Momwe mungamere mphesa mumtsinje: kubzala ndi kusamalira zipatso mu chisanu

Vinyo akukula kwa nthawi yaitali anali mwayi wa mayiko akumwera. Chowonadi ndi chakuti ulimi uwu umatengedwa ngati thermophilic. Koma chifukwa cha ntchito ya obereketsa, kulima mphesa mu Mitsinje, kubzala kwake ndi kulima kunakhala weniweni. Tsopano viticulture sichikulirakuliratu bwino m'dera la Mitsinje, komabe limaperekanso chakudya chokwanira chokwanira.

Mukudziwa? Mphesa ndi mbewu yakale. Malinga ndi asayansi, chiyambi chake mu chikhalidwe chinayamba m'mayiko a Asia (Pakistan, Iran). Anapeza zilembo za Aigupto zomwe zikusonyeza masamba ndi magulu a mphesa. Izi zikusonyeza kuti zaka zikwi zambiri zapitazo zinkaonedwa kuti ndizothandiza mbewu zaulimi.

Mphesa M'mizinda: Kusankha mitundu kuti ikule

Chinthu chachikulu cha kusankha kwa mphesa mitundu ya Ural ndi chisanu kukana ndi kucha msanga. Ndi bwino kusankha mitundu yosiyanasiyana. Zimasinthidwa kuti zichitike nyengo zina. Ubwino wa mmera umadalira kukula kwa chitsamba ndi zokolola. Ndifunikanso kusankha ngati mukufuna tebulo kapena maonekedwe apamwamba. Choyamba chakonzedwa kuti chikhale chakudya ndi malonda, ndipo chachiwiri - kupanga vinyo. Posankha, samverani sapling. Ndi bwino kugula kuchokera kwa alimi ovomerezeka amene akhala akukula kwa zaka zambiri. Zimatengedwa mbande zabwino ndi mphukira zambiri. Oyenera mitundu yakucha 100-130 masiku ndi kulekerera chisanu pansipa -40 ° C. Mitengo ya mphesa yosagwiritsidwa ntchito yolimba m'mitsinje:

  • "Samokhvalovich" - oyambirira (masiku 110);
  • Olga kapena "Kukongola kwa Kumpoto" - oyambirira (masiku 110);
  • "Negro" - yamkati (masiku 125);
  • "Lydia" -kumayambiriro oyambirira (masiku 125);
  • "White Muscat Shatilova" - kumayambiriro oyambirira (masiku 130).

Mphesa kumwera kwa Mirire ndi ovuta kwambiri, kubzala ndi kusamalira kumafuna chisamaliro chapadera ndi ntchito ya mwiniwake. Ndi chisamaliro choyenera, zotsatira zake sizidzatenga nthawi yaitali.

Funso la momwe mungamere mphesa mu Mitsempha ya Oyamba kumene angabwere kuchokera kwa ambiri omwe akufuna kuchita viticulture, koma omwe alibe chidziwitso pa nkhaniyi. Ndipo ndikuyenera kuyamba ndi mitundu yochepa yokha. Aloleni iwo akhale osiyana mu kukoma ndi mtundu. Posankha sapling, tcherani khutu kuzuwo sunadetsedwe. Ndi bwino kusankha mbande yomwe mizu yake yodzaza ndi thumba la pulasitiki. Iwo sadzakhala ndi njala ndi kuzika mizu pamene akufika. Pamene nthawi yokolola ibwera, mungasankhe kuti ndizosiyana zotani zomwe mumakonda. Pokhapokha pa chaka cha 6 mpaka 7 pali mwayi wowona zokolola zonse za mitundu yosiyanasiyana. Malinga ndi khalidwe la mphesa, mutha kukolola makilogalamu 8 kuchokera ku chitsamba chimodzi.

Mukudziwa? Kwa oyamba kumene Mitundu yabwino: "Aleshenkin", "Mu Memory of Shatilova", "In Memory of Dombrovskaya". Iwo sali ovuta komanso samafuna chisamaliro chapadera.

