Cherry "besseya": momwe mungagwirire ndi matenda ndi tizirombo za mchenga wa mchenga

Pakati pa mitundu ndi mitundu yambiri ya mitengo yomwe imapezeka mosavuta pa chida chilichonse cha dacha, n'zosavuta kuwona yamatcheri a mchenga kapena, monga momwe amatchedwa "Bessey" yamatcheri. Mosiyana ndi mitundu yambiri ya mbewu, chomerachi chimaperekedwa ngati mawonekedwe a thunthu shrub mpaka mamita 1.5 mmwamba. Malingana ndi msinkhu, mawonekedwe a korona amasiyanasiyana, ngakhale kuti chogwirana, chimakhazikitsa nthambi za chomera chaching'ono, chomwe chiri chofiira, komanso masamba, zolimba masamba, nthawi zonse zimasiyanitsa ndi zomera zonse za m'munda. Mbali ya m'munsi ya masambayi imakhala ndi maluwa obiriwira, ndipo pamwamba pa pepalali muli ndi chobiriwira chobiriwira. Pofika m'dzinja, masamba a mchenga amatha kukhala ndi mithunzi yokongola ya pepala lofiira lalanje, zomwe zimapangitsa shrub kukhala yokongola kwambiri.

Chilichonse chomwe chinalipo, koma chikhalidwe cha mbewu ndi fruiting chimadalira makamaka kukaniza matenda osiyanasiyana ndi tizilombo toononga, koma mwatsoka Besry chitumbuwa nthawi zambiri amagwera pansi pa chikoka ndipo amangofa wopanda thandizo laumunthu. Tiyeni tiwone zomwe ziyenera kukonzekera pamene mukukula izi zosiyanasiyana yamatcheri.

Mchenga wa Cherry: Chimene Chimakhudza Chomera

Cherry "Bessey" imakwanira mokwanira ku matenda, komabe imakhalanso ndi matenda ena.Choncho, nthawi zambiri zomera zimakhudzidwa ndi moniliosis, coccomycosis, anthracnose, komanso nthawi zambiri zimakhala ndi mitsempha, chifukwa chake ndikofunika kuti mudziwe zambiri zokhudza matendawa a mchenga wa mchenga, zomwe zingakuthandizeni kulimbana nawo.

Moniliasis (monilial burn)

Monilioz - matenda amtundu wa mitundu yamatcheri. Matenda owopsawa amakhudza osati zipatso zokha komanso masamba a shrub, komanso zimakhudza kwambiri matabwa a nthambi. Moniliosis imadziwonekera nthawi yomweyo maluwawo atatha ndipo amadziwika ndi wilting, darkening ndi kuyanika kwa mbali zokhudzidwa.

Zikuoneka kuti pamaso pa matendawa mudzaona nthanga zambiri zofiirira pakati pa zobiriwira. Kwa wamaluwa omwe sanakumanepo ndi vuto lomwelo, zingaoneke kuti nthambi za shrub zimangozizira kwambiri m'nyengo yozizira, koma popanda kuzichotsa ndi kusamalira zitsamba mofulumira, zimakhala zoonekeratu kuti vutoli ndi lalikulu kwambiri.

Mukudziwa? Nthambi zomwe zakhudzidwazo zimawoneka ngati zotentha, ndichifukwa chake dzina lina la matendali likuwonekera - monilial kutentha.

Ndikofunika kuzindikira kuti ngakhale m'madera amenewa, masamba sagwedezeka, koma amangokhala bulauni, kupitiliza kukhala pa nthambi. Ndi kupyolera mwa iwo kuti spores za bowa zimalowa mu chipatso (kupyolera mwa mawonekedwe owonongeka kwa khungu), kuyambitsa mawonekedwe atsopano a matendawa.

Monilioz yamatcheri amachititsa kuti zipatso zowonongeka ndi kuphulika kwawo zifulumire, choncho ngati zokolola zili zofunika kwa inu, ndiye kuti muyenera kudziŵa momwe mungachitire matenda osasangalatsa. Choyamba, nthambi zonse zokhudzidwa ziyenera kuchotsedwa ndi kutenthedwa, ndipo chomeracho chiyenera kuchitidwa ndi mankhwala omwe ali ndi mkuwa (mwachitsanzo, mkuwa wa sulphate). Ndibwino kuti mumsika wamakono muli mankhwala ambiri omwe angathandize kuthana ndi vutoli.

