Nkhaka "Zozulya": kufotokoza kwa mitundu yosiyanasiyana ndi kulima agrotechnics

Mtengo wa nkhaka zoyambirira ndizokuti zipatso zopangidwa mufupikitsa sizowopsya.

Pakati pa ndiwo zamasamba olima, nkhaka zosiyanasiyana "Zozulya F1" zimakonda kwambiri pakati pa alimi a zamasamba. M'zaka 40 za kukhalapo kwake ndikukula kambirimbiri, ziyenera kukhulupilira ogula.

Ganizirani za zomwe zimalima m'munda wowonjezera kutentha komanso m'munda.

Nkhaka "Zozulya F1": mbiriyakale ya kuswana

Pafupifupi zaka makumi anayi zapitazo, akatswiri ochokera ku Vital Endelshtein Vegetable Experimental Training and Production Center anagwira ntchito pa chitukuko chatsopano.

Mukudziwa? Ophika a Iran ndi maswiti nthawizonse amatumikira nkhaka. Zipatso izi m'dzikoli zimatengedwa zipatso.
Asayansi Yuri Kudryashov, Vladimir Mukhin ndi Vasily Skachko sanakwanitse kupeza zatsopano zatsopano ndi zokolola zapamwamba, komanso kupeza momwe mungakhalire ndi chinyezi ndi kuunikira kwa zabwino fruiting, kuti mupange malangizo olima masamba. Sizinatenge nthawi kuti wamaluwa ayang'ane zosiyanasiyana zosadziwika. Nthawi yomweyo atangoyamba kuonekera pa msika wa mbewu, adapeza mbiri yofulumira, zotsatira zokolola, kukaniza matenda komanso makhalidwe abwino.
Mudzakhala ndi chidwi chophunzira za mitundu ina ya nkhaka, monga "Kulimbika", "Herman".

Malingaliro osiyanasiyana

Nkhaka "Zozulya" mu ndondomeko ndi ndemanga za ogula ndi mitundu yoyamba kucha, zipatso zomwe zingathe kudyetsedwa mkati mwa masiku 45 mutabzala mbewu. Kunja, nkhaka pang'ono lumpy, kukhala cylindrical mawonekedwe. Mzere wamtengo wapatali umene sungathe kuwoneka pa khungu lobiriwira. Zipatso zimakonda zokoma, osati zowawa. Mbali imeneyi ya zosiyanasiyana ndi chifukwa cha majini ake. Kutalika kwa ming'oma imodzi kuchokera pa masentimita 20 ndi kulemera kwa pafupifupi 170 g Kufika pa makilogalamu 12 a zipatso akhoza kusonkhanitsidwa kuchokera pamtunda umodzi wa nkhaka.

Mukudziwa? Zipatso za nkhaka ndi 97% madzi. Otsala 3% ndi carotene, mavitamini C, PP, B, komanso zomwe zimawathandiza: potassium ndi magnesium.
Ovary amapangidwa popanda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, omwe ndi ofunika kwambiri kwa alimi a zamasamba opanga zomera ndi zomera. Ubwino wina wa zosiyanasiyana ndi kuwonjezeka kukana kwa mavairasi a nkhaka zithunzi, mizu zowola, azitona, askohitoza. Idyani makhalidwe a nkhaka "Zozulya" zimagwiritsa ntchito ntchito yawo yatsopano komanso zamzitini.

Kukula nkhaka mbande

Zambiri ndi zokolola zimakhutsidwanso ndi anthu omwe adasonkhanitsa pakhoma, kutentha, komanso pansi pa chivundikiro cha filimu. Kodi ndi chiyani chimene chikufunika kuti mufesetse ndikukula mbande?