Mphesa kumwera kwa Mirire ikukula mofulumira, mitundu yake imadziwika bwino ndipo nthawi zambiri imawoneka yatsopano. Ali ndi mitundu yoposa 500. Pakati pawo, malo apadera amakhala ndi mitundu yomwe singathe kudwala matenda a fungus.

Zomwe zimabzala mphesa mu Mitsinje

Kamodzi kasankhidwa, pali mafunso ambiri. Mmodzi wa iwo, momwe angabzalitse mphesa mu Mitsinje. Ndikofunikira kusankha malo abwino kwambiri kuti mutuluke ndikukonzekera dzenje. Mkhalidwewu ukhoza kukula paliponse ngati akusamalidwa bwino. Koma zokolola zoyembekezeka sizidzasowa. Kubzala mphesa mu Mitsinje ndi kotheka komanso kwenikweni. Chinthu chachikulu ndicho kugula zovala zamtengo wapatali ndikutsatira malamulo odzala.

Kusankha malo okhala

Zokolola za chitsamba zimadalira kumene zimabzalidwa. Malo osankhidwa ayenera kukhala ngati dzuwa, lowuma ndi lotseguka ngati n'kotheka. Nthaka ndi yopanda thanzi, yowonjezera. Ndi bwino kubzala sapling kuchoka pamitengo kuti korona isati ikhale mthunzi, ndipo mizu siikangana ndi mizu ya mphesa. Zitsamba ziyenera kutetezedwa ku fumbi, ngati zabzala pamsewu, komanso nkhuku ndi nyama. Madzi apansi pansi sayenera kukhala pafupi ndi nthaka. Malo abwino angakhalepo kumwera kapena kum'mwera chakumadzulo.

Kukonzekera dzenje

Kukonzekera kwa dzenje lakudzala kumapangidwa miyezi 2 musanadzalemo mmera (March-April). Ukulu wake ndi 1mx 1 m. Mdzenje umathiridwa kangapo kuti ukhazikitse nthaka. Mchenga, humus amatsanulira pansi, nthaka yachonde yothira phosphate ndi fetashi feteleza ikuwonjezeredwa. Pambuyo pa miyezi iwiri, sapling isabzalidwa mu dzenje lokonzekera. Dziko lapansi ndiloweta ndi kuthirira. Ngati feteleza ankagwiritsidwa ntchito panthawi yobzala m'dzenje, ndiye kuti chaka choyamba mbewuyo siidalidwa.

Kulowera

Mtunda pakati pa tchire pamzere uyenera kukhala mamita 2.5, ndi kukula, sayenera kulowerera. Kutalikirana pakati pa mizera - 2 mamita. Mtunda wochokera pa mipanda ndi osachepera mita imodzi kuti muzu uzuke.

Kodi mungasamalire mphesa bwanji mumtsinje?

Kudyetsa ndi kusamalira mphesa mu Miyeso kumafuna kuwunika ndi kusamala. Mphesa saopa chisanu, monga kuchuluka kwa chinyezi. Zitsamba zimatembenuka zakuda ndi kuwonongeka, ndipo mizu imatuluka. Koma, ngakhale kulimbikitsana kwa chilala, ndi kusowa kwa chinyezi kumakula bwino ndi kubala zipatso. Choncho, musanayambe kuthirira, nkofunika kudziwa ngati osankhidwa osiyanasiyana akusowa.

Zodziwika ndi zofunikira za chisamaliro ndi kulengedwa kwa zinthu zabwino kuti kulima mitundu ina ya mphesa, monga "Choyambirira", "Kishmish", "Veles", "Nizina", "Talisman", "Bazhen", "Vostorg", "Sofia", Lancelot, Arcadia, Sphinx, Rumba, Zabava, Ruslan, Sensation, Codreanca, Chameleon, Mu Memory ya Negrul, Preobrazhenie, Avgustin, ndi Laura "- sitepe yoyamba kukolola zochuluka za zipatso za dzuwa.