Onani mitundu yamatcheri monga "Chokoleti", "Achinyamata", "Kharitonovskaya", "Black Large", "Vladimirskaya", "Turgenevka", Felt chitumbuwa.

Coccomycosis

Coccomycosis ndi matenda ena a fungal omwe amasiyana mitundu yamatcheri.. Kawirikawiri, bowa la parasitic limakhudza kokha masamba a zipatso zamtengo wapatali, ngakhale kuti nthawi zambiri zimakhudza zipatso zomwe zimapangidwa, zomwe zimawapangitsa kukhala opanda pake ndi madzi poyamba, ndiyeno zimawuma.

Mavuto abwino kuti kufalikira kwa matendawa ndi ofunda komanso ozizira.Pomwe zomerazo zimafooka, ndipo nyengo yozizizira ndi nyengo ya chisanu imatha kufa.

Mukhoza kuzindikira kuti pali matendawa poyang'ana masamba a mchenga wa mchenga: Iwo ali ndi madontho ochepa a bulauni, omwe pamapeto pake amakula kukhala mawanga aakulu. Mbali yapansi ya tsambali ili ndi phokoso lofiira, ndipo mkati mwake muli spores za bowa. Posakhalitsa, masamba onse omwe akukhudzidwa amagwa.

Nthawi zina, matendawa amafalikira ku zipatso za cherry za Bessey, zomwe zimakhala ndi mdima wambiri ndipo zimayamba kuphulika. N'zoona kuti zipatso zoterezi sizingagwiritsidwe ntchito.

Pofuna kudziwa momwe tingagwirire ndi coccomycosis, tiyenera kukumbukira nkhani ya moniliasis, yomwe yatchulidwa pamwambapa. Kutanthauza kuti, pozindikira zizindikiro za matendawa, nkofunika kusonkhanitsa mbali zonse za shrub ndi kuziwotcha, ndipo masamba akugwa amakhalanso ndi zowonongeka kwambiri, monga spores za mushroom ngati kuzigwiritsa ntchito kuti zikhale bwino. Ngati simukunyalanyaza malangizowo, ndiye kuti mmawa wotsatira (ngati zitsamba zofooka zikupulumuka m'nyengo yozizira) mikangano idzasunthira masamba aang'ono ndipo zonse zidzabwerezedwa.

Chithandizo cha yamatcheri a matendawa, komanso tizilombo tina tambiri, timayambitsa kupopera mankhwala a shrub ndi mankhwala omwe ali ndi mkuwa: ndi 1% yothetsera Bordeaux kusakaniza, mkuwa chloroxide kapena Oxyhom, yomwe ndi yabwino kwambiri, popeza izi zikukonzekera kuchoka pamtunda. . Yoyamba kupopera mbewu mankhwalawa ikuchitika ndi maonekedwe a masamba oyambirira, ndipo yachiwiri - masiku 15-20 mutatha maluwa. Chithandizo chachitatu makamaka chikuchitika mutatha kukolola.

Pofuna kuchiza ndi kupewa matendawa, mungagwiritse ntchito mankhwala monga iron sulphate, Bordeaux osakaniza, bactericide "Gamair", fungicide "Abiga-Peak".

Anthracnose

Mowonjezereka, maluŵa a chitumbuwa, kuphatikizapo yamatcheri a mchenga, ali ndi matenda osasangalatsa ngati anthracnose, omwe amakhudza kwambiri zipatso. Choncho, pa zipatso, tinthu tating'onoting'ono tomwe timayambira, timapanga mawonekedwe, kenako timapina pinki. Ngati chilimwe chiri chouma, zipatso zimayamba kuuma ndi kuzizira padzuwa, koma ngati nthawi ya chilimwe imvula ndi yonyowa, nthendayi imatha kuwononga 80%.

Kupopera mankhwala kwa nthawi zitatu kwa Bessei zitsamba zopangira mankhwala (mwachitsanzo, Poliram) zidzakuthandizira kulimbana ndi matendawa. Chithandizo choyamba chimachitika musanaoneke maluwa, chachiwiri chikuchitika mwamsanga mutatha kuuma, ndipo patatha milungu iwiri chitatha. Zipatso zonse zowonongeka ziyenera kusonkhanitsidwa mwamsanga ndipo nthawi yomweyo ziwonongeke.