Mbewu yokonzekera musanadzalemo

Kuti bwino kumera kwa mbewu yowakanizidwa, nkofunikira kupitilira, kutaya mbewu zopanda kanthu komanso zosagwiritsidwa ntchito. Mbeu yamtengo wapatali imadonthozedwa kwa maola angapo mukulimbikitsa. Ena wamaluwa amakonda mankhwala opangidwa ndi "Ecosil", "Emistim", "Acrobat MC". Ena amagwiritsa ntchito njira yakale yomwe ikukonzekera njira yothetsera phulusa, nitroammofoski ndi lita imodzi ya madzi ofunda. Onetsetsani kuti alimi onse a ndiwo zamasamba amachititsa chithandizo cha mbewu zakuda. Ambiri amaganiza kuti mbewu zotere sizikusowa zochitika zoterezi ndikutentha.

Ndikofunikira! Nkhaka sizikonda kukwera ndi kuzizira, choncho mizu ya mbande imayenera kutetezedwa ku hypothermia. Pachifukwa ichi, makapu ndi mapiritsi a peat ayenera kuyika mtundu wina waima pofuna kuchepetsa zotsatira za ozizira zenera pa peat yotentha.

Kufesa mbewu za mbande

Agrarians amayesera kulima nkhaka zomera, zomera zonse ndi zopanda mbewu. Koma m'nthawi yoyamba kwambiri yogwira zomera zimadziwika kuposa m'chiwiri. Choncho, ambiri kale adabzala mbewu zokonzedwa m'mipiritsi ya peat yomwe idagulidwa: chinthu choyamba chimene amaika mu makapu a pulasitiki omwe amatha kusamba ndi kuthirira mochuluka. Ndipo pamene zokhutirazo zimadzaza ndi chinyezi ndipo zimachepetsa, njere imakula ndi chala chimodzi ndi hafu masentimita. Chophimba chapamwamba ndi kapu yachiwiri, kupanga zochitika za wowonjezera kutentha. Teknolojia yotere yakukula mbande zilizonse zakhala ndi mayankho abwino kuchokera kwa okonda zamasamba, popeza sizikusowa kutsegula ndi kuteteza mizu kuti ivulaze panthawi yopatsa.

Phunzirani zambiri za momwe mungamere mbatata, turnips, katsabola kuchokera ku mbewu.

Kusamalira nkhaka mbande

Nkhaka "Zozulya" nyengo yonse yokula - kuchokera kubzala mpaka kukolola - imafuna chidwi. Tidzamvetsetsa zonse mu dongosolo.

Kuunikira

Mphamvu ndi nkhaka zamasamba zimayenera kuikidwa pa windowsill ya kumwera, komwe nthawi zonse imakhala yofunda komanso yowala. Pakakhala kuwala kwa dzuwa, ndibwino kuti mthunzi ukhale mthunzi kuti kuwala kuwonongeke, mwinamwake ziphuphu zazing'ono zingathe kuvutika ndi zotentha.

Ngati sizingatheke kumera mbande pa dzuwa, ziyenera kuwonjezera kuyika nyali za fluorescent kuti nkhaka ikhale yoyaka kwa maola 12-16. Apo ayi, mphukira zidzatambasula kwambiri, zidzakhala zosalimba ndi zoonda.

Kutentha

Mu chipinda chimene nkhaka mbande zimalimidwa, ziyenera kukhala zouma ndi zotentha. Ulamuliro wabwino wamasiku a masana umaganiziridwa pa mlingo wa 23-25 ​​° С, usiku -19-20 ° С.

Alimi ena amatha kuchepa mozizira pambuyo pa kutuluka kwa mphukira: izi zimachitidwa kwa osachepera masentimita 16 ° C, kuti mapesi amalimbikitse ndi kuchepetsa kuchepetsa ntchito. Palibe chomwe chiyenera kukhala kusintha kwadzidzidzi kutentha ndi zojambula.

Kuthirira

Chitsulo cha peat mu makapu sayenera kuuma. Mapesi onse, malingana ndi mlingo wa chinyezi mu chipinda ndi kutentha, ayenera kuthiriridwa tsiku ndi tsiku m'magawo ang'onoang'ono a madzi otentha kutentha. Ngati nthaka yothira kwambiri, pumulani tsiku limodzi.