Momwe mungamwetse mphesa mumtsinje

Mbewu zapamwamba zomwe zikukula m'makoma a kumwera zimadalira maulamuliro a ulimi wothirira. Chilengedwe ndi continental ndipo n'zosatheka kufotokozera zomwe tingayembekezere kuchokera mvula. Ulimi uwu sulekerera chinyezi chokwanira, ndipo chilala chimakhudza kwambiri zokolola ndi kukula. Pa nthawi ya maluwa, kuthirira sikofunika.

Poyamba mutabzala, mmera umathiridwa kamodzi pa sabata. Kenaka, kuyang'ana maonekedwe a chomera, kuthirira kuli koyenera masabata angapo. Ndikofunika kuchita izi madzulo ndi madzi ambiri ofunda pansi pazu. Zowonjezera muzu kuthirira amakonda. Mmera wamkulu amalekerera chilala kusiyana ndi kubzala. Koma kuthirira kuyenera kuchitidwa nthawi zonse, chifukwa maonekedwe a mphesa amawoneka athanzi, koma mphamvu zokolola sizidzatha. Amalekerera madzi ochulukirapo. Posankha malo, samverani malo a madzi apansi. Kusungunuka kwa chinyezi kumayambitsa kuvunda kwa mizu ndi matenda awo.

Ndikofunikira! Mphesa pamwamba pa masamba mu kutentha sikungamwe madzi. Kuphika masamba kumatentha kunja kwa dzuwa. Pa maluwa a mphesa kuthirira amachititsa maluwa kugwa.
Pofuna kutchera nthaka, ndi bwino kusiya udzu pafupi ndi muzu kapena kudzala manyowa. Pakati pa maluwa, kusowa kwa chinyezi sikung'ono, ndipo obereketsa akulangizidwa kuchepetsa kapena kuchotsa kwathunthu madzi okwanira. Kufunika kwa iwo kubwezeretsanso nthawi yobzala zipatso. Masabata angapo musanakolole, kuthirira kumayimanso. Kuthira kwa madzi madzi okwanira akuchitika nthawi yokonzekera munda wa mpesa kwa nyengo yozizira.

Pambuyo kukolola ziyenera kuthiridwe bwino (20 malita a madzi kwa 1 chitsamba). Izi zidzathandiza nyengo yozizira. Koma ngati nthaka yomwe idabzalidwa ndi yowala, ndiye kuthirira kotere kungakhale kovulaza. Silikugwiritsidwanso ntchito m'madera omwe ali pansi pamtunda. Pa malo oterewa, kuthirira madzi kusungirako kumachitika nthawi imodzi muzaka zingapo ndi nthaka yakuya.

Kusamalira dothi

Njira zowonongeka za nthaka zimaphatikizapo nthunzi yakuda. Zimathandiza kuti nthaka ikhale yotayirira komanso popanda udzu. Oyenera achinyamata baka, ndipo kale fruiting. Nthawi zambiri kumasulidwa kumadalira mkhalidwe wa nthaka ndi ulimi wothirira. Ngati nthaka yaying'ono yaying'ono, kumasula kumachitika nthawi zambiri. Zaka 2-3 zilizonse, nthunzi yakuda iyenera kusinthidwa ndi kuyambika kwa miyambo yosiyana siyana. Kugwiritsa ntchito ulimi nthawi yaitali kungasokoneze fruiting ndi chikhalidwe cha mbeu yonse.

Njira zodziwika kwambiri za viticulture m'mitsinjeyi zimaphatikizapo nthaka mulching, yomwe imathandiza kuthetsa vutoli la nthaka ndi kusunga chinyezi. Ntchito yogwiritsira ntchito udzu, utuchi, manyowa, ndi zina zotero. Amaikidwa pakati pa mizere, koma izi ndizovuta. Ndi bwino kugwiritsa ntchito mulch ndi kuvunda, kuti musatenge makoswe.

