake n'zakuti gloxinia imayesetsa kuti asafe kwambiri ndi nayitrogeni. Izi zimapangitsa kuti kukula kwa mtundu wobiriwira ukule bwino, koma kumapangitsa kuchedwa kwa maluwa.

Kuwonjezera apo, kusowa kwa maluwa kungayambitsenso chifukwa cha kusowa kwa kuwala, ma drafts, kutentha kozungulira, kusowa kwa chinyezi komanso nyengo yochepa yozizira. Kuti gloxinia isangalatse ndi nyengo yake yowonjezera nyengo yotsatira, nkofunika kuonetsetsa kuti mpumulo ulipo kwa miyezi itatu, ndipo atadzuka nthawi yomweyo amaika mphika ndi chomera pamalo abwino. Kulephera kwa kuwala kungachititse kuti masamba asapangidwe, ndipo, kupatula izi, pangakhale zochepa kwambiri, kapena zingapangidwe molakwika, zomwe zingayambitse maluwa opanda kanthu kapena kusadziwika.

Mukudziwa? Pali mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya gloxinia, koma pafupifupi, kukula kwake kwa tchire kuyambira 20 mpaka 50 cm Komabe, tizilombo tating'ono tomwe timagwiritsa ntchito gloxinia timadziwika ndi sayansi: tchire zake sizingapitilire masentimita asanu m'lifupi, ndipo kukula kwa masamba ake sikuposa 1 cm.

Nthawi zina gloxinia amapitirizabe amakana kuphulika chifukwa cha poto yosankhika. Kuti kulima gloxinia kuyenera kusankha miphika yambiri ndi yochepa. Kuthira kwakukulu kwa mphika kungayambitse chomeracho kukula mwamphamvu tuber popanda mtengo.

Ambiri amalima maluwa akudandaula kuti pa chifukwa china, gloxinia sauka pambuyo pa nyengo yozizira. Ngati gloxinia simakula pambuyo pachisanu, ndiye Pakhoza kukhala zifukwa zingapo za izi. Mwachitsanzo, tuber wathanzi ndi wachikulire anali kusungidwa kwa miyezi isanu ndi itatu ndipo sankatha kupeza zinthu zokwanira zokwanira kukula. Komanso, chifukwa chake chimawuma m'nyengo yozizira.

Ndikofunikira! Pofuna kupewa kuyanika kwa tuberculosis, amafunika kusungidwa m'matumba apulasitiki otsekedwa ndi nthaka yochepa kapena yochepa m'nyengo yozizira.
Nthaŵi ndi nthawi muzitsitsimutsa ma tubers ndipo onetsetsani kuti sakuuma. Pamene yoyamba masamba kuonekera, nthawi yomweyo kuziika iwo mu okonzeka miphika.

Ngati gloxinia tuber sadafe chifukwa cha ukalamba kapena bowa sichimagunda, ndiye kuti ndithudi kumera ndi chisangalalo ndi maluwa okoma, mumangodikirira pang'ono.

Major Gloxinia Matenda

Ngati mukufuna gloxinia kukondweretsereni ndi maluwa okoma, muyenera kudziwa momwe matenda a masamba amapezera komanso momwe mungawachitire, komanso kudziwa nokha ndi mavuto aakulu akukula.

Kuwonongeka kochedwa

Kuwonongeka kochedwa ndi chimodzi mwa matenda owopsa kwambiri a fungalusi a gloxinia.

Matenda amatha kufalikira kudothi, zowonongeka, zofunda kapena madzi amvula.

Ndikofunikira! Pofuna kuletsa kugonjetsedwa kwa matenda a matenda a matenda otchedwa gloxinia ndi matenda opatsirana, kuwonjezera pa kuperewera kwa nthaka, nkofunika kuti mankhwala asamalidwe. Kuti muchite izi, ikani tuber kapena cuttings ya mbeu kwa mphindi zisanu muimitsa "Captan".