Klesterosporiosis

Monga momwe zinalili m'mbuyo, chifuwa cha klesterosporia ndi bowa lomwe limakhudza mbali zonse za zomera: masamba, maluwa, masamba, mphukira ndi zipatso.. Pa masamba a shrub matenda, mawanga a bulauni ndi malire a mdima amapangidwa, omwe pambuyo pake amatembenukira kukhala mabowo ang'onoang'ono. Izi zimayambitsa kuyanika ndi kutaya masamba omwe akukhudzidwa. Ngati simutenga zitsulo zilizonse ndikuchiza matendawa, spores za bowa zidzatsalira mu makungwa a nthambi ndipo zidzawonekeranso nyengo yotsatira.

Polimbana ndi infestation, mphukira zokhudzana ndi masamba ndi masamba zimakololedwa ndi kutenthedwa, ngakhale amaluwa ena amanena kuti burrowing imathandizanso. Mulimonsemo, izi sizingakwanire, ndipo pamene matenda akuwonetseratu akuwonekera, wina ayeneranso kufunsa funso: "Kodi ndizaza chiyani pa zipatso zamatcheri?". Wothandizira woyamba ndi wowonjezera ali yemweyo Bordeaux madzi, ngakhale kuti chithandizo cha 2-3% cha chitsulo cha sulphate chimaonedwa kuti n'chochepa. Kuchiza mabala kumachitika ndi chiyambi cha mankhwala opangira chingamu.

Mchenga wamatcheri, womwe umakhudzidwa ndi klyasterosporioz, m'nyengo ya chilimwe imatayika masamba ambiri, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti shrub ifooke komanso nyengo yozizira imakhala yochepa.

Waukulu tizirombo wa chitumbuwa "bessey"

Kuwonjezera pa matenda oopsa a fungal, Bessey yamatcheri nthawi zambiri amadwala tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, omwe amadziwika bwino kwambiri ndi awa.

Cherry aphid

Mchenga mchenga wa chitumbuwa nthawi zambiri amaimiridwa ndi chitumbuwa cha aphid, ntchentche yaying'ono ndi mutu wofiira, chikopa chachikasu ndi zikopa zitatu za mdima zomwe zimapangidwa pa mapiko oonekera. Kawirikawiri tizilombo timayambira pa chomeracho kumayambiriro kwa mtundu wa chipatso ndikuwuluka kwa iwo pafupifupi mwezi umodzi, ndikuyika mazira ake mu zipatso.

Phunzirani komanso momwe mungagonjetse nsabwe za m'masamba ndi chithandizo cha njira zamtundu ndi njira zopindulitsa.

Zipatso zikangobereka, mphutsi zopanda chilema zomwe zimadya mnofu wa zipatso zakupsa zikuwoneka kuchokera mazira. Pambuyo masiku 8-10, amasiya chipatso ndikugwera pansi, kumene amalowa m'kati mwa nthaka masentimita 1-3 ndikuyamba kuphunzira. Zipatso zomwe zimakhudzidwa zimakhala zakuda, zowola, koma sizigwa pansi. Mphukirazo ndizopunduka ndipo zimasiya kukula, mbande zazing'ono zimataya chisanu kukana ndipo sizikhoza kupirira nyengo yozizira.

Katemera wa mchenga wa mchengawu ndi owopsa ndi kuberekana mofulumira, choncho, kumenyana nawo kumayenera kuyamba pomwepo. Kukonzekera kwabwino kwambiri pakuchiza zitsamba ndi Karbofos, Ambush, Rovikurt ndi Aktellik. Mukhozanso kutulutsa mphukira ndi nthambi muzinthu zomwe zawonetsedwa (mwachitsanzo, mu 50% ya Karbofos).

Videoyi imalongosola momwe angagwiritsire ntchito nsabwe za m'masamba pogwiritsa ntchito celandine.

Cherry weevil

Cherry weevil ndi yowonjezera mchenga wa chitumbuwa cha tizilombo.. Amaperekedwa ngati mawonekedwe a kachilomboka kakang'ono kamene kali ndi rasipiberi -mkuwa wamkuwa, omwe ndi 9 mm kutalika.