Kugwiritsiridwa ntchito kwa zikhalidwe zamtunduwu kumakhudzanso nthaka. Kulemera ndi zinthu zakuthupi, kukulitsa thupi ndi mankhwala omwe ali m'nthaka, kuteteza kutentha kwa nthaka. Zigawo zazitsamba zimafuna zinyontho zambiri. Choncho, powagwiritsa ntchito, munda wa mpesa uyenera kupatsidwa madzi ambiri.

Ndikofunikira!Manyowa obiriwira amagwiritsidwa ntchito m'minda ya mpesa zaka zoposa 6. Mzu wa mphesa zazing'ono sizinapangidwe mokwanira kuti zimenyane ndi chinyezi ndi zakudya ndi manyowa obiriwira.

Kudya zakudya

Saltpeter, feteleza fetashi, superphosphate ndi feteleza zachilengedwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popamwamba. Kudyetsa koyamba kumachitika kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa May, wachiwiri kumapeto.

Mukudziwa? Ngati, mutabzala mbande za mphesa, feteleza zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pang'onopang'ono panthaka, feteleza mphesa kwa zaka zitatu kapena zinayi zotsatira sikofunika.

Ndi bwino kuthira manyowa ndi manyowa, ali ndi zinthu zambiri zowonjezera kuposa feteleza. Sikuti amadyetsa mizu ya mpesa, koma amamasula nthaka. Ikani ndi foliar pamwamba kuvala pamodzi ndi kuthirira mphesa. Masamba amatenga zakudya zokwanira. Pakuti kupewa ovari ndi kugwa kwa maluwa mphesa masamba sprayed ndi yankho ndi kufufuza zinthu pamaso maonekedwe a maluwa. Nthawi yachiwiri - pambuyo maluwa. Yachitatu - ikapsa. Kupaka zovala kumangokuthandizani kukolola, komanso kumakupatsani mphamvu kuti mukhale ndi mphamvu isanafike.

Malingana ndi chiƔerengero ndi chiwerengero cha eskrementov mu maonekedwe a manyowa, chifukwa mphesa za feteleza mungagwiritse ntchito nkhosa, kavalo, kalulu, nkhumba ndi manyowa a ng'ombe.

Kuthamanga ndi kukumbina

Kusamalira mphesa m'nyengo ya chilimwe kukula kwachitika ndi staking ndi pinching. Pasyonkovy lamulo la chitsamba chamagetsi, mpweya wake ndi kuyatsa. Poonjezera kukula kwa masitepe kumayambiriro kwa kasupe, pamene mphukira imatha kufika 15-20 masentimita, pamwamba pazitsulo. Kusinthanitsa kunachotsa nsonga zokhazokha za mphukira. Amapangidwa panthawi ya maluwa.

Kudulira mphesa

Kudulira mphesa mumtsinje kumafunika kuti mukhale ndi zipatso zokwanira, kukonza mawonekedwe ndi kukula kwa chitsamba, ndikupangitsani kusamalira chonde. Zatsimikiziridwa kuti ndi kudulira kawirikawiri ndi kokwanira, zipatso za zipatso zimakula komanso kukula kwake kukuwonjezeka. Kudulira koyamba kwa mphesa kumapangidwa m'chaka cha Mitsinje. Kawirikawiri kuyambira m'ma March. Kutentha sikuyenera kukhala pansi pa +5 ° C.

Komanso, kudulira mitengo sikuyenera kuyamba, monga kutaya kwa madzi kumayamba masika. Dulani manja onse omwe sanaperekere. Manjawa amatha nthawi yonse. Kudulira mphesa mu kugwa kwa Mitsinje kumasiyana ndi mayiko akummwera. M'chaka choyamba sichipangidwe - chitsamba cha chilimwe chimakula sichiposa 0,5-1 mamita. Chaka chotsatira, anadulira mbali yonse ya mpesa. Mphukira zofooka zimachotsedwa, kusiya zamphamvu kwambiri.