Nthawi yowonjezereka nthawi ya matendawa ndi miyezi iwiri. Matenda opatsirana amtunduwu angathandize kuti:

  • kuthirira molakwika;
  • nthaka yolimba;
  • malo oyandikana kwambiri a tchire;
  • kusamba kwa madzi;
  • mkulu chinyezi;
  • otsika kutentha.
Chizindikiro chachikulu cha matendawa Gloxinia amaonedwa kukhala maonekedwe a bulauni pamasamba ake, akuzunguliridwa ndi malire otsika. Nthaŵi zina pa tchire mumatha kuwona chikhomo choyera kumbali ya mkati mwa masamba, omwe amadziwika kwambiri ndi mvula yambiri. Ngati gloxinia yanu imakhala youma ndipo simukudziwa choti muchite, kumbukirani kuti njira yabwino yothetsera matendawa ndi kuwononga mbewu, popeza palibe mankhwala ogwira ntchito molimbana ndi vuto lochedwa, choncho ntchito yaikulu ya wolima mbewu ndikuteteza kufalikira kwa matendawa.

Pofuna kuteteza thupi, zimalimbikitsa kupopera tchire ndi mankhwala monga "Polycarbocide", "Captan" ndi "Zineb".

Fusarium

Fusarium - matenda a fungal, omwe amawonetsedwa ndi chikasu ndi kuphulika kwa masamba, ndipo kenako mbewu yonseyo. Gwero la matenda ndi kachilombo ka mbeu ndi dothi. Choyamba, tizilombo toyambitsa matenda timayambitsa matenda ochepa, ndipo pambuyo poti mycelium ikukula, mizu ikuluikulu imakhudzidwa ndi matendawa. Matendawa amafalikira m'mitsuko ya chomeracho, choyamba tsinde limakhudzidwa, ndipo potsirizira pake chomera chonsecho. Masamba apansi ndi oyamba kufa, ndipo ena onse amakhala madzi. Malo osiyana a masamba angakhale ndi mtundu wobiriwira kapena wobiriwira. Kuletsa kufala kwa matenda, chotsani zomera zonse nthawi yomweyo. Monga mankhwala opatsirana, mungagwiritse ntchito "Readzol".

Grey kuvunda

Grey kuvunda ndi matenda opatsirana owopsa chifukwa cha chisamaliro chosayenera cha gloxinia. Matendawa amafalikira mofulumira, ndipo amawopsa kwambiri. Pamene chitsamba chimawombera nkhungu, chomera chimayamba kukula pang'onopang'ono ndipo chimatuluka pachimake.

Pofuna kupewa chitukuko choonjezera cha matendawa, m'pofunika kuchotsa pazitsamba zam'madzi zonse zomwe zowonongeka ndi bowa kumakhala ndi thanzi labwino. Pofuna kuteteza kachilombo ka HIV kachilomboka, malo a kagawowo auma, amachizidwa ndi sulfure kapena makala ophwanyika, ndipo kenako amabzalidwa pansi.

Msolo wakuda

Msolo wakuda umayambitsidwa ndi bowa la phytopathogen limene lili m'nthaka. M'mitengo yowonongeka, khosi la hila ndilo loyamba kuvutika, ndi zotsatira zake kuti tsinde, ngati kugwedezeka pansi, limayamba kukwera pansi.

Pofuna kupewa chitukuko cha matenda, musanadzalemo zomera, muyenera choyamba kupanga mankhwala ophera tizilombo. Pa matenda a chitsamba amachiritsidwa ndi yankho la mkuwa sulphate. Musanayambe kubzala mbewu, nthaka imatengedwa ndi makala kapena colloidal sulfure. Muyeneranso kuwongolera kuthirira, monga kuchuluka kwa chinyezi cha nthaka kumathandiza kuti chitukuko chikhale chitukuko.