Kupaka pamwamba

Kuti nkhaka izikhala zolimba komanso mwamsanga pachimake musanayambe kuikapo, ndikofunika kudyetsa mbande ndi organic kapena mchere wovuta feteleza. Ndi zofunika kuchita 2 kuvala. Ena amalangiza koyamba kuti achite izi ndi yankho la urea kapena kulowetsedwa kwa nkhuku manyowa. Kenako bweretsani pambuyo masabata 2-3 "Effecton". Ndikofunika kuonetsetsa kuti chida sichigwera pa masamba a mbande. Chakudya chiyenera kuyesedwa bwino pansi pazu.

Ngati masambawo atakhala achikasu pamitengo, zigawo zikuluzikulu za nitrojeni zidzathandiza, ngati masamba akuwoneka otumbululuka, chitsulo chimafunika, ndipo ngati zimayambirapo, superphosphate sichidzasokoneza.

Mukudziwa? Nkhaka "Zozulya" zimabwera ku kukhazikitsidwa ndi chizindikiro cha F1, chomwe chimatanthauza mbadwo woyamba wa wosakanizidwa. Ngati mbeu ikololedwa kuchokera ku chipatso chodzala, zokolola zam'tsogolo zidzakhala kale ndi chizindikiro F2.

Kulemetsa

"Zozulya" sakonda kuziziritsa kaya m'nthaka kapena mumlengalenga. Choncho, mbande zosagwedezeka zimamva zowawa kwambiri kuti zikhale zovuta. Pofuna kupewa kuwonongeka, masabata angapo musanayambe kukonza nkhaka mu nyengo yotentha, ikani makapu pamsewu. Muyenera kuyamba nthawi kuyambira 4 mpaka 5 pm, pamene mpweya wakunja uli wotentha mokwanira. Mukhozanso kuumitsa mbande mwa kutsegula zenera maola angapo.

Mphepo yatsopano imapindulitsa, ndipo imathandizira kuwonjezeka kwa mphamvu za mthupi. Chinthu chachikulu chomwe "Zozulya" sichinagwedezeke ndi mafunde ozizira a mphepo, ma drafts. Kutentha pang'ono + 8 ° С kumaloledwa.

Kubzala mbande pamalo osatha

Ndi nthawi yokweza nkhaka mbande ndi kubwera kwa khola kutentha, pamene palibe mantha a kasupe frosts, ndipo dziko latentha kale. Kawirikawiri, nthawiyi imakhala pa masabata awiri omaliza a May.

Mbeu yamasamba 25, yomwe mapepala okwana 4 apanga, amaikidwa mu wowonjezera kutentha kapena kutseguka.

Kusankha ndi kukonzekera malo nkhaka

Kukonza kukwera pansi kumayenera kukonzekera pasadakhale. Choyamba, tcherani khutu kwa oyambirira a nkhaka chikhalidwe (tidzakambirana za iwo mtsogolo). Kenaka kuchokera kumadera otsala, sankhani nkhaka zomwe zili bwino komanso zotetezedwa ku mphepo zakumpoto.

Nthaka pamalo ano iyenera kukhala yofewa komanso yowonjezera. Sandy loam ndi loam sizili zoyenera. Choyenera, chiyenera kupindulitsidwa ndi nthaka yakuda yomwe imatenga chinyezi bwino. Malowa sayenera kukhala m'madera otsika, kumene mphepo yozizira imasonkhanitsa nthawi zonse, komanso pamapiri, komwe kumatuluka madzi mofulumira.

Pa nthawi yobzala, zomera zamsongole zikhoza kuwoneka pa kama pomwe mukuwona. Choncho, ndikofunika kuti muwachotsere mwa kuphwanya pansi pamtunda ndi khasu ndikumasula gawolo. Alimi ena amapanga zakudya zowonjezera m'deralo - mwachindunji m'mitsitsi musanadzalemo, pamene ena amalowa mu nthaka m'dzinja kulima munda. Komanso, samalani ndi anansi anu "Zozuli". Akatswiri amalimbikitsa kubzala chimanga, katsabola, coriander kumpoto kwa nkhaka, zomwe, mpaka kukula, zidzateteza mipesa ku chimphepo. Ozungulira oyandikana nawo ochokera kummwera ndi osayenera kwambiri, popeza, popeza atadetsedwa dzuwa, iwo adzakana chikhalidwe cha zinthu kuti chikhale chitukuko chonse.