Kuchiza kwa mphesa ku matenda ndi tizirombo

Matendawa amagawidwa mu nyengo komanso osapitirira. Mbewu zaulimi izi zimadwala matenda osiyanasiyana. Ngati simukuchita mankhwala opatsirana matenda ndi tizirombo, zokolola zingakhudzidwe kwambiri. Viticulture imafunika kusamala ndi kukonza nthawi yake. Anayambitsa matenda kapena sanawonongeke nthawi yomwe tizilombo toyambitsa matenda amawononga mbewu komanso chitsamba chonse.

Pofuna kupewa imfa ya chomera, chithandizo cha prophylactic chikuchitika. Mankhwala othandizira, pambuyo pa kudulira kasupe, ndi chitsulo cha sulfate (300-500 g pa 10 l madzi). Secondary, ndi kutupa kwa impso - "Aktellik". Nthawi yachitatu, kumapeto kwa mwezi wa April kapena kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa May, ndi Horus (12 g pa 10 malita a madzi), chithandizo chachinayi chikuchitika musanayambe maluwa: Ridomil Gold MC (kapena Acrobat MC) - Topaz (kapena Strobe) - "Actellic". Chithandizo chachisanu chimachitika pamene mabulosi ali pa peyala siteji: "Ridomil Gold" - "Topaz" - "Aktellik".

Zomwe zimakulira mphesa mumtsinje: momwe mungaphimbe chomera m'nyengo yozizira

Malo okhala mphesa m'nyengo yozizira mu Mitsinje - ntchito yofunikira, yomwe imatsimikizira kupulumuka kwa chitsamba. Ngati simukutsatira malamulo, kapena musaphimbe konse - zomera zidzafa. Chisanu choopsa chidzawononga mpesa wosatetezedwa ndi mizu. Ndizofunikira osati kungotsatira malamulo omveka a pogona, komanso kuganizira zomwe zili pa tsamba.

Kudulira ndi pogona za mphesa zopangidwa mu kugwa. Musanayambe kukonzekera nyengo yozizira, mbeu yonse imakololedwa. Zitsamba pazu zimathirira madzi ambiri. Ngati madzi amathiridwa mu zidebe, m'pofunika kusunga nthawi yaying'ono. Mankhwalawa ayenera kumangidwira pansi, sipangakhale phokoso. Mnofu umalowa mkati mwa nthaka, ndipo m'nyengo yozizira nthaka iwiri iwiri imadzuka. Choncho, nthaka ndi mizu ya zomera zimatenthedwa. Ndondomekoyi ndi nthawi yowonongeka, koma n'kofunika.

Ndikofunika kudziwa nthawi yomwe ikufunika kubisa mphesa mumtsinje. Tiyenera kuyamba ndi chisanu choyamba. Kuyambira pakati pa November kapena ngakhale mu December. Poyamba sizingatheke, chifukwa nkhungu imapangidwa pa impso kuchokera ku chinyezi. Mpesa umayikidwa pazitsulo zamatabwa kapena zosanjikiza za singano zapaini. Phimbani ndi chotsekera. Zatsimikiziridwa kale kuti filimuyo, yomwe imakwirira tchire, ikhale yoyera kapena yowala. Pansi pake, kutentha kumakhalabe 1.5% kuposa. Zinkakhulupirira kuti zinali zakuda zomwe zimasunga ndi kukopa kutentha. Kusungidwa kwa chisanu mwachindunji m'nyengo yozizira kumagwiritsidwa ntchito monga kutentha kwowonjezera Ngati tchire ndi tating'ono, mpesa umapangidwira mu mphete ndipo uli ndi bokosi kapena chidebe pamwamba.

Chifukwa cha agronomy yabwino, viticulture inapezeka kumpoto. Momwe mungamere mphesa mu Mitsinje sizinali zovuta kwambiri. Zinakhala zenizeni. Ndi kubzala bwino ndi kusamalira mbewuyi, mukhoza kukwaniritsa zokolola zabwino. Zaka zaposachedwapa, zokololazo zikuwonjezeka kwambiri, ndipo mitundu yambiri yosiyanasiyana, kuphatikizapo mitundu yowonjezereka, yawonekera.