Mame a Mealy

Mame a mame amayamba chifukwa cha matenda a fungal. Matendawa amadziwika ndi maonekedwe a mtengo wa mealy pa chomera: kunja, zomera zimawoneka ngati wina wawapaka ufa ndi ufa. Zinthu zomwe zimapangitsa kuti matendawa apitirire, amaonedwa kuti ndi okwanira kwambiri komanso kusinthasintha kwadzidzidzi.

Gwero la matenda ndi dothi kapena kubzala. Ngati chitsamba chimakhudzidwa ndi powdery mildew, ndibwino kuti chiwonongeke kuti chiteteze kufalikira kwa matenda. Komabe, panthawi yoyamba ya matendawa, zomera zimatha kupulumutsidwa ndi mankhwala ndi fungicidal wothandizila, mwachitsanzo, "Vectra".

Tizilombo toyambitsa matenda a gloxinia

Gloxinia nthawi zina amavutika ndi tizilombo tosiyanasiyana, koma amakhala otetezeka kwambiri. nsabwe za m'masamba, akangaude ndi thrips.

Mmene mungagwirire ndi nsabwe za m'masamba

Mukawona tizilombo tating'onoting'ono kapena zobiriwira pa zomera zanu, ndiye kuti gloxinia ikhoza kugwidwa ndi nsabwe za m'masamba. Tizilombo timadyetsa zomera zokoma. Tizilombo toyambitsa matenda timakhudza masamba aang'ono, chifukwa amayamba kupota ndi kuphulika. Ndi tizilonda tochepa, tizilombo timachotsedwa ndi burashi, kenako timangowonongeka. Ngati pali zowonongeka kwambiri za gloxinia, ndibwino kuti muzisamalira chitsamba "Confidor" kapena "Decis".

Kodi mungachotse bwanji nkhupakupa pa gloxinia?

Ngati gloxinia imakhudzidwa ndi kangaude, mukhoza kuona madontho aang'ono pamphepete mwa masamba ake, omwe ali ndi mthunzi pambali mwa tsamba. Zolakwitsa zotere zimapezeka m'malo omwe nkhuku imayamwa selo kumera. Pakapita nthawi, pansi pa masamba, nsalu ya thinnest imakhalanso yotchuka. Pofuna kubwezeretsa tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, masamba ayenera kupukutidwa ndi chinkhupule choviikidwa m'madzi otentha. Kuchokera ku tizilombo tingagwiritsidwe ntchito "Neoron". Mankhwalawa amachitidwa kawiri kapena katatu ndi nthawi yosapitirira masiku asanu ndi awiri.

Yambani pa gloxinia

Thrips ali ndi thupi lochepa kwambiri ndipo amalingaliridwa ngati tizilombo toyambitsa matenda omwe amakhudza zomera zamkati. Mukawona kuti masamba a gloxinia akutha, ndipo simukudziwa choti muchite, ndiye yang'anani mosamala tchire kuti mutenge nyemba. Tizilombo timadyetsa selo kuyamwa kapena kubzala timadzi tokoma. Chizindikiro choyamba chimene chomeracho chili ndi thrips, - maonekedwe a mikwingwirima yowala pamapepala yomwe nthawi yambiri imayanjanitsa ndikupanga makomberati, omwe amachititsa kuti mbewuzo ziwonongeke.

Thrips ndi olimba kwambiri, choncho tizilombo timayesedwa kuti ndi njira yabwino yothetsera iwo. Pamene tizilombo tipezeka, chomera chovulalacho chiyenera kukhala chokhazikitsidwa ndi zomera zina zonse zamkati ndikuyendetsa bwino malo omwe mphika unayima. Kulimbana ndi tizilombo timagwiritsa ntchito mankhwala Actellic kapena Intavir.

Ngati mumasamalira tchire ndikuzizungulira, ndiye kuti kuphulika kwa gloxinia kudzakhala kukongoletsa kwanu.