Ndikofunikira! Kukhalapo kwa maluwa osabereka kumasonyeza kusamvetsetsa kosawerengera.

Otsatira abwino ndi oipa

Pakudza nthawi yodzala nkhaka "Zozulya", nkofunika kumvetsera chomera, chomwe chaka chatha chinabzalidwa kumanzere kwa mbande.

Akatswiri amachititsa kuti azitha kukonzekeretsa nkhaka:

  • mitundu yonse ya kabichi;
  • tomato;
  • mbatata;
  • mdima;
  • limodzi;
  • kaloti; anyezi;
  • beetroot;
  • rhubarb

Mwa zikhalidwe zosayenera:

  • nkhaka;
  • mavwende;
  • mavwende;
  • sikwashi;
  • mphukira;
  • zukini.

Kubzala minda

Pa malo omwe mukufunira kubzala, nkofunika kupanga mabowo mpaka masentimita 45. Phatikizani mpaka 40 g wa kompositi kapena humus pansi, kenako fanizani peaty clumps ya mbande kuchokera ku makapu kapena kudula iwo. Mitengo itatu imabzalidwa m'mayenje madzi, kenako imathiridwa. Kumalo otseguka, nkhaka nthawi zambiri imabzala mumzere, ndikusiya kusiyana kwa mamita. Pamene kulima pakati pa zomera kumakhala mtunda wa mamita 1. Ndikofunika kuti musabzalitse kubzala, mwinamwake mungayambe kukula maluwa osadzika. Akatswiri amakhulupirira kuti, mosasamala kanthu za teknoloji ya kukula masamba, pa 1 mita imodzi silingakhale yoposa 3 zimayambira.

Mukudziwa? Nkhuka zakupsa 100% zimatha kusiyanitsa ndi khungu lawo lofiirira. Mwinamwake uwu ndiwo wokha wa masamba onse, omwe nthawi zambiri amadya osapsa.

Kusamalira ndi kulima nkhaka "Zozulya"

Teknoloji yoyenera yaulimi ndichinthu chofunikira kwambiri kuti zipse msanga. Ngati simukulakwitsa, ndiye kuti nkhaka zatsopano m'mabedi anu azitha kuoneka pa tebulo lanu masiku 25 mutatha kuziika.

Zingakhale zothandiza kwa inu kuti mudziwe momwe mungagwirire ndi matenda ndi tizirombo ta nkhaka, makamaka momwe tingatetezere nkhaka ku nsabwe za m'masamba.

Malo ogona

Kotero kuti nkhaka zoyambirira za zosiyanasiyana "Zozulya" sizikutheka chifukwa cha madontho a kutentha, komanso kuti zifulumizitse mapangidwe a chitsamba, zimalimbikitsidwa kuti ngakhale mbande zitamera mutabzala. Zaka zaposachedwapa, timagulu ting'onoting'ono tambirimbiri ta ma arched ndi ma polyethylene mafilimu akhala otchuka kwambiri. Zingwezo zimakhala pansi, ndipo pamwamba pake zimatambasula pogona. Zimapanga tizilombo toyambitsa matenda omwe amalola nkhaka kuti imangirire mwamsanga ma inflorescences. Kwa hybrid iyi, njirayi ndi yoyenera, chifukwa imayang'aniridwa ndi maluwa a mtundu wa akazi (ndiko kuti, omwe nkhaka zimangidwe).

Taganizirani kuti malo oterowo ndi otetezeka kwa zomera ku kasupe chisanu. Ngati akuwopseza, ndibwino kusamalira gawo lachiwiri la filimuyo, zomwe zidzalola kuti pakhale mpweya wambiri. Ntchito yokhala ndi imodzi yokha imachotsedwerapo, mpaka itayamba kusokoneza chitukuko cha tchire.