Zingakhale zothandiza kwa inu kuti mudziwe zambiri za yemwe ali weevil ndi momwe angagwirire nazo.

Nthaŵi zambiri, tizilombo timagwidwa ndi mtundu uwu wa chitumbuwa, zipatso zomwe zimatulutsa pansi. Zilonda za cherry zimayambitsa chomera pamaluwa ake, kudyetsa kuyamwa kwa maluwa. Patangopita kanthawi pang'ono, amaluma m'mimba mwa ovary ndipo amaika mazira kumeneko.

Pambuyo pa sabata pawo, amawoneka mbozi, yomwe imayamba kudyetsa zomwe zili m'mapfupa. Atangokhalira kukula, nthawi yomweyo amagwa pansi, amawunikira ndi kukonzekera nyengo yozizira mu larva kapena wamkulu kachilomboka kachilomboka. Kuonongeka ndi zipatso za weevil sizikulira ndipo sizikuphuka, ndipo ndi kutuluka kwakukulu kwa tizilombo, mbewu yonse ya mchenga yamatcheri ikhoza kutheka kwathunthu.

Kulimbana ndi kachilomboka kumayambira mwamsanga maluwa a shrub, akuchiza chomera ndi Karbofos, Ambush, Rovikurt kapena Aktellik. Ndi kubwezeretsa kachilombo kwa malo owonongeka kupanga chithandizo china.

Kusonkhanitsa kafadala kumathandiza kuchepa kwa kuchuluka kwa nkhumba za chitumbuwa, ndipo kugula kukumba kwa nthaka kumathandiza kuwononga mphutsi. N'zotheka kuthana ndi vuto la tizilombo toyambitsa matenda mwa kukhazikitsa zikhomo kumayambiriro kwa mphukira. Iwo amafufuzidwa tsiku lirilonse, kuwononga nyamakazi zomwe zimasonkhana kumeneko.

Kuti agwedeze tizilombo kuchokera ku tchire okhala pansi pa chitumbuwa, kukulunga pulasitiki kumafalikira kumene iwo amagwa. Pambuyo pake, mabungwe onse osonkhanitsidwa amawonongeka.

Ndikofunikira! Njirayi imapangidwa bwino nyengo yozizira (mwachitsanzo, kumayambiriro kwa m'mawa), chifukwa ndi nthawi ino kuti tizilombo tizilombo toyendetsa tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ndi osayenera.

Mwa njira zotchuka zogwira ndi chitumbuwa cha weevil, mwamsanga mutatha maluwa, kupopera mbewu mankhwalawa ndi decoction wa phwetekere nsonga, okonzeka 1.4 makilogalamu a nsonga za stepsons pa 10 malita a madzi, nthawi zambiri amagwiritsidwa ntchito.

Chotsaliracho chimasakaniza kwa mphindi makumi atatu, kenako 40 magalamu a sopo atsamba akuwonjezeredwa kuti apangidwe ndipo atatha kusinthasintha zitsamba zomwe zimakhudzidwa. Mosiyana ndi izi, kudyetsa chowawa chowawa kumatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito: chomera chodetsedwacho chimapangidwira maola makumi awiri ndi awiri m'madzi, ndiyeno nkuphika kwa theka la ora ndi 40 magalamu a sopo. Pambuyo pothyoka, ndondomeko ya kupopera mbewu ikuchitika.

Ndikofunikira! Kwa malita 10 a madzi, 350-400 g wa zomera zouma ziyenera kutengedwa. Kupopera mbewu koteroko sikudzawononga zokhazokha, koma nsabwe za m'masamba, komanso tizilombo tina tizilombo.

Plum moth

Plum moth - gulugufe lomwe limakonda kwambiri plums ndi maapulo, ngakhale sizengerezaze yamatcheri. Tizilombo toyambitsa matendawa timatha kutuluka maluwa, ndipo nthawi ya kalendala yake imatha pa theka lachiwiri la mwezi wa May - kumayambiriro kwa mwezi wa June.