Ndikofunikira! Monga malo osungirako nkhaka, mungathe kupanga makapu oyambirira omwe amaphimba pang'onopang'ono mutatha kudula nthaka.

Kuthirira, kumasula ndi kukwera

Nkhaka amakonda kutentha ndi chinyezi. Choncho, chiwerengero cha mabedi ochepetsetsa chiyenera kukhala kuti chipinda cha pansi siuma. Madzi okwanira akutsatira masiku angapo. Panthawi imeneyi, iyenso idzawotchedwa, chifukwa kuzizira kozizira kudzapweteka kwambiri kuposa zabwino. Ndi zofunika kubweretsa madzi kutentha kwa madigiri 20. Mutha kuthirira madzi kuthirira kapena kutsitsa teknoloji. Kuchulukitsa kuchuluka kwa chinyezi m'nthaka kudzafunika pa nthawi ya maluwa ndi mapangidwe a ovary. Onetsetsani kuti madontho sanagwiritsidwe ntchito pa masamba. Madzi onse ayenera kupita pansi pazu. Kutentha kwa tsiku lililonse, kutsanulira pafupifupi 2 malita a madzi pansi pa zomera.

Komabe, kuchuluka kwa chinyezi kumapangitsa kuti tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda. Zokwanira kuthetsa chikhalidwe cha nthaka pa bedi la nkhaka pa kuya kwa masentimita 10.

Zimaletsedwa kukonkha kapena njira zina zamadzi masana. Nthawi yabwino yotirira ndikum'mawa kapena madzulo, ndipo mbewu zomwe zayamba fruiting zimathiriridwa kawiri pa tsiku.

Agronomists amatulutsa nthawi zonse kumasula nthaka ndi udzu wamsongo monga chinthu china chofunikira pa zomera zonse za m'munda. Choyamba, ntchito izi zimapangitsa kuti aeration ya mizu ikhale. Ndipo kachiwiri, salola kuti mbewu zosafunikira zidye zakudya m'nthaka. N'zotheka kuwononga nthaka ndi kutuluka, ndipo njirazi ziyenera kubwerezedwa pambuyo pa kuthirira.

Ndikofunikira! Nthaka iyenera kumasuka pamtunda wa masentimita 12-15.
Pofuna kupangitsa maonekedwe a mizu yowonjezera pa mbande, mizere imayambira. Njira imeneyi imathandizira kusungira kwa chinyezi ndi kuteteza zimayambira mphepo ndi kuzizira. Kuwonjezera apo, nkhaka mvula yachilimwe nkhaka sichidzadzulidwa.

Kuphwanyika mphukira yaikulu

Pempho la wakulima, mukhoza kutsitsa mphukira yapakati. Izi zimachitidwa kuti chitukuko chitukuko chazitsamba ndi nkhaka. Malo omwe zimamangidwe zimapezeka pamwamba pa diso lachitatu la diso. Mwa njirayi, njira yamakadinayi nthawi zambiri imatulutsa nkhaka kuchokera ku chipatso chopanda zipatso, chifukwa ndi kutaya pamwamba pa mphukira yaikulu, tsinde limayamba kuwonjezereka kwambiri nthambi zowalumikiza ndi maluwa aakazi.

Kupaka pamwamba

Manyowa ndi wosakanizidwa ayenera kukhala masiku khumi ndi awiri. Ntchito izi zimagwiritsidwa ntchito osakaniza 1 lita imodzi ya urea ndi manyowa omwe amasungunuka mu ndowa 10-lita imodzi ya madzi.

Mu ndemanga za oyambirira yakucha wosakanizidwa "Zozulya F1" wamaluwa samvetsera ambiri zabwino nthawi ya kulima zosiyanasiyana. Iye sakufunanso chidwi kuposa mbewu zina za masamba, koma adzamuyamika mowolowa manja ndi zokolola zapamwamba komanso zapamwamba.