Amayi amayamba kuika mazira 3-5 patatha masiku atatu atachoka ku pupa, kupitilira moyo wawo kuyambira masiku 4 mpaka 15 (kuwerengetsera nthawi ya moyo). Mtundu wa gulugufe suli woopsa ngati mbozi, umene umawonongedwa ndi thupi, sukusintha maonekedwe a chipatso ndipo ndi kovuta kuwonekera.

Amawoneka masiku 5-7 atayika mazira pa masamba a yamatcheri ndi azimayi, ndipo ngakhale masiku 15-20 amapita kumalo otentha. Mbozi za nkhono zam'madzi zimagwera pamwamba pa makungwa a mitengo ndi zitsamba, komanso pansi pa masamba ogwa.

Ndikofunika kudziwa nthawi yomwe moyo wa agulugufe ndi mbozi, womwe ungakuthandizeni kulimbana ndi tizilombo pa nthawi yoyamba ya moyo wake.. Kulimbana ndi mbozi kumayambira nthawi yomwe imakhala mu chipatso. Chomeracho chimapangidwa ndi zokonzekera, zomwe zikuphatikizapo Ambush, Anometrin, Rovikurt pamtundu wa 0.1%, ndipo Tsimbush, Tsitkor, Shepra pamtundu wa 0.02%. Ngati mbozi ndi mphutsi pa chipatso sichimatha, ndiye patatha masiku 10-15 kupopera mbewu kumabwerezedwa.

Mmene mungapulumutsire mchenga wa mchenga ku tizirombo ndi matenda, kupewa

Matenda a chitumbuwa cha Bessey, komanso chithandizo chawo, ali ndi zizindikiro zawo - izi ndi zoona. Choncho, n'zosadabwitsa kuti njira zothandizira zomwe zimatengedwa ndizosiyana siyana. Mwachitsanzo, kuteteza coccomycosis, moniliosis ndi klyasterosporioz makamaka zimayambira pa nthawi yokolola masamba omwe wagwa ndikuchotseratu ziwalo zonse za matenda ndi chiwonongeko chawo.

Komabe, pa nkhani ya moniliosis, nkofunikira kukumba dothi mu pristvolnyh mabwalo. Pa mankhwala ogwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito pothandizira zomera zokha ndikupopera mbewu, mkuwa oxychloride, Mancozeb, Zineb, Horus, Skor, Rubigan ndi Bordeaux madzi ayenera kudziwika. Kuonjezera apo, chisanafike maluwa a chitumbuwa, amachiza ndi yankho la ferrous sulphate (300 magalamu pa 10 malita a madzi).

Ndikofunikira! Mu nyengo yatsopano, yamatcheri omwe amavulaza chaka chatha amayenera kusamala kwambiri. Chomeracho chimaphatikizidwa ndi "Readzole" pamlingo wa magalamu 10 a mankhwala pa 10 malita a madzi (chithandizochi chimachitika kumayambiriro ndi pakati pa maluwa). Ngati palibe, mungagwiritse ntchito mankhwala ena - "Topaz".

Kuwonjezera pa kupopera mbewu mankhwalawa, kupewa matenda a mchenga yamatchenga ndi:

  • Zowonongeka nthawi zonse kumapeto kwa March (nthambi zakale ndi zouma zimachotsedwa, zomwe zimachotsa korona);
  • kubwezeretsa mitengo yakale powadula pamtunda wa nkhuni zaka zitatu kapena zinayi;
  • kuyeretsa nthawi ndi kutsitsa masamba osagwa;
  • kuchotsedwa ku nthambi ndi kuwonongeka kwa zipatso zowuma, m'mimba ndi ma bowa;
  • feteleza wovomerezeka ndi kuthirira zitsamba.

Mukudziwa? Polimbana ndi matenda ena, kudula masamba odwala ndi madzi a sorelo kumapindulitsa kwambiri.

Pamene zizindikiro zoyamba za matenda alionse zikuwoneka, musachedwe kuchipatala. Komabe, nkofunika kugwiritsa ntchito kampani imodzi yokha, osati kuphatikiza mankhwala. Mwachitsanzo, kuphatikizapo mkuwa sulphate ndi bordeaux madzi kudzawonjezera poizoni wa mankhwalawa kawiri.

Malamulo omwewo amagwiritsidwa ntchito poletsa komanso kuteteza tizilombo toyambitsa mchenga.